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^ m 





a ?D7 1201014 


California Stale 

Call No. 


v, no 

no t-ha 9M OSP t' 

Mining »^~ Press 


January to June; 1915 





■ ■ 

n Mining Co 

gold deposit ■ again . . . 66 

l ■»( mining In < Niloi ado 

pulp 4 ] :> 

Agitation fr.wii a thickener. U. i». W. Mlnler. 

k Mining Co, report . . ■ > 

... 52 
Alr-llft pumping 767 


in. -id figs 

fcflm Inspection law 

Miners] producl Ion . . . 43 

Mineral production in 1914.... ... 37 

tig laws B4f 

o [* D. 1 


Alaska Boner ... 

Alaska Exploration Co .' 

Alaska Cast In. au ] 6n 

Mill I. E, Spray - 61. 

Alaska Gold H-lt Co 

Alaska Gold Mines Co 190 

Bonds |66 

Report 78] 

Alaska Juneau i.;i», 531, 661, 773 

Allen labor law (866 Arizona). 

Allen, A. M Firing boilers. . 

Allen, a. W Milling gold ores in cyanide 

Ditto Solution control in cyanldatlon. . , 

Ditto......... \ temporary Elnc-box.... 65, 

Allouei Mining- Co 594 

Report 819 

Alluvial mining, metallurgy of— I. M. Nlcol. 887 869 

A Ha Consolidated Mining Co 275 667 

Altai region. Siberia H. W. Turner. . i7:; :«v. 

Alternating current in electrolysis 804 

Aluminum and cupper 786 

Amalgallne ' 914 

Amalgamated Copper 5 :: 1 

Amalgamating plates 1 B*6 766 

Plates, automatic dressing of e. S. Boallch....' 768 

Table, double-deck 113 

Amalgamation in Bard Inge mills 319 


6 B 5 

D go F. j. Girard. 

£ tln 11. W. Hardlnge 261, 

Ditto Francis O'BovJe 

PJtto K c parrish 

Ditto J. W. Pinder 

g|tto a. R. Pringle 

Ditto M. W, von Bernewitz. . . , 

I. M. E. constitution 

Ditto E. B. Klrby, Sidney J. Jennings. . . .' 



33 S 

8 'J 8 

11 1 

7 6 


, 3ns 

New York meeting 328 

American Placer Mining Co 235 

American Reduction Co 701 

American Smelting & Refining Co. report 601 

in Telephone & Telegraph Co 671 

American Zinc Co 422 

American Zinc, Lead & Chemical Co 592 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co 156 

Report 856 

Ammonia leaching process for copper. . .C. H. Benedict .... 615 

Ammunition and copper 824 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co fi->:t 821 1001 

Exhihit E. S. Bardwell. . . ' 654 

r lotation 2R2 

Growth .'..'.'. 354 

Improvements at ,.'..'. n.t I 

Opportunity for workmen 4S0 

Report 7K1 

Safety first work ....!! 42 

Ancient river channel mining in California 

J. D. Hubbard .... 407 

Andreafski district. Alaska E. E. Hurja.... 377 

Anode, the 129 

Anti-debris committee 129 

Antimony in cyaniding 265 

Production 936 

Sales in New York [ ' . ' i 69 

Smelter. San Luis Potosi 776 

Apex litigation, Jim Butler v. West End 

H. V. Winchell 763 

At Goldfield 976 

Apparatus for cyanide tests H. F. Lunt . . . . 911 

Aramayo Francke Mines. Ltd.. report 2\'l 

Argall. P. H Cripple Creek ore treatment. .. . 135 

Argentina. Mineral resources of Jujuy....A. W. Jenks... . 291 

Arizona alien labor law 53 

Mineral production. 1914 90 

Arizona Commercial Mining Co 595, 771 

Arizona Copper Co 595 

New smelting plant 9 

Arizona Copper Syndicate 496 

. ..... 

1 'oi poi atlon 

1. \ Newton., 


istl 266 


Assay 1 • 1 ■: 1: 

\V. E. I'ahlLI. 

Ditto. . Richard Marsh 

Ditto 1 ; !■:. M< tnl 

lated Northoi n Block 1 W A I, Ltd 

Atlanta Mlnfi CO 

Atlln, I a. i>. Hugh 

i ■ 

Attempts at 1 1 mi making In India 

Atwood ' topper Co 

Austin, I, 9. Smoke dilution at Mldvah 

t. P. P. I. B 

Gold mining In Victoria 326 

Gold production, 1914 520 

melting In 802 

Lead 8 

Zinc contracts 39 

oppei production 621 

Auto trucks, severe test for *. 603 

a ut nn : tramway 12s 

Dressing "t* amalgamating plates E. s. Boalh 

Ditto \. Del Mai 941 

Section-insulator B94 

A. W. C. Mining Co 416 


Ball. S. IT., and M K Shaler Mining In Belgian 

ro In 1914 403 

Bancroft, G. J. .. .Advancement of mining in Colorado.. . 910 

Banding in ore deposits Editorial ... . 55 

Ditto C. T. Kennan .... 487 

Banlgan, T. F Speculation In mines 940 

Banker mine 419 

Banks, C. A Beaver Lake district.... 954 

Barbour, Percy E Dwarra mill 302 

Bardwell, E. S Anaconda exhibit.... 654 

Barlte 430 

Barium and strontium 206 

Sulphate markets 415 

Barnes-King Development Co 306. 495. 776 

Report 347 

Base metals, the 936 

Bates Leasing Co 886 

Ratopllas M. Co 1007 

Battle Mountain district 629 

Beatson. A. K.. obituary 47 

Beaver Cement Co 1005 

Beaver Lake district, Saskatchewan C. A. Banks..., 954 

Beck. John G Nitrate mining In Chile 510 

Becker. C. M Who will engineer the engineers?.... 525 

Beehive coke ovens 979 

Beginnings of the Tata Iron & Steel Co C. M. Weld 97 

Belgian Congo, Mining in 142 

Mining in 1914 S. H. Ball and M. K. Shaler 403 

Ben Harrison mine 237 

Ben Hur mine 697 

Benedict, C. H Extracting copper with ammonia.... 615 

Benguet district, Philippines 882 

Benguet Con. Co 668 

Mill ..: 882 

Beringer, J. J 062, 967 

Berlin metal exchange 353 

Big Five Operating Co 23 5, 307 

Big Four Exploration Co 776 

Billyard, J, R., and H. N. Stronck ... .Visualizing working 

conditions in a mine 440 

Bingham Mines Co. report 536 

Bingham New Haven G. C. & S. M. Co 536 

Birkinbine, John 852 

Bismuth minerals 843 

Black, W. S A simple sieve-shaker. . . . 439 

Black Chief Copper Co 773 

Blast-furnace practice at Mt, Lyell Robert Sticht.... 1S3 

Blasting. Misfires in J. B. Burgess 330 

Powder, Moisture in 151 

Blister copper. Determination of gold in R. King.... 917 

Blowpipe analysis in the field, Quantitative 

George Dellus. . . . 725 

Blue Mountain M. Co 274 

Blyth, W. B Flotation in gold metallurgy. . . . 523 

Bo'alich, E. S Automatic dressing of plates.... 754 

Ditto Latent possibilities of California mineral 

resources 218 

Boilers at the Exposition 1012 

Excess air in 376 

Firing A. M. Allen. . . . 185 

Paint for 958 

Bolivia. Milluni tin district F. C. Lincoln.... 470 

Quimsa Cruz tin district F. C. Lincoln. . . . 721 

Tin market 353 

Bolts and nuts Millman 977 

Bonella, Edmund Valuing placer ground. ... 11 1, 585 

Bonnie Mining Co 193, 379 

Borax in Argentina 293 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. m> 


Si , -I. ■>• \v M.i.l.l. . 
mum In 

.v Montana Dm 

"'" In ll "- Kytllm 

! i « 


. Lead & Zli 

Ditto " :: 

i ■ on 

u m grew. 

r Co. '"" 


es _ y 

war on • ■ 

I. Mill Proprletar) 3" x 

. ., Dev. & Mlnlnf 

H R. II Rlcharda An apprei lal 183 


mill Mining '•" 


Buck & Charlov Leasing Co 966 

W. S. Mann. 

Pino M. Q F So 1 1 nl. in. . . . 485 

Imonl Mines Co report 404 

Burraln-Arlzona Consolidated Co TOO 

BulTnlo Mines Co. report 1006 

Buffalo New Mexico Mines Co S79 

Bully Hill Copper Co 345 

Hunker Hill S Sullivan, Haulage a) 

Bureau plan of dot elopl 

Burges'l i Misfires In blasting. .. . 330 

A weir in 219 

Hurnin Mines 40 

Burro Mountain Copper < '.. 874, 451". 


Porphyry copper developments F. V, Bus 

It. porl 81S 

Bush. F V Burro Mountain Co] opinoiits . 

Ditto U bdenum. . 

Butte & Dululli Mining Co 623 

But to a.- Superior Copper Co 31 1. 387 

Apex suit 623 

irt 702. 856 

ter production 337 

Butte Miners Union, suit 1004 

mi. effort on spelter 

Cahlll, \v. E \ lllcs. . . . 

I'll la ml lie 

'opper Co. . 

Mining Co it".. 

I roducta Co 

Call tor n in. ancient river chann In 

J. D Hubl 

Cliromlte possibilities S. II. I...1I.. 

Ms gne In 

Man in sill ...ii.eur. . . . 

Men. low .liStriet 

Mine legislation 

Mineral i. Latent possibilities of 

„,.,., K s - Boall. 

OU-flelds, protection of 

on production 

Petroleum In 1014 i; p McLaughlin 

Quicksilver output 1914 

Callow, J. M plot 

■ iei 

Calumet „> Arizona Mining Co 

Calumet A Corbln Mining Co 

Calumel A BTecIa 

Company report 

Calumet A 1 in. Mining Co ...'.'.'."'.' 

Cam i i 

■ lian nlekel ','.'.'. 

nnery in , 

i ion. 1914 '.'..'.'' 

Minerals at the Exposition .....'.'. 

i per Corp . report ,',.'. 

. gfij" 

in Minings Ex | . l.t.l. report. 

Canadian Mining Institute, n 

Canan ] 


Ic steel furnaces 

Of rock-crushers ... 


Capillary concentration 


Carbon and cyantdatlon 7*81 

In cyanide solutions \v. r. Feldtmann . . . .' 


k.t c. T. Ken nan ... . 

tig in Coloi ado 
Carpenter. I A • nllllng 

:it Tonopah 

Ditto Danish tub. 

Carr, Bernard . .Practical rules for cutttl 


n-Callfornta Mining Co. 




17 J 


21 8 









i i -. 

91 S 







Cashier Cold Mining and Milling Co B8« 

itlars at the Exposition 541 

Catlln. \v. P Revival of Meadow Lake district . . . 896 

Caucasus Copper Co x i 

opper Industry of 

Caving system at the Ohio Copper mine 

F. S.unmer Schmidt. 

Cedar Talisman Con Mines Co 

1 1 . u t 40 

Centrifugal t I I lug pumps .'. J I 

Century Mining Co 

i :* 1 1 16 

Chaffers . | 308 


Champion Reef Oold Mln 61 India, Ltd., report 196 


in Mining Co 

Chain ■ : mil B88 

- imports 

iblems in Germany 7.". 

i Mining Co, report 812 

Chlksan mini plant C. W. DeW Itt 731 

nig In loim t; Hoik .... 510 

Nitrate stai 185 

China, commercial conditions In 

Lead mines 

xhibit 906 

Opportunities In II. V. Liang.... 868 

Snul-kou-shan lead-slnc mine II. Y. Liang.... 914 

Stan. lard ( > 1 1 in 17" 

Chlno Copper Co 319 


Chlaos Mining Co 

n g rook-drill equipment P. B. McDonald. .. . 618 


l.iliti.-s in California S. II. Dolbear. . 

Chuqulcamata, progress at 116 

,, of technical literature 895 


v Colorado, mineral production, 1914.... t"> 

and-Cllffs Iron Co 699 

and Mining Co 92a 

Cliff Mining Co., report 

ii . I Florence sine. . . . 826 



Land leasing, Shafroth bill 117 

Mine explosions. Japan 593 

Mines, fatal accidents In 467 

Mining at Dawson, New Mexico 

Mining, British Columbia 809 

Production of United states 99 


Tar .Ives 11 :: 

Cobalt Reduction Co 742 

Coeur d'Alene Ami noon- Mining Co 346 

pper beds of t he 146 

ll 163 

loodwln min.. 771 

' loll u H 461 

Collins, B. A Efficiency Of tamping.... ?!." 

cilins. Ceo. B. .Rhythmic precipitation of colloid ores.... 58fl 

Colombia, Pato and N properties 

W. A. Prlchard. . . . 220 

Taxation Of mining properties 

Colombo .Mining Co 199 

Colorado, advancement of mining ln....c. J, Bancroft.... 910 

Mineral production In 1914 

do Metal Mining Association 162 

Separation Co 365 

. '..I. i nolo Mining Co. report 47 

Columbia Marble Co 966 

>.n industrial relations 432 

onwealth Mining ft Milling Co.. costs 

it 924 

Compressor ma.Je into steam engine B04 

n. ration at Mt. Morgan 260 

is 960 

Mine output 17 

i C.pj. ermines Co 

Of N'W Zealand. Ltd., report 242 

Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co ol Canads report 126 

lllnlng Co mil 

Constitutional extortion and the W ffalr 168 

Construction of undercurrents C \v. Haffey.... 979 

Ditto C S i : Ii 679 

in nous deeantation in South Dakota 

Simmons. . . . 575 

Converter practice, records in 129, 766 

Conveying machinery 672 

cooling Jacket-water 843 

Cooney, Michael 388 

Ing, Milling A Leasing Co 886 

Co). .land. C. E 

Cop. la ml Sampling Co 886 

' 501 

And aluminum 

Is of the Coeur d'Alene George Huston. .. .145, 

Iiitt 1 C. Kay 

nts. Burro Mountain Copper Co 

F v. Bush. 

Exports 156, 2os 

Ditto, 1911 

Exports from Japan 

• Is. New York 192 

In ammunition S24 

Industry, the War's ii- 283 

BVer found 79 

inionla C. II Benedict 615 

by the Hoffman process F. J, Pope.. 

.ing. some problems In I. D. Rlcketts >16 

Metallurg ss in Editorial.... 5 

Mining, early days in Michigan 936 

Mining. Lake Superior, Present and Future — II, III. IV. 

Thomas T. Read . . 209. 2M. 398 

Ores, flotation of J. M. Callow. . . . 826 

Vol. li" 

MINING ind Sciential I'KI SS 



i ■ ■ 1 1 


sin. ii. - -, Intel national 


i KtllK mine, gold 

L'oppn Springs Mining Co 

lid. \V II u || Elliott mill.- . 

'i mining W. J, Lorlng 

Regis Chauvenel 


I'lu Hi atli Sti 

mg bullion 

■ umenl . - 

i <( developing a imiit- 

i>f Ailing 

Of milling, Qoldfleld Consolidated 

Of mine supplies B. .i Bllbert.. 

i »f mining and milling at Tonopan. . J. A. Carpenter. . 
i»r mining an. I mUltii*; gold ores, southeastern Bl 
it Crown Resei '■ • mine 

At HolUnger mine ami mill. 

At i„,k. V;. \>. .v star mines. 

At Porcupine Crown 

At Sons Of i ; walla 

ai Wasp No. -' mine 

Common wealth mine .• 

Kalmirll in in,- and mil) 

South ECalgurll 

Btratton's Independence 

Cottonwood < '.-a I Co 

Cottrell dinner 

i forts 

Courtesy In discussion 

Cracking of ..lis 

Ditto E I. I lyer. . . . 

Crawford. John, Jr melting in 1914.... 

Crawford, It. T Plumbing a shaft. . . . 

Cretghton, n. .i. U Rhythmic precipitation of ferrous 

ferrlcvanlde and ferrous hydroxide In Jelly 

Cresson Consolidated, discovery 

Cripple Creeh Deep Leasing Co 

Cripple Creek mines dividend. 1914 . 

Ore treatment 

i 'r..\v a Mines 


Crown Reserve Mining Co 

Mill- COStS 


Cruse, Thomas, obituary 

Crushing, degree of. to free economic minerals 

D. P. Hynes. . . . 

Mechanical efficiency of H. C. EEenney.... 

Mechanical work of A. Del Mar. . . . 

Culp. U. W 

Cunningham, Noel Metallurgical practice at 

Porcupine 365, 

Ditto Tube-mill tonnage calculations. . . . 


Custer Peak Copper Co 

Cutler. H. C Efficiency of tamping.... 

Cyanhlation (see also solution control). 

Cyanide, English production 

From oyanamid 


Plant at L'hlksan mine C. \V. Ho Witt. . . . 

Plant at Exposition 

Plant at Kushikino, Japan 

Solutions, action of carbon in 

Solutions, assay of O. E. Roodhouse. . . . 

Solutions, determination of gold in 


Tests, home-made apparatus for H. F, Lunt.... 

Treatment, cost of 

Daggett. John ... .Possibilities of the Mother Lode in depth 

Daly-Judge Mining Co., report 

Daly, R. A Origin of iron ores at Kiruna. . . . 

Danish tube-mill pebbles and substitutes 

Ditto '..J. A. Carpenter.... 

Day. A. L Secondary enrichment of copper ores. . . . 

DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., report 

Dellus. George Quantitative blowpipe analysis.... 

Del Mar, Algernon Sam Yet prospecting mill.... 

Ditto Mechanical work of crushing.... 

Ditto. . . .Automatic dressing of amalgamated plates. . . . 

Democracy at Lake Superior P. B. McDonald .... 

Dennis, C. G Quicksilver in 1914. . . . 

Denver-New Mexico Oil Co 

Derry Ranch Gold Dredging Co 

Design of belt elevators M. G. F. Sohnleln .... 

Determination of gold in cyanide solution 

Detroit Copper Mining Co.. report 

Devereux. W. G Melones Mining Co. . . . 

DeWitt. C. W. . .Cyanide plant at Chiksan mines, Korea. . . . 

Dexter White Caps Mining Co 274, 

Diesel engine at Exposition 

Dipper dredges 


'.' 1 .' 



. Is 



61 l 

1 15 

2 11 


7 1.-. 













.-,7 2 





hi. .ti ..f «n. 


UK Uli.l NillllliK ll 

- : 



I'I, r.. mil. 



ki Mining * Milling C ■ 



Dome i 

■ ■•- , i.i.i 

.694. ... 

Dome Mn, 


Co . . . . . 

teel Corporation 

Doug i Progress In metallui 

itown district, Leadvllle 

'»n Pumping i'.. 

Drag-line excavator 

nlng deep leads "f Victoria 

K.-rr lake, at Cobalt, Ontario H Hui 

Dredging est i w ftlell 

Costs. Orovllle 

Ground, See Valuation. 

Legislation, California 

Dressing of I ■ 

mining In California .......'..!!! 

Drill-sharpener, Sullivan 

Dust In Joplln mines 

T Hist -laying 

I 'Mich Bast Indies, min.-ral i Miction , 

Dyer. I-:. I Cracking ..f oils.. 

Eagle & Blue Bell 

county, Colorado, mineral production L914. 

Eagle Mining Co 

Eagle River Mining Co. 

Early days in Michigan copper mining. 

Fast i'.ul i>- i 'npp.-i- Mining I' 

Company Report 

East Caledonia Mines Co 

East Pool & Agar. 

Eastern Asia, Gold mining in 

Eastwood, J. s Kennedy dam. . . . 

Echo Gold Mining Co l r.9, 

Eckel. E. E Tube-mill pebbles, their characteristics 

and cost 

Eclipse Con. Mining & Investment Co 

'Economic Geology' and Its needs 

Economic use of explosives K. Nob hit .... 

Edna May 660, 

Effect of slag and fume on zinc muffle .O. Proske. . . . 

Of war on Broken Hill 

Efficiency, Cost and Heath Steele.... 

Of tamping E. A. Collins 

Of tamping H. c. Cutter 

Eggers. J. H Permanent survey stations. . . . 

Eighty-Five Mining Co 

El Centro Mining Co 

El Oro Dredging Co 

Eldorado county. California 

Electric blasting accidents 

Drills. Portable 



Mine locomotives E. B. Wagner.... 

Motors, application of to gold dredges 

G. B. Rosenblatt. . . . 

Smelting at Tyssedal R. M. Keeney. . . . 

Smelting in 1914 John Crawford, Jr. . . . 

Ditto R. M. Keeney. . . . 

Smelting of copper ore 

Electrolysis, Alternating current in 

Electrolytic zinc. Reed process E. H. Leslie .... 

Elevators, design of belt .M. G. F. Sohnleln ... . 

Elm Orlu, ore treatment 

Empire Gold Dredging Co 

Empire-North Star suit 935. 

Empire Zinc Co 156, 

Engels Copper Mining Co 

Company Report 

Engineering Congress and mining men Editorial. . . . 

English production of cyanide 

Ernestine Mining Co 

Eruptions of Mt. Lassen H. W. Turner. . . . 

Eureka Johnnie Mine. Nevada 

Exit Maranon placers 

Experiments in smelter fume abatement. -E. A. Hersam .... 

riii Phelps-Dodge Co. ores 

Exploration Co.. Ltd 



Economical use of R. Nobiett. . . . 

Exposition. Cyanide plant at 

Extracting copper with ammonia C. H. Benedict. . . . 













!i r, I 


Fairbanks district gold output 160 

Placer mining in E. E. Hurja. ... 34 

Quartz mining in 114 

Falls City Lead & Zinc Co 591 

Fannv Rawlins Operating Co 534 

Farish, John B Ways that are dark. . . . 576 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 1ln 



K;n in n 

I hi i r t Mini 





vrthur ' nidation 

Ditto impllng 





idwoll cyanide Plant 

i.ining operations .C. I- PS 

Ditto R " road.... 

South America 

iintaln View mine 

in g In cotton 1--,Y ;,; ,'J- 

Plrlns I A. M. Allen. . 

M.I kit ; ■••■ 

Flagg A I liking at Kelvin. Arizona 860 

Florence Qoldlleld Mining C 482 

Florence Hydraulic & Dredging Co t*« 

nee zinc , ■■■ 

Ditto • H <*• Clopper. . 

At Anaconda •■• ■ ■■,, ./•■•■ 

In Bold metallurgy w. B. Blyth 

Korea ■ • 

i if cooper ores Occasion DUtor. .. . 

Ditto 1. M Callow 

i if quicksilver ores 

O. 0. R« to 

Utah -*% 

n mill *»» 

Fond du Lac district •■• So-* 

Fortune Mln uy - °?s 

\ Milling CO 348 

Fortune Teller Mining Co 311 

Franklin Lei i 

Franklin mine, working costs 766 

Freeman " \v Sai Montana.... 800 

Friendliness v. friction at Ihi Bunkei Hill & Sullivan 

J a. Qoodell. 

Frontlno A Bollvl 'ion 15 

Fuller Lehigh pulverizer mills 394 






A. I M E eonst Itutlon. 

n shaft, cavi 
Garrison, P. L 

das from oil Wells 

i sasollne manufacture 

.lames ■ . 

Gem Mining Co 

i Mining & Milling Co 

lints In warfare 

in Herbert Lang 


Germany, Chemical problems in 

I i i .duets. 1 1*1 I 

Glrard, F. .1 Amalgamation In Hi Ills. . . . 

Gold and slh d mill 

i production. U. S 


Determination In blister copper R. King.... 

atlon of electric motors to 

i B Rosenb 

In Nigeria 

I ling in the Southeastern states 

Milling in Eastern Asia 

Mining in Mongolia 

ling in Victoria 

Mountain district, Alaska E. E. Hurja. . . . 

rind I lie war 

.. Australia 1914 





Mining & i:. dnetion Co 

ng Co 

Gold Links ■ 

Gold Nugget Placer Mining Co 

Golden Center 

Golden Cycle Mining & Reduction Co 121, 66 

Mining in tin- shale at J. K. Tune ■ 

i: I I T \ Rii kind. . . ,71.7. 829, 

Co 387, 11 

Milling COS 

Milling COStS, 1914 



Ike district, rtah 

ell, 1 A Friendliness v. friction at the Bunker 

Hill .v Sullivan 

i. rings mining district 

nment armor plate manufaeture 


i nt r 

'Irani. y Mining & Smelting Co 

In Texas 


Vall.-y revisited — I T, A, Rickl 

H, D Search for platinum.... 'J\~ 

Gray, James "" ;1 

:• ... Gold Mining Co., Ltd . report. . at 


llngall 30b 

i. ill.- Dredge Gold Mining C 48 

i Co., report 88 1 

- i, 17 C, Srai "I"- in 966 

Hi in memorial fund 89 

Grinding pan Watson Denny 118 

Growth of mining Industry. Ontario 784 

[ \ I. .ike Sup. er mining.... i9 

Ditto 4> '' i.i'.... 642 

; exploration Co.. report 237. 

kiln 149 

PI ipii i landE 882 

Dredge v C. Ludlum 30 

Gunnison county, Colorado, mineral production. 1914 4". 

, J YV 1 • 4 1 U 





2 12 



93 6 
1 7, 1 













'.. 1 3 

Haffey. C. W Construeting undercurrents.... 

liali>>v shovellng-machine 

Hale, A. H Ways that are dark. . . . 

. s Construction of undercurrents. . . . 

i -drill, profitable use of an old 

Hampton-Clay County Consolidated Mines Co 

iCk, 17 T Valuation of dredging ground. .. . 

tflning Co 

Ilai.ianger, electric smelting at 

Hardenburg Mining Co 

Harding.:-. H w . . . Amalgamation In Hardinge mills. . .261, 
Hardlnge mills. See Amalgamation. 

Haulage at the Bunker Hill & Sullivan. . . .J. \V. Gwinn 


In mines 360, 

Hauling ore cars 

i Hill district. California 

Health of miners at Broken Hill 

Heberlein. C. A Quicksilver mining at the Oceanic 


Mining Co 


Gold Mining Co 

Mining Bureau 232, 

He 1 fen stein electric furnace 23. 

H. E. M. Mining Co 

Heroult, smelting at 

Herrlck, n N Rise or raise.'.... 

Heulandite In Oregon G. J. Mitchell. . . . 

History of geology 

Hog Mountain gold mine 

Hognnaa Iron sponge 

I B & M. shaft 


Drums, rope capacity of 

Holden. A. F 

Holllnger Gold Mines. Ltd 599. 809, 846, 


Mill record in 1914 

Mine and mill, costs at 


Homestake Mining Co 

Aid fund 


Hondo Mining Co 

n Mexico 

er, W A 'Rock' or 'ore*. . . . 

Horn Silver Mining Co 

Hornaday, W. D Kauri gum deposits of New 


Horner. A. L Rise or raise?. . . . 

Horseshoe Mining Co 

Hot springs district. Alaska E. E. Hurja. . . . 

Howell, B. P Midas mill.... 

Hubbard. J. D Ancient river channel mining in 


Hughes, A. D Hydraulic mining at Atlin .... 

Hughes. Ben. .. .Draining Kerr lake at Cobalt, Ontario. . . . 

BS, \V. W Kaolin.... 

Ditto Practical points on sampling. . . . 

Human side of mining J. F. Kemp. . . . 

Humes, James Mining methods at Park City . . . . 

Hunter. W. C 

Hurja. E. E Hot Springs, Gold Mountain, Koyukuk 

and Andreafskl districts 

Ditto Idltarod district. . . . 

Ditto Placer mining In the Fairbanks district.... 

Ditto Placer mining on the Seward peninsula. . . . 

Ditto Quartz mining in the Fairbanks district.... 

Ditto Ruby district. Alaska 

Hurry-up Mining Co 

Huston. George Copper beds of the Coeur d'Aiene.... 

Hydraulic mining at Atlin A. D. Hughes.... 


Hy.lrothermal metamorphism 

Hynes. D. P Degree of crushing to free the economic 


II 7 'J 














Ibex Mining Co 308 

minerals al the Exposition 768 

State Mining Association 197 

Idltarod district E E. Hurja.... 189 

Idora Hill Alining Co 597 

Tdora Mining Co 774 

Immigration 935 

Improvements at the Trail smelter. British Columbia 74 

India, Iron and steel In 97 

Indian Mound Mining Co 922 

Induction hoist. Largest 202 


MINING Sckntih. I'KI SS 

In. I i.ul.,1 ; [itlhiii 



n M gwetland. 




: Smelting A: Refining Co., plant 

Ulnlng i 

ml. >n In V 

[ola mti 

> i tn in.ii.i 

Mining in Mi- inlgmn 

Sponge, ii 

Ir.-ii Bloasom Consolidated MlnlnK Co., costs 


11 v.-r Mining Co., report 

In > sh ■ 

1 California. 


lale Royale Copper Co 



Japan and China 

Ditto w s. Kent 

Ditto Kurt Pletrusky. . . . 

a M.i the War 

mine ox plus I, ins 123, 

Copp.-r exports 

nlde plum at Kushlkino 

•fetal production in lull 

Ml n. t;i I production 

ty Mining Co 

J.-nks. A. \v Mineral resources of Jujuy province. 


Jennings, Sidney J A I. M. !•:. constitution.... 

Jawel-J tenero ore 

Jim Butler apex litigation H. V. Wlnchell. . . . 

Jim Butler-Tonopah Mining Co.. report 


:i electric furnace 

Ditto Joseph Struthers. . . . 

Jolly, William 



Joplln Ore & Smelting C 

Ore .v Spelter & 

.iiiaiiii Alaska Mini's Co 

Extension Mining Co 386, 8-15, S83, 

J unea u district mines 















!i 66 

Kate -lie in 1911 191 

water-supply 587 

Kalgurll Gold Mines. Ltd., report 51 

Kali situation in 1914 373 

Kansas, lead and zinc in 817 

Kaolin 637 

Ditto W. W. Hughes 947 

Kauri gum deposits of New Zealand. . . YV. D. Hornaday. . . . 181 

Keeney, It. M Electric smelting at Tyssedal. . . . 527 

Ditto Electric smelting in 1914 22 

Kelly tllter press 604 

Kelvin, Arizona, shaft-sinking at 250 

Kelvin Sultana Copper Co 161 

Kemp. J. F The human side of mining. . . . 644 

Ditto Rhythmic precipitation and colloid ores.... 78 

Kemp. William Smelting copper sulphide ore.... 263 

in, C. T Banding of ore deposits. .. . 487 

Ditto . . . .On carnotite deposits and the Rand banket. . . . 620 

Kennebec Mining Co 814 

Kennecott Copper Corporation 963 

lv Mining & Milling Co 534 

Dam J. S. Eastwood 691 

Kenney. H. C Mechanical efficiency of crushing. ... 572 

Kensington Mining Co 160 

K. in, W. s Japan and China.... 789 

Kerosene as a fire extinguisher 958 

Ketchikan district 924 

King. E. S Stamp-mill test 109 

King. U Determination of gold in blister copper.... 917 

King Quicksilver Mining Co 665 

Kirby. E. B A. I. M. E. constitution 31 

Kirun.i. Origin of iron ores at 148 

Klar-Piquette Mining Co 922 

Knopf. Adolph Platinum in southern Nevada. 

Knowledge and research R. W. Raymond. . 

Kobuk district, Alaska 

Korea, Cyanide plant at Chiksan mine. . . .C. "W. Dewitt. . 

Koyukuk district. Alaska E. E. Hurja . . 

Kurokawa oil refineries .• 

Kushikino. Cyanide plant at 

Kwisluk river discovery, Alaska 


Kytlim valley. Russia. Dredging for platinum in 

R. S. Botsford. . 

::i I 

Labor, Problems of 170 

Labor-saving devices S. A. "Worcester.... 727 

La Cotabambas Auraria mine, Peru 928 

Ladd manganese mine S. H. Dolbear. ... 258 

t ,. ton,. 

M 1 1 n 

I'lllj. I 

I. Ms 

I '■',, 

I Btai mini 

a Him! in i 


■ ■ 

Lush. W. 1' New filtering pru 


slbllltlos of California mini i 

B>. s Boa II 
Leaching, *.■<■ al 

Ing copper by the Hoffman proi f*. J. Pope. . . . 666 

Sum.' probl i. 1 1 Rlckotte, 


"i i Pi' t i"n 




■ii In 191 i. world 

Product Kansas ki 7 

Production of U. S., 1914 ■•■■ 

Production, see under dial 

Smelting in Australia 802 

Wool la tlon Arthui ! 

l..ii,i \ ill.-. Colorado, district p 1914 121 

Downtown district lis 

Zinc pigment works at 

Spanish, also Russian 981 

■ ux, a. it T ii" a i i emlnl icencei i. n, in 

7611. \:!3, 903 

Leehey, L. D Alaska milling laws 977 

Leglslntit'ii at Washington 40 

Qoldflelds, Ltd., report 212 

Li-sli,-, io. H Reed electrolyte sine process. .. . 1 7 

Ditto Zinc pigments and the Leadvllle works.... 139 

Levant mine .mi.' 

Lexington-Arizona ; I 

Liability insurance, state managed 506 

Liang, ii, v Opportunities in China 868 

Ditto Sliul-kiiu-shaii mine. . . . 911 

Life an J property in Mexico 567 

1 iitto. American i; ll 

Lighting plants for steam-shovels 168 

Lililgren, J. M Specific gravlti apparatus.... 260 

Lime, chemical properties 33 

Lincoln, F. C Milluni tin district.... 17" 

Ditto Qulmsa Cruz tin district. ... 721 

Lincoln Hill Mining & Milling Co 280, 155, 9.':: 

Linseed oil 9 Li 

Litigation at Goldfield 822 

At Tonopah, settled 7s:: 

Locomotives, electric mine 134 

London mining market, and the War T. A. Rickard. ... 6 

Lone Elm Mining & Development Co 494 

Loring, W. J Cornish mining. ... 912 

Louis. D. A 889 

Low-grade zinc ore, marketing 861 

Lower Level Mining Co 921 

Lower Mammoth, Utah 163 

Lucky Tiger Combination G. & S. Mining Co 349. 493 

Ludlum, A. C (1 ties dredge. ... 30 

Luning Gold Mine Co 698 

Luning Idaho Copper Co 698 

Lunt. H. F Apparatus for cyanide tests. ... 911 

Lusitania 750 

Lyon Investment Co 505 


MacDonald, Bernard Precision of thought. . . . 586 

MacDonald, J. A. . . . Placer mining claims in the Yukon. .. . 335 

Magdalena Exploration Co 690 

Magma Copper Co 533, TT1 

Magnesite deposits and possibilities in California 

S. II. Dolhear 105 

Magnesium 918 

Magnetite anodes 803 

Major Evans Con. Mines Co SI 1 

Malaguit Dredging Co svj 

Malay States, tin mining in E J. Vallentine. ... 153 

Maloney, W. J 309 

Mammoth Copper Mining Co 44, 4 5s, 812 

Zinc shipments 1 C3 

Manganese industry of California S. I [, Dolbear. .. . 1 < - 

Mine, Ladd S. H. Dolbear 258 

Manhattan Milling & Ore Co 1005 

Mann, W. S ....Bucket elevators.... is; 

Maranon placers, exit 863 

Marathon mill :!7!) 

Marie Mining Co 80S 

Marigold Gold Dredging Co S!I) 

Mariposa Commercial Mining Co 7 7)5 

Marketing low-grade zinc ore 861 

Marsh, Richard Assay of ore containing metallics. ... v ".» 

Marsh Mining Co 885 

Suit 16 

Martha Ball Zinc & Lead Co 416, 591 

Martin, F. J The mine mule. . . . 263 

Maryana Leasing Co 77" 

Marysvale potash plant lOOS 

Marysville Dredging Co r> f» 

Mascot Copper Co 739 

Railway 963 

Mason, F. H Precision of thought 586 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 11" 




IT.. I I 





Myilus rlatl •« 


mining district. 

. W. I • 

S 1 5 



Dltt. Masonic 

: nlng .* Milling • 

M ..,^,, :; , rush ,„g........H ;j C J 

w - '■■ "evereux 



Metal hose •",.',;;' 

irglcal pra. ircuptae 




Poirler. . 



iV'lii mining I. 11 r. M. 

.r«y ..f quicksilver 

Metals, base 




■ -... 

Mineral pi ' 

Mining regulatlo 

Co - 



B P Howell. 

Miami Copp. 

Ml. h 

Iron mining In 

m-Utah Mining Co 
Midas ... ill 
Siller? : Powder" and its 

- : 

Mllllnr] ''■ ■■'»•'«■ "(iV,.'„ ""VoV 

Gold Vl Still 

In i W - J - L°' ln S 

MiiiunTtinmlnTn! Bolivia P. « - |J» 


9 ; 9 





Mm,., ti 'i exhibit, l'. i . i i- 

Let.-. I ition, i illlo .".I 


,F .1. Martin. . 

.B. J Sllbert. 


Supplies, what they should cost 

Taxation • ••■ ■ ■ ■ 

Timber, practical rules for cutting.. 

\\';lt,'l"S ...... (•■••••••■•*•»•■■ 

Mineral county. Colorado, Mineral production, 1914. 

Industries of Braxll ■■. •• ;•■ ■ ■ 

Production Bee also under county or district. 

Produi Hon in 191 1, U, S. ■; B. estimates 

Production, Missouri, 191 1 








Production "T Canada, lilt iil 

Produi ' SjS 

Productl i ' ;j? 

i tea • J0 ' 

COS Of JuJUy province, Argentina .. .. . ■ • ■ .^. . 


i.ont Co 

Mineral Mountain Mining Co »»" 

»r, «l u..l..t 7ln^ Cn H " 

Mineral Point Zll 



Miners' liens ■?- - 

Mines Leasing & Mining Co ■ ■ - ■•••■ •• 

Mlnler I> \V Agitator from a thickener. 

"Ditto. : filters. 

Mining, editorial • ■ • • • • • ■ ■ ■. ■ ■ ■ 

At Sal F. J. De \\ llde. 

Hew Mexico ■-i-jj 

ad. T. T. 

d, 1914 730 

I., Portland mine 

; ■ -, ; 

Hum - r >'■ Kemp. 

In Belgian Congo 1,s 

In I" •.'.■•'.'■.,••■,■•■ 

S. II. Hall and M. K. shaler. 
In the Far North luce Hurja. E K.I 





61 I 


In Newfoundland ''•; 

In New York City IJll 

In shall Ifleld J.K.Turner 99S 

Industry, the ■ ■•■ «* 

Mnska »*8, 

I eglslatlon ' ' 

tion. national i 269. 341, 381, 454 

Marhlnerv exhibitors at the E> r osltlon "" : 

i Is at Inspiration 

lames Humes. 

John G. Beck. 

Regulations, M ■'■'_ 

Ventures In China »"' 

Visualizing working conditions In 410 



Mining Corporation of Canada J04 

silver pi oductton i-t 

■I B. Burgess. 

Exposition »0i 

Mineral ..input, in 14 

Ids Co 

Neulandlte In Oregon. . . 

4 & Milling Co 699 

■ Sii, 

Report ;ij 

Modoc Mines Co 

I: OUtjpUt 40 

I. lasting-powder 

' eed 

M..H F K. R Preservation of timber m ml g .... 68 


Ditto Parish V. Bush.... 314 

Monarch Mining & Smelting Co ISO 

Mond Nickel Co., bonds 

Mongolia, gold mining in ><- 

iera] production, 1914 87 

Sapphire mines 800 

Montana Continental Development Co siu 

tl CO 7 11 

a-Tonopah Mines Co.. report ' "'■• 

- Co.. - 7 I 

Mors., E ('..Ore treatment by the Vantlercook pro.'. 

Mother Lod. copper mine 

Motor-driven mine pump 2i9 

Motor-truck haulage 

Mi Baker mining district 814 

Mt. Elliott Copper Co., Ltd.. report 126 

Mount Elliott mine W. H. Corbould. . . . 682 

Mi Lassen - 864 

Eruptions of H. \V. Turner. . . 

Mt, Lyell, l.last-furnac- I L82 

Mt Morgan Gold Mining Co., L titration at 

Report 248 

Mountain Copper Co 493 

Mountain King Mining Co 120, 845 

t 701 

Mountain Queen 2 

in View mine, lire lighting at 966 

Mount. -.1 .laekhamer drills 393 

Moving B shovi i up and down grade 333 

Y\ Boss mine. Good Springs. Nevada. . . . 297 

Mm.. .In mine 206 

Mules for mine haulage . 961 

Mullan copper mines consolidation 597 

Muskingum Lead & Zinc Co 591 

[■' and A. Mazzucchelll Platinum analysis.... 481 

Mysore Gold Mining Co.. Ltd 633 


National forests 366 

Mining teglslatlon (see mining legislation) 

National Copper Co 346 

National Gold ft Silver Co iy:i 

organization 331 

Nevada, Boss mine Seeley w, Mudd .... 397 

Mineral production, r.'ii 80 

Minerals at the Exposition 788 

Report of state inspector of mines L19 

Welfare and development conference 306 

Nevada -California Power Co 1004 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co 311. 535, 666 

Accidents 460 

Report 893 

Nevada l !o-operatlve Mines Co 927 

Nevada- I "mgias Consolidated Copper Co 306 

Nevada Hills Mining Co 197, 

Report 133 

Nevada Industrial Commission report 636 

Nevada Mining & I lev -inpment Co 630. 1005 

Nevada Packard Mines Co , . 6 

Nevada Wonder mine 169 

Ditto Stoping methods at T. M. Smlther. ... 76. 

Nevlus, J. Nelson Precision of thought 112 

New Arcadian 492 

New Cornelia -US 

Tonnage 150 

New Altering process at Treadwell cyanide plant 

\V. p. Lass 256 

New Idrla Quicksilver Mining Co., report 601 

New Keystone consolidation 156. 161, 191 

New Mexico, mineral production, i El 1 1 3 7 

New Qulncy Mining Co 738 

New York metal review 50 

New Zealand. Kauri sum deposits of 181 

Mi n era's at the Exposition 35 

Newfoundland, mining in 142 

Newton, I* V Testing burned-out armatures. . . . 829 

Nickel determination 919 

In aluminum 766 

Output 661 

Plating aluminum 376 

Production, Canada I '-''■'■ 

iments to Europe 169, 192, 246, 898 

Nickel Plate mine 767 

Nieol, J. U Metallurgy of alluvial mining, I. II 837, 869 

.Will. J. W Dredging costs 901 

L906-1916 606 

Nlplssing Mining Co 694, 667, 783, 814 

Report 4« n 

Nitrate deposits. Oregon 598 

Industry. Chile 619 

Mining in Chile John G. Beck. . . . 510 

rators of Chile 1G 9 

Statistics. Chile 185 

Nitrogen ■ 86 

Nitroglycerin - - • 919 

Electric Steel Co 23, 925 

Noblett R Economical use of explosives. .. . 446 

North BUtte Mining Co 630 

Report 2 ' 3 

Vol. U" 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Dlvlu. nd. 

Bmi ' ■■. »•« 

' ! 

rii..n,|.,..,, \ 



\ Mm k II I...1..1. 

Nyman Consolldal 

oniiniiu district Arlsona " 3 

Imalgamatlon In Hardlngs mllu. 

F Sommoi Schmidt. 

on exhibit! si the Expoaltlon... gjg 

ECxportS from Tiunplco - ' •' 

Fields. Protection "f California ITO, 935 

Kurokawa 803 

clonal alteration ..f David White. . . . 151 

Oils and ll. ■!;. it. hi 673, 875 

Okluhotun lead iin.i line output, l'.'l I 

Old Domlnlot Co 184 s 

in.) Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co 

irl MS, Mi 

Smelter ■ 664 

Oliver till. -is 859 

i iperatlon of Iv \v Ulnler. . .. 31 

Oliver Iron Mining Co 164, 899 

Omlneca district, B. C W. M. Brewer.... 443 

On the threahold 639 

Ontart... Effect "f War on mining 1001 

Mines and dividends, nil 38 

Ontario Mining i'o 421 

Bull 121 

Oolites. Orlirln of 514 

Opal mlnlnK 695 

Open-cut mining. Missouri.-. 158 

Op, -rations of tin- Yukon Gold Co 874 

Opportunities In China H. Y. Liang 868 

Opportunity for workmen nt Anaconda 4 80 

Ore treatment at Cripple Creek P. II v-u'ail.... 135 

i by the Vandercook process... E. C. Moore. . . 251 

Oregon Gold Mines Co 312. 967 

O'Reilly Gold MlnlnK Co 305 

Organization at the Treadwell cyanide plant 217 

Oriental Consolidate. 1 313. 667 

Origin of iron orea at Kiruna R. A. Daly. . . . 148 

Original Amador mill 963 

MlnlnK & MilllnK Co 457. 1002 

Or.. Belle 15S 

Oro Hondo 900 

Oro w. L. & P. Co. dredge 1 20 

OronoKO Circle 347 

Oroville. Dredging costs at 260 

Orovllle Dredging Co.. Ltd 120 

Uenort 242 

Orynskl. Leonard. Sr 815 

Osceola Con. Mining Co.. report 464 

Out],«..k for engineers T. H. Oxnam. Jr.... 789 

Oxnam. T. II ... 388 

U .111" 

Oxnam. T. H.. .Ir The outlook for engineers. . . . 

Pachuca vats. Capacity of 

Pacific Chemical Co 

Paige. C, L Financing mining operations. . . . 

Pan-American linnnce 

Panama Canal 

Panama Mining Co 

Panama-Pacific Exposition 

The Mine 

Park City Mills Co 

Parnienter. J. G 1 

Parrlsh, K. C. Amalgamation in Hardinge mills. . . . 

Parsons. A. R 

Passing of the pioneer 

Patagonia district 

Patents and metallurgists J. A. Carpenter. . . . 

Pato and Nechl placer properties. Colombia 

W. S. Prichard. . . . 

Prospecting dredging ground at 

Pebbles for tube-mills. Characteristics and costs 

Substitute for Danish 

Peck. Peter 

Penn Mining Co 

Pennsylvania Con. Mining Co 

Per capita metal production 

Permanent survey slations J. H. Eggers. . . . 

Peru Gold Placers. Inc 

Peru. Largest gold mine 

Petroleum. California in 1914 

Conservation in California 

In Argentina 

Industry of California. Report on 

Phelps. Dodge & Co., report 

Ditto Sociological work. . . . 

Philippine Dredges. Ltd 

Philippine Mining Association 

Philippines, dredges 

Gold output 199, 

Lurigao iron ore 

Mineral resources 

Phoenix Mining Co 

Phosphate deposits. Montana 

Phosphates. Florida 

Picher Lead Co 

Pickles. V Rand's largest central power-station.... 

Picric acid 

Pietrusky, Kurt Japan and China. . . . 

Pig-iron output 






l 5 1 
22 5 

rni, i 

I'll! - ! 

- Milnltii; ■ 

n Canada, H 


Analysis. . lua and A 

i iredglng for in tha Kytllm valh 

1 1 1 B ■ 1 1 \ . i , . 1 1 , 1 1 K noi 

• mi put Russia 

Recovery In minis 

rt for 

Plumbing; a shaft i. a Walker and R. T. Crawford 
Plym Co i 

Output 181 


Polrler. C n Metallurgical practice at Porcupine.... 611 

i Li t in- Hoffman procesa 

\ltn.-s. 1,1,1., coata 804 


Porcupine district metallurgical practice 

Noel Cunningham 
Portable air ,'"tn pressor 

ii Ills 

Portland cement 96 

Cement production of r. S„ 1914 90 

nd Oold Mining Co . Ltd 

Mining cost 337 

ion 126 

POBStbllttlea of the Mother Lode in depth 

: i laggetl B41 

Potash 919 

Situation In 1914 

Powder and Its peculiarities 

Q i, Sheldon and H. B, Miller. . . . 764 

Boxes, safety 

Magazines 918 

Powder River Dredging Co 703 

Power drills, Fairbanks 343 

Plant. B. & M 898 

Station Hand's largesl central V. Pickles ... . 226 

Transmission • 747 

Practical points on sampling Arthur Feust.... 368 

Ditto W. W. Hughes.... 626 

Precipitating action of carbon in cyanide solutions 

W. R. Feldtmunn. ... 791 

Precision of thought 431 

Ditto Bernard MacDonabl. I-'. II, Mason.... 586 

Ditto J. Nelson Nevlus.... 112 

Ditto T. A. Rlckard.... 186 

Ditto w. It. Shockley. ... i«» 

Preferential flotation '■*' ' 

Ditto O. C. Ralston 980 

Premier (Transvaal) Diamond Mining Co. Ltd.. report,... 426 
Present outlook for quartz mining in the Fairbanks district 

E, E. Hurja. ... Ill 

Preservation of timber in mining F. K. R. Moll .... 68 

Presidential withdrawals held valid 320 

Presidio haulage 917 

Pc-sidio Mining Co 382 

Price of quicksilver 567 

Of spelter, London and New York 733 

Price Mining Co 967 

Prichard. W. S Pato and Necbi placer properties. .. . 220 

Ditto Prosperity at Pato. . . . 298 

Primes Chemical Co 493 

Prince Con. Mining & Smelting Co 598 

Pringle. G. R Amalgamation in Hardinge mills. .. . R^s 

Probiglo Mining Co 385 

Problems of labor Editorial I, II. Ill 170, 247. '97 

Processes and oubliclty 897 

Profits of the Rand Mines. Ltd.. subsidiaries 361 

Pro-German sympathies 896 

Progress in copper metallurgy Editorial .... 5 

In metallurgy James Douglas.... 571 

Professors of mining 823 

Ditto Ross E. Rrowne. . . . S99 

Ditto T. T. Read... 977 

Profitable use of an old hammer-drill 523 

Property exempt from attachment 4RR 

Proske. O Zinc muffles.... 176 

Prospecting at Pato. Colombia 298 

By hvdraulicking ■ 734 

Mill. Sam Yet Algernon Del Mar. ... 371 

River bars in cold countries T. N. Turner. ... 371 

"Wet placer ground by shaft-sinking.. .Donald Steel. .. . 66 

Protection of oilfields 1 70 

Psychology in mining 895 

Pulleys 636 

Pumps 933 

Centrifugal v. reciprocating 524 

Puree 11. T C Caps and fuse ... . 941 

Pyrlte smelting Editorial 53 



Quantitative blowpipe analysis in the field 

E. C. Woodward. 

Ouatsino Copper Co 

Quebec mineral output 

Queen Regent Merger Mines Co 272 

Quicksilver - 861 

Deposits of the Kuskokwim oV>4 

Extraction, wet method E. B. Thornhtll ... S,.: 

In 1914 C. G. Dennis.... 91 

Mines in U. S J20 

Mining at Oceanic mine. ■ £'£ 

Reduction plant, Cost of 452 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 110 


Qullp Mining Co 198 

Quimsa Cru« tin district P. C Lincoln.... 7JI 

463. 591 

Ri poi I 



.v dollar 

- rimer Schmidt .... 
i ntlal flotatli 


: product 1 lot iroduct ton. 

Largest central pow< v. Pickles. .. . 

St In ps, Ltd 


■ ■ 

r»nd, R. W Knowledgt 

Thomas T perloi copper mining, pr< 

and future, H. in. I\' 209, 284, 

Ditto Professors of mlnln 

i nut i<m in Mexico 

nnverter practice 

["op Mining Co. 

E. H. Leslie. . . . 

I >;iviil White. . . . 

ndlng at Lak mill 

I ol 

work, Western Canada 

■ •I 

rch for engineers E. c,. Spllsbury. . . . 

i| iron or«-s 

Reverberator^ furnaces 

: dusl Bred , 

■ 'i Ing, Mc< : : 

lining law ...!.! 

I-^ik.- district, California '.'. 

W. B. Catlln. . . . 

lining A Smelting Co 

Rhythmic precipitation and 

orge E. Collins. . . . 

' P Kemp.... 

B. A If Tavs 

•"'' ferrous ferrf-cyanlde and ferrous hy- 

' I" telly n. J, M. Ci 

■ ion i> n i ; . 

Presei not gold rn< 6 

rd. T. A Dinner to.... 

ted T. IT, ITT, 

! '!"" i lalted, t. . . . 

!' ''•' Mining.... 

... ",'." VW *." ught 


■ i 
II -port 




Rise. A.... . , ; 

Or ra L. LV Horner.' 


■>< I-",. V., TT V H rrl.k 8S'4 

uising Hope Mine 

.] I 

•'■<■ Pnnsoll " 

Roohi Co. j'.V 

ter Weaver 

Rochester mining ,'a"-' 

Rochford district, South r>«kotn 

■rtor-k' or 'oro'. kandW.'A Hopper;::; 

crushers. Capacity of " 

FlfRrlenrv of . . 
nofk-.trlll nnulp,,, |'n B ; .....'. .p. b' McDonald: ; '. '. 

T-fneklln M111I111-' CO 

■ y-P.rown ' > . 

"oll'n Mlnll ' 

Rnodhouse I' if ryiinkle "solutions:::: 

Ity of cirutt! 

Drives ..::::::::::: 

Rise oV Raise'' 

ipllcatlon of electric motors to 
cold dredges 

„••;•••■■ Speculation In mining: '.: : 

Round MnuntMin Mining Co 


uines Co :;:: 

ber famine. The '.' Editorial " 

E e Hurt-! "" 

r Co eturja.... 

platinum In the Kvtilm vniicv. . : : : : 

ni„.i_ _ R B. BotSl 

Pl:itlniim output 

Rueso-Asiatic corporation ...::::::::::::::::::: 




:: 10 







1 T .7 




is ?. 



ir, i 
81 I 










i- 1 
















Safety in California mines 863 


Sanil welfare work, VM el '6 i Ltlon.'! 

„ ., ... . A a, Wllloughby iT! 

Self-ofllng clutch 

Work, .\ na j > 

Work, Ne f ' tsfl 

Saginaw Mining Co 

Salt In !............ s 1 1 


Salting mine samples ^"*> 

Sampling, Practical points on Arthur Feust . . 

i Mining Co 

Sam Y«.-t prospecting mill Algernon Del Mar. ... :: . l 

San Lula Potosl 705 

San Toy Mining Co 275 


Sanitati.-n work. I". S. S atlon 17 1 

Santa Barbara, Mining at F. J. DeWllde. . .. 531 

Santa Fe Dredging Co. 959 

Santa Fe Gold & Copper Mining Co 379 

Santa Una district 924 

I Mining & Milling Co 925 

Sapphir XOgO, Montana O. W. Freeman.... SfiO 

Saskatchewan. Beaver Lake district ' '. A. Ranks.. 9 54 

I o prevent B44 

Schmidt. F. Sommer \ suggestion .... 643 

Ditto Caving system at the Ohio mine. . . . 361 

Ditto Raise or Rise?. ... 611 

Scratch Gravel district. Montana 530 

Search for platinum 751 

Ditto H. D. Gray 942 

lary enrichmenl of copper ores \. L. Day. . . . B41 

Security Copper Co 313 

Selenium s 13 

Self-dumping bucket 1 5 I 

pior Silver Mines. Ltd., report 601 

Sens Concentrator 636 

Mining Co 123. 460. 667, 1007 

Report 1(110 

Seven Troughs Coalition Mining Co 163. 274, 

Report 1005 

Sewn 1 1. Barton 117 

Seward Peninsula. Placer mining on E. E. Hurja.. 

Sha froth bill to regulate coal land leasing 117 

Shaft-sinking at Kelvin. Arizona A. L. Flagg ... 250 

Cost of |52 

Shaler. M K .. and S. IT. Ball Mining in the 

Belgian Congo in 1914 403 

Shasta Dredging Co 701. Mi' 

Shattuck Arizona Copper Co 

Report 351 

Shaugnnessy, Chas, s Mekeel tunnel. ... 216 

Sheldon, G. L., and H. E. Miller Powder and Its 

peculiarities 754 

Ship-purchase bill 2 \r, 

Shipper 1 ? OPp er CO 698 

Shockley, W. H Precision of thought.... 448 

Ditto Speculation in mines ... . 900 

Shooting old drill-holes i:,2 

Short Land Mining Co '71 

ling-machlnes at Flat River W. Whalev. ... 70 

Halbey 934 

Shul-k0U-8han mine, China H. Y. Liang... B14 

Siberia, Altai region H. W, Turner. .. .978, 985 

Sieve-shaker. A simple W. S. Black .... 139 

1 b. J What mine supplies should cost. .. . 508 

Silver and gold, dissolution in thickeners 

F. A. Voorheea .... 227 

Content of Lake Superior copper 80 

Silver Glance Mining ft Developing Co 379. 960 

silver Tslet, Recollections of 236 

Silver King Consolidated 312 

Sllverton district, Colorado 1003 

Sllverton Mines. Ltd 809 

Simmons. Jesse Continuous decantation 

in South Dakota 575 

Siren, Denver 280 

Skldoo Mines Co 701 

Sleeman. H. R Whim Well copper mine 154 

Smelter contracts 973 

Fume 695. S22 

Gas dilution. Midvale ":< 

Smelting at Greenwood. B. C fi.'R 

At Lake Superior 2S9 

Copper sulphide ore William Kemp.. 

In Georgia Herbert Lang.... 152 

Smithers, T. M. .Stoping methods at the Nevada Wonder ... . 757 

Smithsonlte 896 

Smoke dilution at Midvale L. S. Austin. . 

Snow-slide at Britannia mine 532 

Snow-slides 505 

Sociological work hv the Phelps-Dodge companies 658 

Socorro Mining & Milling Co 16 

Sodium carbonate 919 

Sohnleln. M. G. F Design of belt elevators. . . . 485 

Solution control in cyanidation A. W. Allen.... 186 

Some problems in copper leaching L. D. Ricketts.... 515 

Sonoma Magnesl te Co 421 

Sons of Gwalia. costs 445 

Report 382 

South America news notes Mark R. Lamb. 

South Crofty 491 

South Dakota, mineral production in 191 1 37 

South Jackson Mining Co 161 

Sot j 1)1 Kalgurll costs 802 

South Lake mine 168 

Southern Pacific Gold & Copper Mining & Milling Co 667 

Southwestern Mining Co 382 

Specific gravity apparatus 260 

s for new equipment 831 

Speculation in mines 606 

Ditto T. F. Banlgan 940 

Ditto Courtenav De Kalh. . . . 753 

Ditto F. A. Ross..., 825 

Ditto W. H. Shockley.... 900 

Spelter 821 

London and New York price 733 

Prices 268 

Prices. 1914 631 

Production. Butte & Superior 337 

Spllsbury, B, G Research for engineers. ... 7 If. 

1 riveted pipe 74 7 

Split-check system at Cripple Creek 999 

1 Horse mine 850 

Spray, L. E Alaska Gastineau mill.... 612 

Vol 11" 

MINING .,,,1 Scientific I'KI s ^ 



1 IIS 



in..vli\^ up and 1 

li m Australl i . 

• .ift »lnkln> , ,?! 

St.-mniln. "*' pi; 



sti^i'.V 1 !;. v '' y '" 


hods' at' tni'Nevada Wond'ei T M Smith 

Storage-battery locomotives 

Btotl ■'"let ••■•••• y. 





i in 

working condition! In a mine 

Strontium and barium .... v >, 8e .. 

Stratton'a Independence, utd 

Btru^hsrV Joseph tohnoir i ttrii turns 

Sturtevant mills 

Sublimed white Lad 

....•::::. v F.sommer- Schmidt::: 

„Vlnr,% C .S- P .ri«r.:.^neri;V;V.r..;.-u.: .Ion" itii I ". 1 1 1 1 1 " I ! 
& Pittsburg Copper Co.. report 


■ 1 
•J 3 3 


.J. H. Eggers. 

10 Iron ore 
Survey stations, Permim 
Susquehanna Copper Co.. ■•••••• 

sr;'; 1 %v """" ; """ M " , "' 8 . c °'.v:.v::.The- i im-m„v e : 

iwefuSd^ h" IT. S ' e r' at .' he .JSBSS&i -journalism: 
Swlashelm Mountain Mining Co 


and muling ii 



uled in in in- is 

Mining ''■• . I.i. i 

meltera, Imi In 
Tramwas . automatl 

it Inn 



Treadwell cyanide plant, new flitorlni .... 

w P La 

organisation m ... . 


aty mining. California 

Development Co 

Trinity Dredging Co 

Trlnliy River Mining Co 

nil teed, molature in 

tee] ■ 

Pebbles, tmir cl lea and coet..E. C. Eckel.. 

Danish and substitutes ■ 139 

Tonnage Noel Cunningham.... 16 


On ' 812 

Tunkv Mining Co 

Tunnel sites 839 

Tuolumne Copper Mining Co 459 

Tuolumne county mines 964 

Turbo-generators s * I 

Turner, H. \V \ltul region, Sib i 

Ditto Bruptlons ot Mt. Lassen ... 

Turner, J. K Mining in I I t Goldfleld. 

Turnu-r, T. N. . .Prospecting river bars in cold countries.... 371 

Twin Lakes district. Leailvllle 118 

Tyss.ilal, electric smelting at. 

l 19 

Taking care ot the human mechanism **•> 

Tamarack*' Cu's'toY Consolidated Mining' Co'.' 236, 168 

^Wency o'f'.'.'.V.'.'.'.'.'.'.V ' .'.■.V.'.'.V.'.'.'.'.E.' A.' Collinsi '. '. '. 790 

S;'r^nrs?S'cS..^w!n'in^sor.'.'.'.'.v.'.c.M.weia:::: j 

Tin commission, South Dakota «» 

Taxation of mines *-■„ 

Of ore reserves. Wisconsin *^ 

Ta/a hl i! P A I H Ehvthmlc pr 'ipltation of ccllsiaal :res . 413 
Technical remlniscences-I. II. UU. „ . ^.^ . ■ ■ ■ jjj. 


.A. W. Allen. 


Telephones for mine rescue work ...... . . . . - . 

Teller county, Colorado, mineral production, 1914 

Tellurldes ■ • ■ ■ 

Temiskamlng & Hudson Bay 



Temporary zinc-box 

Tennessee Copper Co 

Acid plant ;:"."i"n 

Terrible Dunderberg M. & P. Co 

Testing stamp-mills ............... 

Texas. Mineral production in 1914 ■>' 

Quicksilver mines. 1914 " 

Texas Mining Co n ? 

Thallium, properties and uses • ■ • • • • • ■ • • • • • • ■ • ' 

Thickener, an .agitator from ju. ... - v ^.-„-£- Wj Minler .... |s« 




Lincoln . 

Tin assay ^ n 

District, Quimsa Cruz l - ^- 


Mines. Alaska • - ■ • • • • •.•■.-' ;; '*' 

Mining in the Malay States E. J. \ allentine. 

Mining. Milluni district, Bolivia 

Ores, dressing of 

Smelting in Chile 

.R. M. Keeney. 

Ulrich, B. T Undercurrents 866 

Undercurrents, ..instruction of C \V. Haiiev... 979 

Ditto C. S. Haley 679 

Underground crushing-stations 734 

Underhill. James Some uses of traverse tables. . . . 519 

Union Gold Mining Co 701 

Union Hill Mine 886 

Union Hydraulic Gold Mining Co 496 

Union Mines Co 598 

United Cupper C ".:::. B52 

United Eastern Mining Co 848, 885 

United Globe Mines, report si l 

United Metals Selling Co lis 

United States Copper Co 959 

United States Geological Survey at the Exposition 303 

Building 395 

United States Reduction & Refining Co 740, 770. 808 

United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co 592, 931 

United States Steel Corporation L'4", 

Suit 877 

Welfare work A. A. Wllloughby 17 1 

United Verde Copper Co 848 

Extensions 963 

Utah mineral production 89. 714 

Mines ami dividends. 1914 38 

Utah Apex Mining Co., mine 460 

Report 348 

Utah Consolidated Mining Co., report 703 


Utah Copper 



Utah Metals & Tunnel Co 

Uwarra gold mine 

Mill Percy E. Barbour. 



W. Minier. 
, i,E. BT. . .Wet' method of mercury extraction. 

Throttle-valve, improved balanced 

Timber Butte Milling Co. plant ■ iu »* 

Valdez Creek placer mines 

Vallentine, E. .1 Tin mining in Malay States. 

Ditto Valuation'of dredging ground. 

Valley adit. Leadville 

Valor Gold Mining Co 999 





Tinfos Iron Works. Notodden " 

Tintic Central Mining Co 53 ' 6 

Tintic Tunnel Co j 

Valuation of dredging ground. .. .Edmund Bonella. . . .111, 

Ditto J- J. Bristol. 

Ditto R- T. Hancock . 

Ditto E. J. Valientine. 

Valves at the Exposition 

Van Tuvl, P. M Origin of dolomites. 

Vanderc'ook process. Ore treatment by the. . E. C. Morse . 


Victor Power & Mining Co. 

Victoria Mining Co.. report 

Vlctorio Mining & Smelting Co 






T , odd. r0 R° H in ! nB . C .°'.'.'.'. '.Financing- mining operations. 

Tolovana district. Alaska ^gg 

Tom Reed Mining Co 1 J ) ^ )0 

Dividends a cq 

Tongkah Harbour Tin Co., -*"' < 


Victory Gold Mines Co **;\ 

Vindicator Con. Gold Mining Co ' ^ 

Vinegar Hill Zinc Co ;. \\ 

VI pond, report ■ - - ;• ■ 

Visualizing working conditio^ i^a mine. . „ . y,.^-- ■ ■ ? 

von Bernewitz. M. W. .Amalgamation In Hardinge mills 111 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 110 

Voorhees, P. A Dlxaoluilon of silver 

and gold in thickener! 22< 

Vulcan Copper Co "0 


w. I'. a- C. mine 596 

Watte Increase. I.Jike Superior district '69 

Wagner. E. H Electric mine locomotives.... 134 

Wagner. F. H Steel supports for mines 

Waldo copper mine 387 

Waldo-Bean mine 959 

i. J. A Pumping a shaft 715 

Wanakah smelter. Ouray 196 

War and Japan 28- 

War and the London mining market T. A. Klckard. ... 6 

lars S°8 

menace to the copper Industry 283 

Washington, mineral production 1-3 

Profits of mines 164 

Wasp No 2 costs 524 

Iteport 463 

"t experience 570 

Water In Pennsylvania anthracite mines 333 

Water-pip.s 998 

Water-wheel c- nerators 317 

Water-wheels .it the Kxposltlon 352 

Watson-Denny grinding pan 113 

Wavs that are dark John B. Parish 576 

Ditto A. H. Hale 678 

Wedge Gold Mining & Milling Co 164 

Weir In Burma 219 

Weld. C. M Beginnings of the Tata Iron & Steel Co.... 97 

n Mining Co 884 

Welfare work IT. ft Steel Corporation 474 

West End, apex litigation EL V. Wlnctaell. . . . 768 Toledo Mining Co 

West Virginia Mining Co 599. 847 

Western Australia gold yield 382. 962 

Western Canada, regulations governing placer mining In. . 412 

Western Federation of Miners. Butte suit 1004 

Western Gold & Copper Co 84 

Western Mining Co 308. 455 

Western Ore Purchasing Co 163 

Western Cnion Mines Co II 

Western Zinc Mining & Reducing Co 433. 45s 

Western Zinc Oxide Co 458. 1003 

Wf-t method of mercury extraction E. B. Thomhlll. . . . 873 

Wettlaufer Lorraln Sliver Mines Co 164 

Wha Chang Antimony Co 169 

Whaley. W Shoveling machines at Flat River. .. . 79 

What mine supplies slioi B. J. Silbert. . 

Wheelbarrows 622 

Whim Well Copper Co H. R. Sleeman. ... 154 

Whit.-. David Regional alteration of oil and shahs , 1 51 

lead 881 

Paint 957 

White Caps Mining Co. . . MU 


White Pine Copper Co.. report 965 

Who will engineer the engineers? C. M. Becker.... 526- 

Ditto A. Engineer --'7 

Ditto K. c. ft. Engineer. ... 413 

Wilbert Mining Co. report 887 

Willoughby. A. A Safety, sanitation, and welfare 

work, U. S. Steel Corporation 474 

Willow Valley Mining Co 886 

Wllshire Bishop Creek Co 384, 596 

Wilson. Jacob 497 

Wlnchell. H. V Apex litigation— Jim Butler 

v. West End 763 

Winona CopperSCo., report 775 

Wire rope service 376 

Wisconsin ore production 119 

Zinc district 770, 881 

Wisconsin Zinc Co 922 

Wood pipe and tanks 782 

Woodward. E. C Quantitative blowpipe analysis 

In the Held 865 

Worcester affair and Constitutionalist extortion 468 

Worcester, S. A Labor-saving devices. .. . 727 

Wyoming, mineral production In 1914 37 

Yak Mining. Milling & Tunnel Co 

Yellow Pine district, platinum in 

Ygnacio Mining Co 

Y. M C. A. work at Bunker Hill & Sullivan. 

Yuanmi contract suit 

Ore treatment 

Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields Co 

Yuba dredges at Exposition 

Yukon Gold Co. operations 

Yukon. Placer mining claims in 


,'i-poration 736 

Zinc and lead 973 

BOX, A temporary A. W. Allen. . . . 657 

i ■ nsation In electric smelting 26 

I 'list embargo 935 

Effect of Impurities on 844 

Effect of War on 920 

From Australia 920 

Market 674 

Muffles. Effect of slag and fume on O. Proske. ... 176 

' Ire, Marketing low-grade 861 

Ore prices 376.417. 783 

Ore production 271, 936 

Pigments and the Leadvllle works E. H. Leslie. . . . 433 

Production (Bee under districts'. 

Production. Kansas 817 

Smelters 922 

Smelters in t Ik- 1' S 950 

Used to prevent scale *44 




Mining is not all adventure, nor is adventure, judiciously plumed, 
an altogether forbidden thing in the counting house or even in 
the banker's closet. — Mining and Scientific Press, Jan. 7. 1865. 











































Jiin. 1), Davey'a mtfety lump mnimI In mines 1610 

Jan. 1 ., Iron flr*t made with nnthnielte nM fuel lit Mutieh Chunk, Pa.... 1889 

■ inn. is. Gold discovered In California 1848 

Jnn. -7, l.urKCNt dlmuond In the world discovered ut Premier mine Mlllu 

" [f you want to please a minin g engineer refer to him as a miner. It' von want to flatter a 
miller, rail him an expert. If you want to wheedle a director, always pretend to believe 
him a capitalist — especially if you know he is not." — Tin Cynical Superintendent. 









January 1915 
















.l.imi m, 1915 




This is the first issue of the new Bulletin Servi E the 

Mining Press and is devoted to the I ust known line of 
mining machinery on the market today. 

The Manufacturer of the machinery described, the 
Lngersoll-Rand Company, was the Pioneer Builder of 
rock excavating equipment and its history has always 
been closely allied with the development of the mining 

industry. Its policy lias always been to progress as the Industry progresses. 

Its designs have changed from time to time to meet changed conditions in 


Its various products are in such extensive use and 
have been so widely advertised that were you to 
ask the miner to enumerate, for example, the names 
of the various drills on the market, he would start 
the list, with "Sergeant" — "Butterfly" — "Jack- 
hamer" — " Leyner-Ingersoll ". The same is true of 
any Engersoll-Rand Product. 

Undoubtedly extensive publicity could create such 
a situation, but it is also true that publicity alone 
would not maintain for the products of any manu- 
facturer such an enviable reputation ; to endure, it 
must lie backed by value, and progress in design, 
material and workmanship. 

Scarcely any news is published in the mining or engineering papers on the 

operation of specific mines and contracts, tunnel 
work and quarrying that does not include in 
the schedule of equipment some Ingersoll-Rand 

Only equipment possessing reliability and effi- 
ciency of the highest order could attain such 


January, 1915 


For shaft sinking, driving small 
drills - - - trenches, trim- 

- and kindred work these 

- are in a class beyond com- 

e has automatic 
rotation, mechanically operated, 
and may be run by air or steam. 
The Bull-Moose Jackhamer has 
automatic rotation of the fluid 
operated type, is for air opera- 
tion only and is intended for 
somewhat heavier work, as will 
be noted from the tables below. 
Both are rapid drillers, co- 
operation and durable an,: 
give a good account of them- 
selves in all kinds of ground. 

BCf: BmlWoote 

Sfmto}. Iwp* turn* 


Cvlinder dianiet. - 
Strok- 4" 

% Hoi. Hex. 1" Hoi. Hex. 
or larger 
" lbs. 
IVpth of Hole Drilled 

BolMiHt So*. Hit am I 

Water Drills 

For years this drill has enjoyed an enviable rej ■•.: 

in mine drifting and tunnel driving, and it is today in 

se all over the world. 
It is equipped with an automatic water device for allay- 
ing the dust and cleaning the holes of cuttings while 
drilling, which increases the speed of drilling. 
Miners everywhere are greatly reducing the eos 
underground mining operat - stag t 

Ingersoll. It is built in two - 

Diameter of 

Length of ham- 
mer r 
Length of feed 24" 
Diameter of 
hollow steel 

lVRnd. V 

Weight. I'n- 

mounted . . . ISO lbs. 93 lbs. 
Deptn of hole 

drilled S'toi: 

Diameter of 
hole drilled. 1\ 
Ballet >■ ! 


In the mines of Lake Superior. 
Arizona. Colorado, and in fact all 
mining districts the Butterfly 
aring out out, claims 
that over long^ieriods of service, 
in raising, sloping and taking 
down roof it will do more work 
at a lower expense for apkeep 
than any other similar type of 

In a great many mines it has 

been adopted as standard to the 

sion of all others. An in- 

- .;ion will readily convince 

you of its superic- 

rnished with three si 
of air feeds, and the front-head 
will be broached to fit any steel 
specified by customer. 


Piston diameter 

Piston stroke 4" 

- :-. of machine ( closed I 

Length of air feed 

72 lbs. 

: drill steel used 1" or larger 

Depth of hole drilled 

BuliVfi* _\'o. fell 

Rock Drill 

The advent of the first Butterfly Rock Drill several 
go marked a radical departure from the pre- 
vailing reciprocating piston drill de? - - 
This machine has high drilling speed, is light and is 

- mple in construction. 
In tunnel driving in the mines of the Arizona 

.1 to establish the remarkable record 
feet of S'x9" tunnel driven ir. . s, per day. 

two drills in a face. 



Diameter of cylinder 
Length of stroke... 

Length of feed 

Diameter of octagon 

•: used Vac: 

- .:. unmounted. 137 lbs- 

Depth or hole drilled 
Diameter of hole 

Bulletin So. iltS 


11 BROADWAY Offices the World Over NEW YORK 


Januaryi 1915 



For the small "i> d 
lulu.' or eontrmcl w hi re 

able I ■' drill per- 

forms a si "ii 

ili. electrlc-elr drill com 

with ilir Oexiblltt] 
..I Hi.' electric i 

BCJ <>f III"' 
compressed air ilrlll in a 
complete power plain unll 
:..u compactne 
lllty, solving the power plant problem and ellml- 
naim^ the expense ..( in the mine" piping. 

Ii k durably constructed throughout and compares fa- 
rorablj in drilling capaclt] with the standard piston 

drills of equal si 

I' is l.nili In three sizes as listed below. 





Diameter of cylinder. 

Length of stroke 

Length of teed SO ' 

of octagon steel used V 
Average horsepower re- 
quired for running drill 

t motor output i 3 4 

Bulletin -Vo. -1209 

i y- 


7 - 


u ■■ 


1 and l\" 


, and 1% 


The l.eyner Sharpener is an economical necessity in 
mining operations. It sharpens and makes all kinds of 
bits, true to mmge and form: and does the work more 
rapidly ami cheaply than can be done by hand. It al..o 
shanks the steel. 

Properly sharpened steel facilitates more rapid drilling 
and relieves the drilling machines of unnecessary wear 
and tear. 

The Leyner Sharpener has no competition. It is 
built in the two sizes listed below. 


8ymbol No, 

Dimension in inches: 


Height 32 :!7 

Length 52 -".J 

Width 43 54 

Weight bare. lbs. 1725 2150 

Air consumption. 

approximate ... 75 100 

Diam. bit sharp- 
ened, maximum 2%" 3'," 

Capacity resharp- 
ening medium 
size steel 50 to 100 per hr. 

Forming new- 
bits 20 to 75perhr. 

Bulletin No. !,0>2 

i.. the effort expended 
b) ihis Com pan) to ax 
eel in tli.- product II 

i" trade to buy. 

a portable pnen 
in. no botal toi clomp- 
ing to Par. column, tiln 
Per or other conven 
lent means ami is used 
tor hoisting and lower 
log machines, tools ami 
timbers in the mln 

well as hauling ears In 

ind winzes. 
It has every element ot safety, • mini 'line, ami con- 

ice ami a comparison ol the data listed below will 

y to its Buperlorit] tor tin- work mentl .1 


it can in- furnished tor operation by steam it desired. 

Capacity 1000 pounds at a rope speed of 85 feet per 

ininiit.' at Nil pounds pressure. 

Clamp will lit -I',." O. I), column or arm. 

Air connection 

Width overall 

Length overall 

Height overall 

Weight without rope . 

Rope capacity 500-800 ft. 

Butlrtin NO. i'/.i.f 


285 His. 


This furnace for heating and tempering drill steel is a 
fit companion for the Leyner Sharpener. Steels are 
heated quickly, uniformly, and cleanly. It burns crude 
oil. effecting a big saving in fuel cost in the blacksmith 

The capacity of the furnace is only limited by the 
sharpening facilities. 

It is extensively used in conjunction with the Leyner 
Sharpener, forming one of the biggest money saving 
combinations that the market affords. 

Heating surface.. . 

Heating capacity 

drills per hour. 


150 to 200 

Air consumption 
per minute (free 
air at sea-level) .50 to 75 cu. ft. 

Oil consumption per 

Floor space re- 
quired for fur- 
nace only 

Weight, complete.. 
Bulletin -Vo. 

2 to 4 gals. 

3x4 ft. 

500 lbs. 
90 :o 


11 BROADWAY Offices the World Over NEW YORK 



January, 1915 


No manufacturer can poinl with more 
justifiable pride than this Company, to 
the performance i>r his air compressors. 

There are tl sands of them in daily 

use in mining service, engineering work and in- 
dustrial plants. 

The line includes two distinctive types, the " [nger- 
soll-Rogler" and "Imperial," built straight line, 
duplex, turbo and vertical, with the following 
styles; of drive : belt, short bell electric, direct con- 
nected electric, geared, <>il engine, gasoline engine, 
plain steam and < !orliss engine. 
Sizes range between 3 and 55,000 cubic feet, pres- 
sures up in 2500 pounds. 

Some of the r ni "Ingersoll-Rogler" installa- 

t 'an- include the following: 

Inspiration Cons. Copper Company. 
Anaconda ( lopper < lomany. 
Hardawaj Contracting Company. 
Marj land Steel ( lompany. 

The "Imperial" compressor is the type 
which recently won over all other entries 

in an exhaustive itest conducted by the 

Engineers of the City of Chicago, as a re- 
sult of which we were awarded the entire order 
for 12 machines, to furnish power for driving the 
water Intake Tunnels extending out into Lake 
Any of the following bulletins sent upon request. 


[ngersoll-Rand ' !ompressors .3101 

loll-Rogler Air Valves ::n J 4 


Ingersoll-Rogler Class BR Belt or Short Belt Driven. 3030 
■ NE-2 and NE2-S Belt or Short Belt Driven, 1..1- 

I ii;,-ii pressures 3001 

Insersoll-Iiogler Class l-'U Steam Driven 3209 

Class .\'F-i and NF2-S Steam Driven, for high pres- 
sures : 

Ingersoll-Rogler OER Oil Engine Driven 3028 

Class AA-2 Steam Driven 3003 

imperial Type XB Duplex Power or short Belt 

Driven 3812 

Imperial Type X Duplex Steam Driven 3311 

Ingersoll-Rogler ''lass ORC Corliss steam Driven. .. .3029 
Ingersoll-Rogler Direct Connected, Electrically 

Driven 3026 


Imp. rial Type XII Bt-lt or Electric Driven 3022 

1 gersoll-Rand Turbo Compressors and Blowers 3032 


New York 

PItl Bbufgh 

Ho u g 

Los A ngeles 

El Paso 

Juneau. A laska 

Sail Lake Cil y 

i i Lcago 

I >.;■ nver 

St Louis 


i tirm Ingham 
New Orleans 
San Francisco 

•Inuuurv .', 19U 


Some New Features 



Oil; lloili volume begins with tin* number. The ieriee is long 
ami tin' oareer of the PRE8S haa, we believe, been 1 > • • 1 1 ■ honor 
able iiml useful to the mining profession. At the beginning 

of this now volume several changes have I n made in tin' form and 

appearance of the PRESS. Tin- must striking, probably, is the 
shortening of tin- name, one of tin- steps in modernizing the formal 
of a journal already up in tin- minute in spirit. Other change* 
. qually important an- to in- made. 

OPPOSITE this «ill I" found the firsl Mining Press Bulletin, 
a new Feature in advertising. The Bulletin is intended i" I"- 
a condensed, up-to-date catalog of tin- principal lines manu- 
factured by tin- linn usini; it. Only a limited number will be sold. 
lint collectively the Bulletins will constitute a combined condensed 
catalog of tin- principal manufacturers of mining and metallurgical 
equipment. Tin' Bulletins hit printed mi separate sheets ami >■• 

bound as in in- easily detached and pi; d in a separate loose-leaf 

note booh cover of appropriate size, which will in- furnished at 
moderate price. Engineers are urged to preserve each Bulletin, as 
the srrii's will furnish the besl guide to the most essential type of 
machinery and equipment. It is appropriate that the first Bulletin 
is used by tin- [ngersoll-Rand Company, whioh lias pioneered in so 
many directions, ami whose drills and compressors are known in 
all great mining districts around tin- world. 

O.N our front cover will be found the first Bheel of tin' Miners' 
Calendar that we shall print during the year. Bach month 
a new siirrt will In- issuril emphasizing the dates in the month 
that are of especial interest to mining men, ami illustrating by 
paragraph and picture sonm of the world-wide phases of metal 
mining. Our covers lot- the first of each month have been reserved 
for this purpose, ami those for certain other dates will be used in 
another way to improve the appearance ami increase the usefulness 
of the paper. 

OTHER changes ate pending ami will lie made as opportunity 
opens the way. The purpose of them all is to increase the 
effectiveness of the PRESS to hoth reader and advertiser. 
We purpose to make the PRESS not only the most interesting and 

authoritative journal devoted to metal mining, but the most attrac- 
t ive as well. 


San Francisco 
420 Market St. 

:i00 Kisher Bdg. 

New York 
Woolworth Bdg. 

Salisbury House 



illshed May 24, I860, u Tke BcIeattBc Prcm.: nam.- r-hanged 
October 20 of the same year to Mining imH Nru-mitw- Pre—; shortened 
January 2, 1915, to Miuinu Pre**, Controlled by T. a. Uiekard. 

Published weekly :■( 4.'" Market street, San Francisco, by Tin- Dewey 
Publishing Co., H K.>st' i Bain, majnager, Entered at the San Kranclsco 
Post-off] lass matter. Cable address, Pertusola. 

ei Bdg;.; New York. 1308-10 Wool- 
woriii Bdsj.; London. The Kilning Mac- I , B, C, Lon- 

don. Cable address, < 'Ugoclaae. 

Price, i" cents Hie copy. Annual subscription: United states and 

in posts I union, 21s. or $*>. 

Vol. 110 

San Francisco, January 2, 1915 

No. 1 



Greeting 1 

Notes 2 

Proposed Institute Changes J 

Mining :: 

Special Review Numbers 4 

Progress in Copper Metallurgy .", 


Tin Wai: \ni. the LONDON Minim. Market. 

By T. A. Richard 6 

The European war has so completely upset the nor- 
mal currents of trade thai the usual review of tin- 
market is Impossible. Numerous mining enterprises 
have been hindered by the capture or destruction of 
steamers carrying machinery to them. Tin and nitrate 
shipments have decreased. Fortunately, less than 1', 
ol the gold output comes from ihe areas In conflict, 
though disturbance of trade, by limiting mine sup- 
plies, is reacting even on gold mining. Copper ship- 
ments from the United States have decreased. Zinc 
smelting faces the necessity for extensive readjust- 
ment, since fighting has been most severe in zinc- 
smelting regions. War killed speculation in mining 
shares, but made gold mines the most liquid of assets. 

Arizona Copper's New Smki/iini. Pi ant 9 

A new smelter built by an old company to treat fine 
ore by means of reverberatorles. A series of illus- 
trations with brief text. 

Application of Electric Motors po Gold Dbkdoes. 

By Oirard B. Rosenblatt 12 

Gold dredges see hard service, and motors designed 
for such dredges must be with this in view, as also 
hort life I roughly 10 years] of the plant. The 
drive of the bucket chain is the real problem of the 
dredge. It is recommended that motors for this 
Ice be capable of carrying rated load continuously 
with a rise not to exceed 409! in any part: lie capi 
of developing a torque 269S in excess of the rated 
full load torque, at a speed of 73' ; of its synchronous 

1 tor two hours with a rise not to exceed 55 
have a maximum and starting torque of not less than 
2.G times full load. 

Ti i:i -Mill TOSS IGE Ca] ri l l 

By Woe! Cunningham 1G 

A method used at the Hollinger for determining the 
tonnage actually bandied by tube-mills wnrkin. 
closed circuits. It rests oil four screen tests and is 
easily and quickly applied, 
ti Zinc— the Hi 

By E. It. Leslie 17 

attempts have been made to treat zinc ores elec- 
tically. The Reed process depends upon the 
Hering system. It is being applied at Palo Alto to 
the zinc residue from the Mammoth smelter, and a 
ssful technical operation has been worked out. 
In precipitation d and the 

cathode aluminum. After deposition, the sponge-lead 
anode with its zinc sulphate coating is placed in an 
acid charging cell where it becomes a cathode with 
a dummy lead anode. It is tints restored to its orig- 
inal condition for re-use. 

Misers' Health ai Broken Hili 21 

Abstract of a report made to the parliament of New- 
South Wales. 

Eil I I I ICK Smi I I ISO in 1914. 

By Robert M. Keeney 22 

The year saw the completion and operation of the 
lamest electric iron-smelting furnace built up to date. 
Work was started on the first commercial electric 
zinc-smelting plant to be constructed in the United 
States, and the first aluminum plant since expiration 
of the Hall patents was well started. As the result 
of the European war. the one electric pig-iron plant 
In the United States started the manufacture of ferro- 
manganese. Increased attention was paid to the 
manufacture of other ferro-alloys, and one company 
has renewed the manufacture of sodium in the elec- 
tric furnace for later conversion to sodium cyanide. 

Masonic Minim; DISTRICT, Mono Cihntv. Cal norma. 

P. McLaughlin 27 

The Masonic district lies 16 miles north of Bodie. Cali- 
fornia. No important discoveries were made till 1902 
and it was In L907 that rich ore was found. The geol- 
ogy of the district is briefly discussed, and the opinion 
is expressed that such orebodies as are discovered will 
lie found to be extremely irregular. 

Ore Treatment ami Costs \t Stratton's Independence.. 29 
Summary of operations for 1911-12. 1912-13, 1913-14, 
with detailed costs, totaling $1.38, for 1913-14. 

Costs h hie Kaeoirli Mine and Mill 29 

Detailed costs covering production of 127, S70 tons of 
ore averaging $9.f!0 per ton. Dividends amounted to 
$481,000 and all costs $4.69. 

lll-i l SSIOS : 

The Gumaos Dredge. By A. O. LiuUinn 30 

A brief note on the excellent performance of a 
pioneer bi 

Operation of Oliver Fillers By I). 11". Minier 30 

Detailed statement of practice at the Common- 
wealth mill, Pearce, Arizona. 
Shall the Institute Express Opinions? 

By Edmund B. Kirinj and Sidney J '. Jennings . . 31 
Statements for and against the proposed amend- 
ments to the constitution of the Institute. 

Cosi in i in i is 33 

Mimm; in hie Far North. 

Placer Mining in the Fairbanks District. — Continued. 

By Emit Edward Hitrin 34 

Continuation of the notes on present conditions at 
Fairbanks printed in the Press December 19. 

Mineral statistic s 37 

Review of Special correspondence from New- 
York: Washington, D. C: Butte. Montana: Ixindon: 

Houghton. Michigan 39 

Tin: Mining Si mmabt 43 

Persosai 47 

Sin s anii Societies 47 

'.: \\:k> i Pi u i : 

Metal Places 48 

New York Metal Review 49 

Current Prices of Ores. Minerals. Chemicals. Oil. and 

i imlles 50 

i'iiiicanv Reports 51 

Mew Mai ii i ni > ami Dei cces: 

A Small Portable Air-Compressor 52 

Commercial Paragraphs 52 

I'M • 

\II\1V. I'KI SS 

Interior View of Our Plate Shop 

TANKS— Ah- Receivers; Steam Drums; Pressure Tanks, Riveted or Welded. Storage for Oil, Water 

or Solution. 
WATER JACKETS— For Smelting Furnaces, Welded or Riveted. 

RETORTS — Timber Treating, Vulcanizing, Steaming, Drying or Staining. Any Pressure. 
HYDRAULIC PIPING— Turbine Casings, Draft Tubes, Intakes. 
FLANGING — Tank and Boiler Heads, all Standard Sizes. Miscellaneous, Special. 
I HEAVY STEEL PLATE WORK— Of All Kinds a Specialty. 

Pressed Steel Work 

Hydraulic Turbine Draft Tube 

Allis- Chalmers Manufacuring Company 

Mining Machinery Department, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Offices in All 
Principal Cities 

Foreign Representatives 

For all Canadi 

{. . . .732 Salisbury House. London Wall. K. I'., Kngland 
Mark R Lamb Huerfunos 1167 Casllla IBIS, Santiago. Chill 
HMbartiffiSorth Johannesburg. South Atnra 
American Trading Co.'.' Representatives In China, Japan. South America and Philippine Island! 
n business refer to Canadian AJlls-Chalmers. Ltd.. Toronto. Ont.. Canada 

MINING PRESS January 2. 1915 

| The Wedge Mechanical Furnace | 




Dead or Sweet - Roasting Gold Ores 

A uniform dead or sweet-roast of gold ores for 
cyaniding can be secured in Wedge Furnaces. 

Furnaces are constructed to use whatever fuel 
may be available. You can use oil, gas, coal, 
coke, charcoal or wood. 

On account of the detailed construction of the 
Wedge Roaster, designed for sweet-roasting, 


you can secure a more uniform calcine than 
has been secured in previous practice with a 
different style of rabbling. I 

Wedge Furnaces are in commercial use, dead- 
roasting gold ores, also in commercial use, 
dead-roasting iron ores, where it is necessary 
to practically eliminate all the sulphur contents. 

Write us stating analysis of ore, concentrates, 
mixture or material to be roasted, character- 
istics and physical condition of same, number 
of tons to be treated per 24 hours, and results 
desired in the calcine. 

| Wedge Mechanical Furnace Company | 

115 Chestnut St., Philadelphia 


r\ 2 191 i 

MIMV. H<l ss 

Sink Your Shaft 
with Sullivan 
Air-Jet Sinkers, 

— and economize time, 
labor and power 


The advantages of these tools for sinking shafts include: 

(1) Greater Speed than is gained with tripod drills, because Air- Jet 
Sinkers have no mounting to move, require no set up, and lose 
no time cranking out steel. 

(2) Less Labor is needed, since the tool is run by one man and is 
light and easy to handle. 

(3) Reduction in Power, because Air-Jet Sinkers use less air than 
tripod drills. 

(4) Less Powder and less waste excavation. Each hole is placed and 
pointed exactly where it will pull the ground to the best advantage. 

Sullivan Air- Jet Sinkers 

are equipped with hollow steel, through which air is discharged in varying amounts 
as needed, to clean the hole. 

<J A Cushion Device reduces vibration and permits high cutting speed without 
excessive jar to the operator. 

<lf Repairs are Light, because all parts are made of hardened steel, from bar 
stock, or are drop forgings. 

Bulletin 1366-L. 

Air Compressors 


Rock Drills 

Diamond Core Drills 


122 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

461 Market St., San Francisco 






El Paso 



Cobalt, Ont. 








St, Louis 
Sydney, K. S. W. 


Jamiai y -. 1915 

^°^ eSS ^ etaIIlr ^y 

The Dorr 

has been installed in nearly every 
well known mill erected tins year 
in North America and 1!' ma- 
chines have replaced other types. 
lis reliability and great economy 
in power have attracted much at- 
tention. Among well known com- 
panies installing them are : 

Porcupine Crown M. Co Ont. 

Hollinger Gold M. Co Ont. 

Mclntyre-Porc. M. Co Ont. 

Pore. Vipond M. Co Ont. 

Tough-Oakes M. Co Ont. 

Pore-Miracle M. Co Ont. 

Liberty Bell G. M. Co Colo. 

Caylloma M. Co Peru 

Beguet Cons. M. Co P. I. 

Fund(icion) de los Arcos. . . .Mex. 

Cam & Motor Co Rhodesia 

Frontina-Bolivia Co Bolivia 

Tomboy Mines Co Colo. 

The Dorr 
Tray Thickener 

furnishes a Bimple means of ob- 
taining great s<ttlin lt space with 
small ground area, and nf increas- 
ing the capacity of Dorr Thicken- 

ers already in operation. During 
1!)14 they have l» rn installed by 

Homestake Mining Co .... So. Dak. 
Anaconda Copper M. Co.... Mont. 

Hercules Mining Co Idaho 

Tomboy Mines Co Colo. 

Liberty Bell M. Co Colo. 

Aurora Cons. M. Co Nev. 

Tonopah-Belmont M. Co Nev. 


I >orr i '"in inuous Thickeners are 
in use in a large number of flota- 
tion plants all over the world, 
giving a feed of constant density 
and serving in some cases *<> re 
cover the warm oil-bearing water 
from tin' tailinsrs for re-use. 

They have proved essential in 
thickening flotation concentrates 
ahead of filtration. 

Among plants usin>_ them Eor 
this purpose are : 

Butte & Superior C. Co Mont. 

Timber-Butte M. Co Mont. 

National Copper Co Mont. 

Mountain Copper Co Cal. 

Spassky Copper Co '. .Russia 

Braden Copper Co Chile 

Broken Hill South Co ... . Australia 
Broken Hill Prop., Ltd. Australia 
Sulphide Corporation . . . Australia 

Great Cobar M. Co Australia 

Wallaroo & Moonta Co . . Australia 
Amalgamated Zinc Co . . . Australia 


Counter - Current 


Owing to tin- success of the 
Porcupine-Crown plant the follow- 
ing companies, in the same district. 

have installed this method of treat- 
ment : 

Hollinger- Acme, an addition of 
900 tuns capacity; Porcupine-Vi- 
pond, 150 tons: Porcupine-Miracle, 
loll tolls; Tougli-Uakes. loll tons: 
Mclntyre-Porcupine, an addition 
of 150 tons. 

Thr success of the Tonopah Min- 
ing Co. in treating silver ores by 
Continuous Counter-Current De- 
cantation has induced thr Tonopah- 
Belmont Co. to remodel their -Mil- 
lers plant for the same treatment. 

Published figures from the Cold 
Roads Mines Co. show a net profit 

of 60 cents per ton made by ch 

ing from filtration to Continuous 
( lounter-Current Decantation. 

The Limit 

in size of Dorr Thickeners was 
raised in 1914 from 50' to 130' in 

Just think of one unit handling 
1300 tons of solids and recovering 
three million gallons of clear water 
per day. 

The construction of large units 

in the open air with steel or con- 
crete walls and dirt bottom 
cures great economy. 

Send for our Catalogue and full data regard- 
ing the above, and also the Dorr Classifier 

The Dorr Cyanide Machinery Company 

Dorr, Denver. Dorctass, New York 

730-735 First National Bank Bdg., Denver, Colo., U. S. A. 

Eastern Office: 30 Church Street, New York City 


Bedford McHielt and Western Union 

QrotheA Carter. Mexico City, General Agents for Mexico. N. Guthrldge, Ltd.. Sydney. General Agent fur Australia 

The Dorr Cyanide Machinery Co.. K> South Street. London. England. 

in 2, 1913 

MINIM.. J'Kl » 


58-inch Semi-Steel and Bronze Valves, weight 42,000 pounds, 


Joshua Hendy Iron Works, 

San Francisco, California, 


U. S. Reclamation Installation at Arrow Rock Dam, Boise, Idaho. 



January '_'. 1915 

The Name That Stands for Success in Placer Prospecting 

and Mining Equipment 


— - 


If you have any placer prospecting to do, there are at least nine reasons why you should use 

the "Empire" Drill 

It is the one accurate method of prospecting. You will have no trouble in raising capital on favorable 

" Empire" results. 
It is the cheapest method. " Empire" drilling usually costs less than one-fourth or one-fifth as much 

as steam drilling. 
It is the most rapid method. You can usually put down two or three " Empire " holes while you would 

be putting one with a steam drill. As your time is valuable this important to you. 
Low freight and transportation charges, because of small total weight. 
Low maintenance cost. No breakage and consequent loss of time. 
No prime mover or power required other than men; therefore no fuel needed. 

No skilled labor required. Negroes, Chinese, Indians, Philippinos, etc., are used with best results. 
Portability. It can be taken anywhere that a man can go. 

Lowest first cost — less than half that of a steam drill. 

You will find our "Empire" book 
a treatise on Placer Mining 
and it is yours for the asking; 
therefore write for it today. 


l»1 • Ml\l\i. PR II 



In the Philippines, the "Empire" Dredge " Governor Gilbert " last month handled 82,000 cubic 
yards of gravel and recovered $36,500. 

We secure these results with our " Empire " Dredges because we are primarily placer mining 
equipment engineers. We specialize in this business. We design and build each dredge to suit the 
particular conditions under which it is to work. And as a result it secures the highest returns and gives 
the best service under your existing conditions. 

We place EFFICIENCY above everything else — that is, the handling of the largest amount of 
gravel, with the highest recovery, at the lowest possible cost. 

Our book on "Gold Dredging" will interest you, and it will help you 
in financing your dredging proposition. Why not write for it now ? 



The "Empire" line of Placer Mining Machinery includes Manganese Steel 
Lined Gravel Elevators, Pipe Lines, Giants, Steel Sluices and Special 
Riffles, Gold or Tin Saving Tables, Mechanical Tailing Elevators, etc. — 
everything for the placer mine, designed by specialists who build only 
placer mining equipment for success. 


The Placer Mining Equipment Specialists 

2 Rector Street, 




January "2, 1915 

Start the New Year Right 

By resolving to discard antiquated milling machinery; keep in the 
vanguard of progress, and make a record in profits during the en- 
suing year. 

Mr. Operator, you can only do this by equipping your property 
with the best machinery that modern metallurgy affords. That is 
Pan Motion Machines. 

As the last word 
in concentration, 
Senn Pan Motion 
Machines afford 
the mine operator 
an opportunity to 
begin the year 
withjFja capacity 
and saving in his 
mill which was 
heretofore impos- 

Operators are awakening to the fact that Pan Motion Machines have set a 
new standard in concentration efficiency. It is not an experiment; it is a fact 
that has been and is being demonstrated that Senn Pan Motion Concentrators 
will handle from 40 to 150 tons in 24 hours, taking unclassified feed and using 
but one-third of the amount of water of other machines. The Amalgamator 
gives a working length of plates of 500 feet and will handle from 50 to 75 tons 
in 24 hours, using but three-quarters of one horsepower. 

This means that the initial 
cost of the 1915 mill will be 
materially under the 1914 mill, 
because it will be simpler, will 
occupy less floor space, will 
handle a vast amount more ore, 
will effect a greater saving, and 
establish a new efficiency rec- 
ord by means of Pan Motion 

Keep pace with the times and write for details to the 


607 First National Bank Building 

Phone Sutter 3225 

San Francisco, California 

Works and Testing Plant: Oakland, Cal. 

Jannan -. 1915 

\11M\u PRESS 

M p «;-»: Motor Prlvlnir 

Underground Hoist, 

I yoar». No 

00 H P. G-E Motor Driving 
Hoist. Iron Blossom Mining 
»_\>. . Eureka, l" t a h . In sue • 
:! use over I years. 

Electrically operated Tipple and 
Washer with Belt Conveyor, 
J. K. Derlng Mine, Clinton. 


■ Bki 


Greensburg Coal Co.'s Tipple and 
Hoist House. Note absence of 
steam escaping. 

300 H.P .. i Uotor Driving Un- 
derground llnlnt. Sll\. 
■ '■•iiililon M ■ k city 


Hoists in Use 

No Delays 
No Repairs 

Many reports are coming in from hoists 
driven by G-B motors. One was designed 
for 24 trips per day, but has hoisted 40 
for 2y 2 years without delay. Another has 
been in use six years, while others still have 
been in use two years or more, and in every 
case the report was the same: "Operation 
satisfactory; no delays due to electrical 

Mine hoists driven by G-E motors have 
low operating costs because, first, there are 
no boilers to be fired night and day; sec- 
ond, the absence of vibration on rope — in- 
creasing its life and that of the head gear, 
etc. ; and, finally, because the power con- 
sumption is nothing during idle moments, 
but alwavs available when needed. 

Send for new hoist bulletin, 
Equipment. ' ' 

'Mine Hoist 

fOO II f ,,,, Driving 

lli.lm. Crow - N. -i mm,. „. K.-v 
■ton* Coal a Coki I 
yonn In U-. 
s.. deUyi 

Tipple and Track 
Crow's Nest Mln.- 

per month. 

75.000 tons 
In use 2% \. 

Mine Fan Driven by 
speed Motor. J. 
Mine, Clinton, Ind, 

G-E Multl- 
K. Derlng 

300 H.P. G-E Motor Driving 
Hoist. Greensburg Coal Co. 
Shaft, Greensburg. Pa. Over 
a year In successful operation. 

General Electric Company 

Atlanta. Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Boston, Mass. 
Buffalo. N. Y. 
Butte. Mont. 
Charleston, \V. Va. 
Charlotte. N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, m. 
Cincinnati. Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 
Columbus. Ohio 
Dayton, Ohio 
Denver, Colo. 
Des Moines. Iowa 
Detroit. Mich., 
(Office of Agent) 
Duluth. Minn. 
Elmira. N. Y. 
Erie. Pa. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 

General Office : Schenectady. N. Y. 


Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Joplin, Mo. 
Kansas City. Mo. 
Knoxville. Tenn. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
Louisville. Ky. 
Memphis, Teun. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Nashville, Tenn. 
New Haven. Conn. 
New Orleans. La. 
New York. N. Y. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Omaha. Neb. 
Philadelphia. Pa. 
Pittsburgh. Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
Providence. R. I. 
Richmond. Va. 

For Texas. Oklahoma and Arizona business refer to Southwest General Electric Co.. (formerly Hobson Electric Co.) — Dallas, 
and Oklahoma City. For Canadian business refer to Canadian General Electric Company, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Rochester. N. Y. 
Bait Lake City, Utah 
San Francisco, Cal. 
St. Louis. Mo. 
8chenectady. N. V. 
Seattle, Wash, 
Spokane. Wash. 
Springfield. Mass. 
Syracuse. N. Y. 
Toledo. Ohio 
Washington, D. C. 
Youngstown, Ohio 

El Paso. Houston 

14 MINING PRESS January 2, 1015 

If You Were Asked 

to draw up a set of correct legal conclusions from a miscellaneous 
collection of legal facts, you wouldn't try. You'd get an able law- 
yer, let him " dig up " the facts and look to him for correct and in- 
telligent conclusions. 

And, in the same way, correct conclusions regarding the value of 
your mining properties are not to be derived from miscellaneous 
facts, drawn from miscellaneous sources. Let 


" dig up " the facts, arrange them coherently and give you the in- 
telligent result. 

Here are the details of Longyear service: 

The Preliminary Geological Examination. 

The Survey of the Lands Examined and the Location 
of Exploratory Work — Diamond Drilling, Test Pitting, 

The Drilling and Recovery of Samples — Core and 

The Geological Study of Structures and Assay of Ores 
by Independent Laboratories. 

The Compilation of Reports and Preparation of Maps 
and Models. 

The Filing of Records and the Storage of Samples 
for Reference at any time. 

The Manufacture of Diamond Drills and Supplies for 
Immediate Dispatch to Any Part of the World. 

All these comprise the branches of a complete service which, be- 
cause the experience upon which it is based is unique, can not be 
duplicated by any other concern. 

We find the ore if it is there 
Rut we find the facts anyway 

E. J. Longyear Company, 


.laiiunrv 2. 1915 



II i.'stki; BAIN .... Manmlnt I 
111..M » ■ N«*i fork Bdltoi 

K II H W % ..iv IIKKMWIT/.. B« 

... w i: iioi'i-Kii. HomthtOD, knob. Ami i 
T. A. KH'K.VKi'. London - - Editorial Contributor 

i:i' w u.K BR, London - 

BPBOI 1/ < "\ 1 iniii TOR 

I W CharlM Jiihi. 

1 »rd B. Austin, K«mf>. 

• .ml. 1 II Mnrlry. 

Court uulb. i-urlnston 

'"ii. Tolmtn, Jr. 

II. .111. . v Win. -In 11. 


It will be remembered thai in a certain city ftn altar 
waa once raised i» the 'unknown God. 1 Ii is more than 
half Boapeeted that this was a prehistoric Scotch attempt 
to play siit.- by 'not overlooking any bets.' With the 
deepest sincerity, however, al this, the beginning of a 
new year, the Editor would li U<- to offer on the altar of 
friendship a tribute from himself and his associates to 
Our unknown friends Strangers by face, men we never 
have seen, most of them men we never shall see. yet we 
fee] between them and us the ties of real friendship. 
From time to time these unknown speak to us by letter 
and even by gift. They save out and send to us some- 
thing choice from their minds or their mines, and the 
Press becomes richer by an item or the inspiration for 
one, while the editorial desk beeomes all cluttered up 
with a miscellaneous assortment of specimens and keep- 
sakes that need only some labels and a catalogue to 
afford the basis for a really admirable public museum. 
It is the letters we like best — letters written, mayhap, 
on nondescript paper with pencil or balky pen, dated 
"in camp" and. judging by the alignment, written on 
a board held slantwise on the knee while the beans boil. 
Such a letter brings the very feeling of the outdoors 
to us here in the office; and it brings, too, the very 
innermost feeling of the men who write. Prospectors 
would rather handle pick than pen, and only deep feel- 
ing stirs these friends of ours to write. They like, or 
they dislike, what we have said ; and they say so frankly 
— giving reasons. Their reasons are always worth atten- 
tion, and I assure you. Mr. Prospector, that your letters 
really do receive our "most thoughtful attention." It 
is curious, in view of the infinite ways open to an editor 
to make mistakes, that many more of the letters are 
complimentary than the reverse. Occasionally "with 
great regret" — we like that phrase — an old subscriber 
refuses longer to tolerate a young and foolish editor 
who perhaps has mixed, over much war news with tech- 
nical articles, or who has too consistently stood "on the 
side of the operators." One of our friends, an old Fore- 
man whom we have never seen but for whom we have 
conceived a liking as well as sincere respect, writes that, 
while be does not expect us to employ our time in writ- 
ing articles such as appear in The Age of Reason, many 
of the changes in mining of recent years have not been 
for the better and "none for the betterment of those 
employed," and that "if you even made an effort to 

print truth you would fuel your paper more widely read 

an. 1 appreciated." Ee adds thai "it is not with pleas 

me that I write this" — and that takes away the sting 
We believe him to be honest, »e strive to be honest 
ourselves, and yet here we differ so widely. What is 
the truth? The question is no easier to answer here 

todaj and about matters of common knowledge in the 

profession, than it has I n in all times and all ages. 

Therefore we welcome thai spirit of charity — that will- 
ingness to believe the other honest, even though he be 
stubbornly mistaken and to our many unknown friends, 

to the great multitude of our readers wh ver call, 

who never 'phone, who never write, but who. since they 

continue to take the Press either agree with us or ex- 
tend the mantle of charity over our errors and omis- 
sions, to all these we offer our hearty thanks for another 
yen's support and our hearty good wishes for the year 

To our oilier friends, whether they bo contributors, 
readers, or advertisers, our thanks are no less sincere. 
The year that has just closed has been a trying one 
for all. and the immediate future offers little promise 
of improvement. A great war cannot be fought with- 
out the whole world suffers; and a great war is not 
worth lighting unless it be fought to finality. We may 
believe as earnestly as possible in the tightness or wrong- 
ness of either side, we may hope keenly for the success 
of the arms to which we give support, but let us remem- 
ber against the hard days of reconstruction, that these 
fighting peoples are the same peoples with whom we 
have so long had pleasant ties of business and friend- 
ship. Centuries of civilization do not altogether dis- 
appear over night; the superficial aspects of civilization 
may be temporarily obscured, but fundamentally the 
great mass of the people in each of the countries at 
war are the same right thinking, careful living, and 
well meaning people they have been all these years we 
have known them. Take a lesson from our friends the 
Prospector and the Foreman — if we must differ, let it 
be in kindness rather than bitterness. 

What the New Year may bring in a business way to 
each of us cannot be foretold, but at least it will be 
an interesting year in which to live. In Europe one 
of the world's great contests will be in progress and 
possibly will end. In the Americas peace and industry 
seem likely to dominate the scene. In California we 
shall celebrate the opening of the Panama canal with 
two expositions, and at San Francisco we shall expect 


January 2, 1915 

many of our friends. Before the year closes we 
hope to have shifted many an 'unknown' into the 
'known' column and to have intensified if not enlarged 
field of our friendships. Until that pleasant day 
arrives when we may give you our good wishes in 
person, we take this means of extending them to you. 

II. Foster Bain. 

Fur Hi i Editors. 

hi!.', "ill be an important Canadian industry, but for 
the present, economics demand that Canada and the 
United States share the industry. 

A i ONTEMPORARY records that the Bmokeleas eoal 
operators of Wesl Virginia met in Philadelphia last 
month. It is well known that conditions art- had in the 
soft coal industry, hut it is disheartening to learn that 
stogies are beyond the reach of the operators. 

"D AND gold production for the first 10 months of 1914 
-*-*- amounted to 6,579,044 ounces, as compared with 
7,143,892 ounces in the same months of 1913. The total 
(or L913 was 8,430,998 ounces. For 1914 it will prob- 
ably he about 6,950,000 ounces. To the first of Novem- 
ber Indian output had amounted to £1,930,649, that of 
West Africa, £1,424,671, and that of Rhodesia, £2,958,827. 

ltyTETALLURGISTS will not.- with regret the absence 
-L*-*- in this number of the Press of the customary re- 
view of cyanidation by Mr. Alfred .lames, who. in the 
midst of war scenes finds no heart for the task. We shall 
later present a summary, but may note now the further 
peaceful Conquests of tin- continuous decantation process. 
and the inroads threatened by flotation, to which such a 
staunch eyanidcr as .Mr. Charles Butters has become a 
zealous convert. 

/~* ANADIAX questioning as to the supplying of nickel 
^- 4 from Sudbury mines to Germany and its allies, has 

I n met by a frank open letter from Mr. A. Monell 

in which it is staled that full information regarding 
shipments is at all times in the possession of Dominion 
authorities. It is also stated, as against the rumor that 
the Krnpps are interested in International Nickel, that 
no European steel-maker, no individual connected with 
any such concern, or anyone in European financial circles, 
exerts any influence in the conduct of the Company or 
any of its subsidiaries. As to refining in Canada. Mr. 
Monell points out that the location of works is deter- 
mined by economic conditions and that any material 
change in these would react to the detriment of the 
Canadian nickel industry. We are glad to record this 
full and frank statement. -V company possessing a prac- 
tical monopoly of any material used by the whole world 
has heavy and peculiar responsibilities to face, and 
frankness is important in meeting the difficulties that 
lie in the road. We sympathize with Canadians in the 
natural desire that their mines should not serve to equip 
aemies, for the moment, of their country: and also 
the wish that as much as possible their raw materials 
should be worked up within their own national bound- 
aries. In time nickel refining, as well as nickel min- 

T.\ our New York letter the difficulties of the Austra- 
*- ban zinc producers who have contracts with German 
smelting companies are discussed. As mentioned last 
week, the plans* for a new smelter at Swansea are tem- 
porarily, at least, set aside, and it seems probable that 
the alternative of a new plant in the United States will, 
in turn, be given up. The obvious course is to ship the 
concentrate to the United States for treatment in exist- 
ing plants. There is an adequate excess smelting capac- 
ity, and the freight movement would be along natural 
lines. In view of the complicated legal situation, in- 
vestment in new plant to treat the Australian ore would 
not be warranted. 


Among matters which will come before the annual 
meeting of the American Institute of Mining Engineers 
in February, none is more important than the proposed 
changes in the Constitution, striking out the strong in- 
hibition that now exists against the Institute expressing 
any approval or disapproval of technical or scientific 
matters or "any proposed enterprise which is outside of 
the management of meetings, discussions, and publica- 
tions of the Institute, and the conduct of its affairs by 
the Board of Directors." The proposals have been be- 
fore the membership for the better part of a year, but 
have not been as thoroughly debated as their importance 
warrants. As matters now stand, and as the rale has 
been interpreted, the Institute is absolutely tied and 
can do nothing but talk. In even so innocent a matter 
as joining the other national technical societies in 
issuing a common style-sheet, it has been held that 
the Institute could not bind itself. Recently the mat- 
ter of revision of the United States mining law has 
been before the Institute and its members. There is no 
difference of opinion as to the need of some change. 
though much difference as to what changes should be 

It. has been proposed that Congress should appoint 
a commission to codify existing laws, study the situ- 
ation, and report back to Congress, which would then 
exercise its constitutional authority (and also prob- 
ably its pleasure i as to making any change. The ap- 
pointment of a committee to visit Washington and urge 
this matter — in substance the mere investigation of a 
subject of the greatest and most direct importance to 
mining — produced a protest from the strict construc- 
tionists. Upon opinion of counsel being taken, it was 
held that the Institute had in fact no authority to ap- 
point such a committee, though, in event of the pro- 
posed commission being established, it. might, without 
violence to its own constitution, suggest to the President 
the advisability of appointing a mining man or two 

January -'. 191 • 

mimm; h<i ss 

upon said oommiamioii These are two specific iimi 
among many which might be eited, ariaing from oon 
.litmus us they are, and in which the [natitute was pre 
rented from being naeful, without an] poaaible harm 

to an) of ita members Tins. we hold, la a •■ lition 

that results in preventing good rather than doing 

h is proposed to remove tliis restriction from tl in 

stitution To make suoh aotion effective, amend nl of 

the articles of incorporation would be asary, and is 

in mind though not embodied in the formal proposal. 
It should be noted distinctly that the present proposal 
is merely t,> untie the hands of the (natitute. No affirma- 
tive action "ii any proposal, or even on any plan of 
lurr for obtaining such action, is suggested at 
this time. That is a matter fur the future, and we 
have no doubl that a sufficiently conservative attitude 
will be observed by the Board of Directors and the In- 
stitute membership in event of the amendments being 

adopted. The present matter is the determinati if 

the question whether the Institute wishes to maintain 
the ohl attitude of absolute refusal to participate in 
any form whatever in matters which require more than 

talk. As against this, the arguments advan 1 are, so 

far as they have come to as, founded on the belief that 
at some time in the future, under conditions not yet 
realized, the Institute, if allow,,! t,, act at all. may net 
unwisely. We believe Mr. E. B. Kirliy is right when 
In- says in his letter in our Discussion department that, 
essentially, this is a feeling: that we know so much 
better than on* successors possibly can, as to what is 
good for them, that we are warranted in making it 
impossible for them to art for fear they may sometime 
act unwisely. We shall print other letters on the suh- 
ject and shall write of it again, but boiled down to 
the essentials we believe this is the question: Do we 
as a matter of fact know the future so much better 
than those who will live in the future that we may 
justly prevent their doing what they may then consider 
•wise for mining? 


It has been said by one of the world's great physicists, 
that "if you want to arrive at intelligible issues — 
not to say conclusions — in any discussion, begin by 
settling the meaning of the terms you are going to 
use." The word 'mining' is not only the first in the 
name of the periodical you are reading, but it is so much 
the term oftenest employed that the compositors used 
to keep an extra supply of the letter m in their fonts 
in the days before 1906, when the type of this periodical 
was set. by hand. In. order to obtain a definition of 
'mining' I turn to the Standard dictionary, for which 
I have a kindly feeling because my worthy friend the 
late W. H. Pettee, professor in the University of Mich- 
igan, was responsible for the definitions of words apper- 
taining to the subject under discussion. Mining is there- 
in defined as "the business or work of a miner or mine 

proap i m turning to the word 'miner,' I Bad 

that • who nines especially one who* 

p»t i is I,, excavate ore, eoal, etc . in a mine." Next, 

a in ' is said to be "an excavation, properlj under 

ground, for digging ,hii some useful product, ai ore, 
metal, or ooal." Finally, 'ore' is defined aa "a natural 
rabetai sometimes forming pan of a rook, oontaining 

one or more metals " An excavation that is not Under 
ground is usually termed a •quarry.' the origin of which 

is seen in the French synonym, carriirt, from Bower, to 
square, it being the place where squares of slate or oubee 

of st,, ne ai-,- cut < Hint i; ci a from the "Id French 

quarriere, itself derived from the Latin quadratut. 

Mine' e, ones from the Low I, alio ttttHO, muff, intimitis, 
all of which mean something threatening. We have 
this meaning clearer in iiuntit . ,,r threats, and in 'miiia 
ton.' which suggests the forefinger raised in warning. 
In its Latin Sense a 'mine' was an e\eavation for COH 

founding tl iiemy. Thus the military significance is 

older than the industrial, for the Uomans were soldiers 
first and exploiters afterward. .Mining is also the busi- 
ness of the 'prospector,' the latter word signifying one 
that can look forward. Assuredly this is a necessary 
function of the miner, whose work depends upon the 
sane use of the constructive imagination, whereby from 
feeble signs on the surface he can imagine or foresee the 
ore that lies, in the heart of the hillside. The common 
saying that "a miner can see no farther than the point 
of his pick" is saturated with untruth; if it were so. 
he would be a fool to spend laborious days in breaking 
hard rock; and, what is more, if he did, the result would 
be nothing. Mining to be successful requires the ability 
or instinct to see beyond the point of the pick, some- 
times many hundred feet ahead of it, and to anticipate 
changes in the ore due to causes that the miner has 
taken painstaking care to note. Indeed, foresight — the 
forward mental glance — is a quality fundamental to 
successful mining; not only as regards the behavior of 
the mineral lode, but in respect of the whole series of 
complicated processes to be performed before the result 
of the miner's labor is realized in terms of money. 

Turning to Agricola, as made accessible to us by the 
Hoover translation, we find that the venerable authority 
describes mining as "a calling of peculiar dignity." 
According to him "prosperous republics, not a few kings, 
and many private persons, have made fortunes through 
mines and their produce." We may congratulate the 
republics; but most of us will — I believe — consider that 
the kings of the olden time made money by so many 
cruder methods that they might have left the mines to 
the ' ' private persons. ' ' While the mining profession 
of that early day "promoted wealth by good and honest 
methods," it appears that the incubators of wild-cats 
and the pirates of finance were not unknown even then, 
for Agricola describes them in terms that breathe no 
antique air: "They either advertise the veins with false 
and imaginary praises, so that they can sell the shares 
in the mines at one-half more than they are worth, or, 
on the contrary, they sometimes detract from the esti- 


January 2. 1916 

mate of then so that they can buy shares for a small 
price." The same old game today, as yesterday, and 
until the pick is blunted forever. Vet. he insists, min- 
ing is "a calling of peculiar dignity." The trickery 
and the thieving is no essential part of it. nor even the 
scheming and gambling that loom so large in the eyes 
of the stock exchanges and financial press. These agen- 
cies, useful as they are, not infrequently make the mis- 
take of putting the cart before the horse. Even the gen- 
eral public, using the shares of mining companies as 
a neans of speculation or buying them with the idea 
of profitable investment, is apt to overlook the fact thai 
such operations are incidental, not fundamental. Un- 
doubtedly the ■•harm of a successful financial venture 
is a factor in furnishing the inducement for raising 
capital, and for distributing the risk so that it may not 
fall too heavily on single purses; undoubtedly mining 
in its world-wide aspect has gained in scope and even 
in stability by means of the appeal to. and support from, 
an international clientele ; without such support the dig- 
ging of the metals would be restricted to smaller oper- 
ations and to fewer territories. Nevertheless the func- 
tion of mining is not to create counters for a gamble; 
that is only an incidental feature of a venturesome 

Mining is a basic industry; it depends not upon 
the gambling, but upon the honest work whereby 
the useful and necessary minerals are extracted from 
the earth in order to furnish the material structure of 
civilization. The sunlit Mediterranean no more exists 
as a frame for Monte Carlo than mining for the pastime 
of Wall and Throgmorton streets. Share dealing is the 
frill on the essential digging and delving of the mine; 
brokerage and promotion are bubbles on the great 
stream of beneficent activity originating from the ex- 
ploitation of mineral deposits; mining is "a calling of 
peculiar dignity," not a funny game for persons of 
nimble wit and facile morality. It is one of the two 
original occupations of humanity. As life progresses, 
man has learned to live less on the direct product of the 
field ; literally, he does not live by bread alone ; the com- 
plex way of living we call civilization depends increas- 
ingly upon the metals. By means of them we move, com- 
municate and construct; by the use of them we obtain 
beat, light, and a thousand comforts. They furnish the 
munitions of war no less than the implements of agri- 
culture and the instruments of scientific research. The 
world may suffer a diminished supply of the metals for 
a while, as during a great war, but not for long. It can 
endure the obliteration of all its stock exchanges before it 
can dispense with the products of the mine. Lacking 
them, it reverts to a material barbarism in which the 
finer fruits of the human spirit decay. Under the bar- 
ren overburden of ruthless militarism, as under the gen- 
tle meadows of peaceful progress, is the bedrock of metal. 
On that the sky-scrapers of civilization are founded. The 
relapse of war serves to give thtfndering emphasis to the 
fact. Mining is a basic industry. 

T. A. Richard. 


Contrary to our custom of recent years, we do not 
present our readers today with an Annual Review 
Number. The reasons for the change lie both in 
the business and editorial situation. As to the first, it 
may In- said that among technical journals the constant 
tendency of jecent years has been away from special 
numbers. Formerly such extra efforts were common 
and advertisers were continually importuned to furnish 
funds for some wonderful extra edition that was to secure 
marvelous publicity at a minimum of cost. Frankly. 
results have shown that this was a poor policy for both 
advertisers and publishers. Money spent spasmodically 
in advertising is ineffectively spent. It is persistent 
work that counts, since the benefits of advertising arc 
cumulative. The Press never went far in the field of 
special numbers, though it has several notable ones to 
its credit. From a business point of view, however, it 
is better for both publisher and advertiser that the work 
of making the best paper in the field should be Steady 
ami persistent. Instead of the best review number, it is 
our ambition to print the best paper each week in the 
52 that make up t he year. Other papers will in time 
follow this plan. We are merely adopting it first. From 
the editorial point of view the situation is similar. With 
a special Dumber in prospect, the tendency to save up 
special articles for it is strong. There is also the neces- 
sity, in order 'to round out' the number, to till in with 
padding and rehash. The most successful editor cannot 
obtain a notable review of each department in mining 
and have them all ready and all fresh, for the same 
week. The reason is obvious — nothing of consequence 
may have happened in some of the departments, and in 
others the man who should write the review may. for 
any one of a dozen reasons, be unavailable at that time. 
As for statistics, the significant figures iu many lines arc 
not available the first of January, some, such as iron ore 
shipments. Alaska gold output, and others, are already 
old. Many are not yet collected. Formerly certain 
journals made a great pretense of collecting their own 
figures. There was always but a small infusion of or- 
iginal matter, and for years all the technical journals 
have received, with a uniform release date, their most 
important figures, such as the estimates of gold and sil- 
ver production made by the Bureau of the Mint, and the 
admirable reviews of the industry now furnished by 
various geological surveys and mine inspectors, from 
public agencies open to all. The Press prints this 
week, and will print each week, such of this material 
as is available and authentic. It will also print through- 
out the year, and as time and writer come into happy 
coincidence, significant reviews of technical progress in 
various lines and of mining development in the numerous 
states and countries in which its readers live. These re- 
views will be authoritative and up to date. As evidence 
of good faith we publish in this number numerous brief 
reviews of districts, and a careful summary of progress 
in electric smelting, by Mr. Robert M. Keeney. 

1 n 2, Itflo 


PROGRSSH t.\ ' OPPKR US J il.l.i RU1 

The progress of copper metallurgy i* much like thai 
of tin- amoeba, a thrust forward cornea now al oiu point, 
now .ii another, but the Del reanlt ii that the whole 
liody progresses «i i> fairlj stead) rate. The eouditioiiN 
to be met change from month to month, and attcutiuu 
is directed now at one ael of conditions, oov al auotlmr. 
Today when everyone ii talking of hydro-metallurgical 
methods, n is hard to realise that a decade ago blast- 

furm innelting, now largely neglected, was a similarly 

absorbing topic. At that time the roasting <>t coppei 

ore »iis nothing like the fine art it has sin,-,- I ouu\ 

m>r had reverberators furnaces reached their preaeui 
stage nt' development, bo thai the heat efflcieney of h 

reverberatory furnace was low. Blast-furnace a Iting, 

with the ore in intimate contact with the fuel, was so 

much more efficient ami cheap that tallurgists were 

generally confident thai it would continue to hold the 
leading place. The ore deposits then worked aud the 
methods of mining then in vogue were such thai In m j> 
ore was abundant and the view Beamed justified. In 
the immediately preceding period blast-furnace smelt- 
ing had developed a problem through minin g operations 
(in inns! places penetrating to depths below the oxi- 
dized ht'-n. s.i thai the sulphur and iron content of the 
ore mixture became i"" high and the copper content 
of the resulting matte too low fur economical work. 
Copper metallurgists wen clever enough to perceive 
quickly thai if the sulphur and iron could be < >x i< li^.<-il 
in the blast-furnace they would furnish heat, thereby 
doing away with the necessity for an equivalent amount 
of coke, which is expensive, and besides, being bulky, 
displaces ore in the smelting zone and so cuts down 
daily capacity. Many bright minds addressed them- 
selves to the study of this problem, and it was not so 
lout: before an elaborate technology was worked out so 
thoroughly that, with an ore high enough in sulphur, 
it was found quite possible to smelt copper ore in the 
blast-furnace without using any coke at all. 

The successful smelting of copper ore in the blast- 
furnace without, the use of coke was a notable achieve- 
ment, and yet the economic advantage was largely nulli- 
fied by an extraneous circumstance which could scarcely 
have been foreseen. The period was one of rapidly in- 
creasing use of copper, and the geologists and mining 
engineers were busy in searching for new deposits of 
copper ores. They soon found that large deposits of 
material containing 25 to 50 pounds of copper per ton, 
in the form of disseminated sulphides, were available if 
any use could be made of them. Direct smelting of 
such ores was out of the question, but in the Lake Supe- 
rior region, ore of a like content had been, for many 
years, cheaply concentrated. It had not been supposed 
that such low-grade sulphide ores could be profitably 
concentrated, but properly directed experiments soon 
showed that they could, and that with large-scale, low- 
cost mining and milling a good operating profit could 
he made on the operation. But no blast-furnace could 

1) handle the resulting tin.h crushed *n 

lasting I (melting in rcverls ratoi 

ue ., phj sical neei nail) . Tins .In. 
Inward both theai opt md ii was 

le to reduce the coal ol roasting, improvi 
ml !■• increase the tonnage per 

■--. was made with the reverts i 

< i gee in the design increased ik thermal effl 

ami tonnage smelted, and tin- introduction of boilers 
into the tines lending away from the reverberator} made 

a great saving in tl ost of fuel. About tins i 

crude petroleum became abundant ami cheap, through 

other extraneous causes, and ils ii uel led to 

B 'her working ami cheaper costs if reg - 

where ils comparative COSl per ton. plus rolai 

coata, enabled it to supers,, I, al. The am t of Hue- 
dust made by a reverberator) is small, ami iis «: uy 

in this regard as compare, I to rehandling the abundant 
flue-dusi made by a blast furnace, coupled with the 
reductions in operating coats made by the improvements 
above iitioncd. soon put reverberator) smelting al- 
most on a par in operating cost with blast-1'urn; smelt- 
ing, ami the latter now oo longer enjoys the tremendous 
had ii so long possessed. Blast-furnace smelting, ex- 
cept as an adjunct to reverberatory smelting, thi I 
bids fair in the future progressively to decrease. 

The fine crushing to which Low-grade ore must be 
submitted to prepare it for concentration leaves it in 

a state of division most suitable for the application of 
liydrometallurgical processes, ami the tailing from such 
concentration may therefore be considered as material 

ready prepared for treatment on which all costs up to 

that point have already been paid. This gives to such 
processes an advantage not previously possessed, and 
a great amount Of study has been directed toward de- 
vising for low-grade copper ores some wet process that 
in cheapness, efficiency, and completeness of recovery 

might be ai least comparable with the cyanide process 

for gold. Notable progress has been made already in 
this endeavor, and the advance still continues. Oxidized 
ores, and low-grade ores which have not been subjected 
to concentration, will share in the benefits which such 
a process will bestow upon the treatment of Copper 
ores. All the work so far goes to indicate thai the 
leaching solution used in nearly every case will be a 
dilute solution of 1 1 , S < ) , . and the necessity for an abun- 
dant supply of cheap acid is likely to affect general 
smelting operations in such a way that the necessary 
sulphur may be recovered from the smelter fumes. This 
is fortunate for the smelter men, since of iveeui years 
they have been increasingly harassed by suits to recover 

for damages alleged to have been caused by the sulphur 
content of the escaping gases. Recent tendencies in 

copper metallurgy have therefore been the working of 
lower ami lower grade deposits, the devising of large- 
scale mining operations to reduce the cost, a tremendous 
growth in milling in order to reduce smelting costs, the 

necessary employment of reverberatory smelting, with 
improved technique, and lowered costs. 


Jannarv _> 1915 

Tfta© War smd ___© !L_©ir_dbir_ Miming Mairkelfc 

8r T. 4. RICHARD 

Sim-.- Angus! a state of war has existed in Europe and 
the following principal countries have been drawn 

1 llt<> it : 

Ureal Britain Gefmany 

France Austria 

Russia Hungary 

Belgium Turkey 


To these must be added the overseas dominions and 
colonies of the countries implicated : 

Canada German Southwest Africa 

Australia South Africa 

NVw Zealand Belgian Congo 

India Cameroons 

Egypt Togoland 

Samoa Angola 

Wcsi Africa Arabia 

Montenegro must be included; also Portugal, for the 
Germans have invaded Portuguese Easl Africa, while 
the titrli t i 1 1 tr at Kaiochan brings 
china into the arena. Naval op 
erations have taken place off the 

roasts of Iceland. South America. 

and Easl Africa, in the Persian 
gulf, and on the high seas gen- 
erally. In short, it is apparent 
that the fighting and devastation 
have spread over the whole map. 

It is a world-war. Mining is a 

world-wide industry. Therefore 
the conflict has produced st 

serious and highly complex results. 

Fortunately the mines whence 

Come the metals necessary I [. 

ern ways of living arc situate,! in- 
land, and chiefly in the mountains 
of the interior, in distant regions, 

so that they are far removed fr 

actual warfare. Europe is a con- 
sumer rather than a producer of the non-ferrous metals. 

The shock of war has destroyed a market rather than 
closed a source of a commodity essential to civilization. 

Immediately after the declarations of war. in the first 

week of August, the entire system of ocean transport 
was disorganized But that did not last long. Soon the 

British navy established control over the main trade 

routes and a resumption of maritime commerce became 

possible to the Allies and to neutral countries. Hut not 
without risk. Among the casualties of mining due to 

the war. may lie mentioned the loss of pumping ami 

hoisting machinery, together with converter parts, in- 
tended for the Bidder, Tanalyk, and Kyshtim mines in 
Siberia, all of which went to the bottom of the North 

Sea iii lie' Bruno, which was sunk by a floating mine in 
September. The Olan Qrant, sunk by the Emden's guns 

in the Indian ocean in Octoher. carried machinery and 
supplies for tlfe gold mines of the Kolar district, while 
the Troilus, another victim of the Emden, had a cargo 
of 925 tons of tin from the Straits Settlements. Sundry 
shipments ,d' copper — beginning. with that on the Kroon- 
inn,/, arrested at Gibraltar early in the war — have been 

stopped or delayed On their way from New York to Eu- 
ropean destinations. 

The dislocation of trade along the South American 
coast, due to the general internment of German ship- 
ping, and the later raids of one or two German cruisers. 
injured the mining industry of Chile. Peru, and Bolivia. 
Most of the nitrate works had to he closed: at Chu- 
quicamata delay was caused by the fact that orders for 
cement and machinery had been placed in Germany just 

before the war; in Bolivia the till mines ceased opera- 
tions until the government made arrangements to buy 

and to store the concentrate. Unquestionably, the 


Scale of MilM 

Railways _____ 

mining regions id' South America have fell the war 

Shipments of tin from Northern Nigeria ceased en- 
tirely during August on account of the use of the rail- 
ways for the transport of French troops and military 
supplies from Dahomey across Nigeria to the Cameroons. 
In the same way. copper mining in Namaqua-laml was 
hindered by operations against Raman's drift on the 
border of German Southwest Africa. On the other hand. 

the insurrectionary movement headed by De Wet and 
Beyers, in the Union of South Africa, had no immediate 
effect on the mining industry, especially id' the Rand. 
because the resulting military operations took place at 
a distance from the mines ; nor did this futile revolt 



- ipplj ol native labor to the Kami gold iniiui 

SiU i inn nun. - us injury Tin- mi 

of Russian mobilisation was t" withdraw 
ahoni a iinnl of the workmen, except in the Altai, where 
the nomadic Kirghii are employed, In October the ar 
Austrian priaonen of war, on parole, helped the 
mines t'««r man} of theei priaonen were allowed to ac- 
mployraent or nuns,., the building of new plant 
Innl tw cease, on account of the delay in shipments ■•< 
machinery . development work underground also had to 
he curtailed; but production proceeded mueh as usual. 

I ause the metals Bnd s d< stio in.Mrk.-i. Gold, of 

course, is readily absorbed; but copper also, the Rus 
sian import-tax serving ss a bounty, which makes the 
price ..I copper about "Jin:; per ton to the Siberian pro 
(hirers. So far, the war lias dime hut little direct harm 

to Russian mining, ami we shall !>>• surprised if th >n 

clusian of peace dues not cause fresh friendly attention 
to he given to operations, in Siberia more particularly. 

Gold Prodi ction i\n ink \v u; 

As regards gold, it is a fortunate fact that Europe 
yields less than 1', of the world's production. Of the 
total. t»-5' , .-onifs from regions under the British flag. 

chiefly the Transvaal ami Australia, while I s ' B 

from the I'nited States, None of the Russian output is 
derived from regions anywhere near the arena of war. 
To promoti uninterrupted production in the British 
dominions, the government arranged with the Bank of 
England to advance 97$ of the value of the gold when 
deposited at local hanks, the remaining •!',' being ad- 
justed subsequently, after the bullion had 1 o shipped 

to London, this being postp il until it could be done 

safely, under convoy. Thus English mining companies 
were able to realize upon their gold in London. The 
American and Siberian gold mining districts were not 
affected by the war. each having an ample domestic 
market for their precious produce. A more immediate 
danger was a shortage of supplies, such as cyanide, zinc, 
and drill-steel, as well as machinery parts. The South 
African mines had been obtaining fully 60% of their 
cyanide from Germany, the total consumption on the 
Kami alone in 1913 being over 10.000.000 lb. of that 
chemical, representing an expenditure of $2,120,000. 
Other gold mining districts were, wholly or partly, de- 
pendent on German manufacture. However, an ade- 
quate supply was soon assured from Scotland, as re- 
gards the major demands, while successful efforts were 
likewise made at New York for an increase in the do- 
mestic output, concurrently with the release, through 
Holland, of some of the stock accumulated in Germany. 
Fortunately; the disorders in .Mexico had diminished 
the requirements of the silver mines, otherwise the 
scarcity in the United States and Canada would have 
heeu more pronounced. Zinc, in sheet form, for making 
the shaving used in the precipitation of gold, was an- 
other prime requisite. The supply, for South Africa 
particularly, suffered from the closing of the Belgian 
and Herman smelters, hut the relatively small quantity 

required in ryanidation was soon forthcoming, chiefly 
from the I nited Stat.-, 

< opper has played an important pan iu the war, not 
only as a metal i mar) to the manufacture "i arm- 
ament and munitions, bnj .is trsband causing fric 

tion between neutrals and belligerents Among the 1st 
ii-i-, Russia is the biggest producer of copper, her output 

of 15,000 inns being whollj absorbed in domestic Tin pper mines, of UaiiBfeld and Ram 

inelsberg contribute about 25,000 inns to the German 
consumption of 250,000 ions per annum. England con 
suines 1 10,000 tons of copper and produces none, while 
Prance uses 100,000 tons, all of which is imported. The 
United States yn-lds 550,000 tons, or slightly more than 
half the world's total production of this metal, and con- 
sumes 340,000 tons: B0 that an export of 210,000 tons 
is required to maintain the normal level of output. 

Owing to the loss of the German market, besides the 
general slackening of world-wide industry, involving a 

lessened .-oiisuiii| it ion of copper, by no means compen- 
sated by the use of it in war apparatus, tl pper iniu- 

ing industry of America has suffered severely. For a 

while Holland served as a side door into Germany, the 

shipments to Rotterdam in September amounting to 

5500 Ions of copper, as against a normal annual eon- 
sumption in Holland of 1000 tons only. The subsequent 
closing of the North Sea, owing to the presence of mines, 
has closed this market. As the war proceeds the em- 
bargo on contraband is becoming more effective, and 
more irritating to neutral countries desiring to continue 
business with belligerents. This, however, was antici- 
pated in America as early as August, at which time the 
larger copper mines reduced their operations to half- 
capacity, while many of the smaller mines ceased pro- 
duction entirely. At the same time the decline in the 
price of the metal from 13%C. in July to 11' |i-. in 
October, tended further to restrict output. This result 
is due mainly to the closing of I In- German ports, that 
country consuming one-quarter of the world's entire 
copper production. Meanwhile, the corresponding drop 
in the London price of copper, from £65 in June to £51 
in Oetoher. has compelled most of the Australian copper 
mines to curtail production or to cease operations en- 
tirely. The Mount Morgan. Wallaroo & Moonta, and 
Mount Lyell are working on half-scale. The Hampden- 
Cloncurry and other mines in Queensland have had to 
shut down owing to a suspension of selling contracts. 
Indeed the dependence of the Australian copper indus- 
try on the German market is strikingly emphasized. 

Zinc Mining .and Smelting Upset 

As regards lead and zinc, the invasion of Belgium 
and the belligerency of Germany have stopped the 
smelting of the Broken Hill concentrates that formerly 
went to Belgium, Rhenish Prussia, and Silesia. This 
means the temporary cessation of an important, industry 
in Europe and the crippling of an equally important 
industry in Australia. The mines at Broken Hill in 
1913 yielded 525,000 tons of concentrate containing 45% 



January 2, 1913 

zinc and 5', lead, representing therefore 236,250 tons 
of metallic zinc and 26,250 tons of lead. This output 
was accompanied, as a part of the ore-dreasing oper- 
ation-, by the- production of 350,000 tons of leail con- 
centrate, carrying 65$ lead and 6< , zinc, containing 
therefore 227,500 ions of lead, with 21,000 tons of non- 
rable zinc. 
Naturally mining operations at Broken Hill were 
disorganized as soon as the war severefl communi- 
cation with the European smelters to which this big 
production had been consigned. Of the total output of 
-end-ate only 21,000 tons was being treated else- 
where, namely 12.000 tons by the Broken Hill Propri- 
etary Companj at Tort I'irie. in South Australia, and 
9000 tons by the Central Zinc Company at Seaton 
Carew, in England. Of the lead concentrate, the Tort 
I'irie smelter was receiving 170.000 tons, while 30.000 
tons was consigned to the Sulphide Corporation's smel- 
ter at Cockle I 'reek, in New South Wales. Thus 500.000 
ions of 45', zinc concentrate and 150,000 tons of 65$ 
lead concentrate were being treated in Europe, and of 
this grand total only 9000 tons of zinc concentrate was 
diverted from Belgium and Germany. 


During September an arrangement was made whereby 
the Port Pirie smelter undertook to treat only one-half 
the Broken Hill Proprietary's output and was thereby 
enabled to accept the production of the North, South. 
and Zim- Corporation mines, each of which, as well as 
the Proprietary, is working on half-time. The British 
Broken Hill is shut down. The Cockle Creek smelter 
has been unable to accept any tonnage except the output 
of its affiliated mine, namely, the Central, belonging to 
the Sulphide Corporation. 

The enforced idleness of the German and Belgian 
smelters also affected the Bawdwin mine of the Burma 
Corporation, which had just begun to ship its complex 
zinc-lead ore to Rotterdam, for the German smelters. 
It also affected the Sardinian. Algerian, and Spanish 

zine ore and CO nfrate that formerly went to Belgium: 

and the Bolivian tin concentrate, a large part of which 
used to go to Essen and Hamburg, both in Germany. 

Sundry schemes For the erection of a zine smelter in 
England, together with serious^alk of building a large 
lead plant, have not come to fruition, largely on account 
of adverse monetary conditions, but several groups of 

experienced financiers have the matter under considera- 
tion. It remains to be seen whether the war will last 
long enough to effect a permanent transfer of industry. 
As Great Britain consumes exactly the amount of zinc 
that is contained in the concentrate shipped from Broken 
Hill, it would seem advantageous to extract that /ile- 
al a domestic smelter, seeing that the fuel. clay, and 
labor are available. Indeed, the further erection of a 
lead smelter Adjacent to a zinc plant commends itself 

oi onomic and polities] grounds. 

line immediate result of the war is to lay bar.- the 
fact that the German metal companies ami their asso- 
ciated smelters have obtained a big control of the metal 
trade in London. Most of the Australian lead and cop- 
per companies have been tied to them, while the price 
of zinc has been manipulated by the cartel to such an 
extent as to constitute a scandal. Indeed, the English 
mine operators are becoming aware now to what a sur- 
prising degree the German metal merchants and brok- 
ers, together with their New York allies, have gained 
a hold on the big business of buying and selling 
metals. Obviously any glaring abuse of this control can 
be rectified by insistence, on the part of the mining 
companies, upon the inclusion of a clause in their con- 
tract specifying that the final adjustment of payment 
shall be made on the price at which the metal recovered, 
from the ore or concentrate, is actually sold. At present 
both the miner and the consumer are the easy victims 
of the broker who speculates on the rise and fall of 
metals with an unfair knowledge of the conditions affect- 
ing the market. 

Speculation Killed by Wab 

War has killed speculation in mining shares, ami it 

lias put a quietus on the promotion of new enterprises. 

Tin- pun that floating mines in the North Sea engage 
more attention than the floating of mines in the City 
is inevitable, because it conveys a fundamental fact. 
The great industry of mining, however, proceeds in 
every quarter of the globe, except where the warring 
hosts are assembled. A productive gold mine is today 
the most liquid of assets. The metals are still wanted, 
and will be wanted in increased quantity as soon as 
hostilities cease. Material civilization is built with them. 
When this abnormality of organized murder is ended, 
the peoples of the earth will return with intensified 
ardor to the expansion of those peaceful industries tKat 
depend so largely upon the produce of the mine, 

Gold recovered from 873,635 ou. yd. of gravel at the 
Lena. Siberia, from Gctober 1. 1913, to September 30, 
1914, totaled :(70.25(i oz.. worth £i;391,532. A further 
t108.61s was saved from slag and outside purchases 
making a total value of £1,500,150 ($7,200,000). 

Gold output of British Guiana, South America. For 
the current year ti> November .">. was $!»:!7.6:56. compared 
with .+1.1 67.24b' in that period of 1913. The diamond 
yield was 9517 and 9941 carats, respectively. 



Arizouna Copper's M@w Sinn®lihD!mg Plairaft 

The Arizona Copper Co., Ltd., one of tl t « 1 and well 

established coppar companies of the Southwest, com- 
pleted mid put into operation last year a smelting plant 
that is in many particulars ;> model of the- best modern 
practice. Through tin- courtesy of Norman Carmichael, 
general manager, we present a aumber of views of the 
plant. Tin- tdal cost was $2,100,000. A detailed state- 
ment of construction costs was prepared by E. Hm-ton 
Jones, the constructing engineer. An abstract, with 
Sow-sheet of the works, was printed in the Press, August 
S. L. 1'. Bicketts, as consulting engineer, was responsi- 
r the design, ami Repath & McGregor drew the 
plans. While ample space has been left for blast-fur- 
naces, smelting is for tin- present conducted entirely in 
oil-fired reverberatories. Steel and concrete have been 
used liherally in construction. 

There are three reverberatory furnaces, eighl Herres- 

lioff roasters, and three stands of converters. Tin- whole 
plant is designed so as to have ample capacity in reserve 

and so insure continuity of operation. It is served by 

tla Arizona & New Mexico railroad, and within the 

works there are I'o miles of electric trolley road ami 
about four miles of standard-gage steam road. The 

plant is on the San Francisco river about two miles be- 
low Clifton. The Company owns eight producing mines 
;it Morenci, Metcalf, Longfellow, Garfield, and Coronado. 

Over III) pel cent of the ore treated comes from the 

cent nitors. Such coarse ore as comes from the mines is 
crushed and sampled before treatment. In addition to 
the smelter the Company operates a leaching plant for 
treatment of oxidized ores and has been the pioneer in 
much good work. 





January j. 191"i 



Power from waste-heat 
boilers is supplied for the 
smelter ami for transmission 
to the mines. The boilers 
are Stirling '-lass M No. 
26 water-tube. Curtis tur- 
bines furnish current at 
13,200 volts, for transmis- 
sion to the mine ami the 
current taken at 440 volts 
for general use and 110 for 
lighting around the works. 
Connersville rotary pumps 
circulate water for tin- tur- 
bines. Nordberg blowing 
engines furnish air to the 
converters. They are cross- 
compound, duplex, steam 
cylinders being 22 by 42 in., 
and air cylinders 44 by 42. 
They are designed for steam 

at 160-lb. pressure and 7.V 
superheat and each engine 
compresses 10,000 eu. ft. to 
12 lb., at 71 r.p.m. Guar- 
anteed steam consumption is 
1.1 lb. per 100 eu. ft. of air. 

\l < INK lij^i !IAK<iK. 

After sampling, the ore 
goes to bedding piles from 
which it is reclaimed as 

needed and sent to the 
roasting department, over 
a -Merrick weightometer. 
Herreshoff air-cooled fur- 
naces are used. These fur- 
naces have six roasting 
hearths and one for drying. 
They are of 21 1 * ft. diam- 
eter. 18 ft. high, and each 
requires 3 lip. and 2400 eu. 
ft. of air per minute at 1 :; , 
<)/.. pressure. The air is fur- 
nished by Buffalo fans 
driven by General Electric 

motors. The capacity of 
the roasters is 70 to 100 
tons per day. The dust goes 
to a 48 by chamber 
with double hopper bottom 
and 1325 sq. ft. cross-sec- 
tion. In it pieces of No. 10 
steel wire and %-in. chains 
are suspended, tic wire on 
4-in. centres. 



J |01j 



There are three 22 l>y 
IOO ft. reverberatories, of 
which one is held in reserve. 
They have the usual sil 
ifa bottom ami axe fettled 
through holes in the roof, 
using silicons ore. Con- 
verter by-prodncts as well 
as silic-inus ore are brought 
to the furnace in small cars 
running on track over each 
side of the furnace. Each 
furnace has two matte tap- 
holes from which malic is 
drawn into 20-ton cast 
steel ladles. Slag is taken 

away in TreadweU slag 

cars hauled ami tilted by 
electricity. Oil is fed by 
the Wilgus system, and 
tank capacity is sufficient 
to permit careful measure- 
ment and recording of the 
amount of oil used by each 
furnace. The reverhera- 
tories furnish heat to Seven 
boilers of 712 hp. each. 



There are three eon 
verter stands, an. I tour 12 

ft. Upright Allis I'lialmers 

shells. Tl onverters are 

lined with tnagnesite 
bricks, and are built with 
15-in. vertical distance 

from the botto f the 

dished portion to the tuy- 
eres. Matte is brought to 
the converters in 12-ton 
ladles, handled by means 
of Morgan cranes. Each 
crane is of 40-ton ca- 
pacity and has a 15-tOn 
auxiliary hoist. Work is 

expedited by storing sili- 
cious ore so it may be 
spouted direct into the 
converters. There is a 
separate chamber for con- 
verter dust. It is 2.") by 
130 ft. and is hung with 
steel wires and chains as in 
the larger chamber. Cop- 
per is cast in two straight- 
line casting machines. 






Apjplicaftioira ©IF Eledbriic Motors to G©lell Dr@dl| 


\ gold dredge is a pieee of machinery designed to 

old bearing gravel, sand, or elay, and to treat the 

materia] so dug in such a way as to recover the gold 

content. It. accordingly, consists essentially of two 

parts, one the digging part, and the other the gold- 

ig part. 

1 1 lrd Sebj ice m Dredging 

l-'niii) the point nt' view of the application of electric 
power, the digging end is of particular interest, ;is the 
mechanical requirements are severe and the speed con- 
trol must in- exceptionally good. The gold-saving end 
does not differ very materially as to motor applications 
from those of the usual metal mining mills, except pos- 
sibly that tlif equipment is exposed to a tittle more 
abuse and thai compact methods of drive are necessi- 

Electric power has been applied very generally of 
late hi the driving of gold dredges, owing to its con- 
venience and economy. Of the $88,400,000 worth of 

gold produced last year ill the United States, nearly ;i 

fifth ca iv dredges, and in view of the fact that 

gold is being recovered by means of dredges in prac- 
tically all of the Western states, in most of which local- 
ities hydro-electric central-station power is available, a 
(rw remarks regarding the essential characteristics of 

successful motor drive may 1 E interest. 

In designing electrical apparatus and applying it to 
gold dredging, the electrical engineer is often too | 
to approach tin- problem from the point of view that 
i In dredge should he designed particularly to permit 
of tin- most favorable application of electrical apparatus. 
A successful dredge is primarily designed to make 
money. Electric drive is merely an incident in the 
i i icess, so that, while it is unquestionably often ad- 

IgeOUS to modify the ordinary dredge design so 

;is better to accommodate it to the characteristics of 
the electric drive, nevertheless the fact should not be 
lost sight of that the electric drive is simply an inci- 
dent to effect economy, and that other considerations 
i of greater importance than the most advan- 
tageous installation of a particular type of motor in a 
partii i uner. 

In considering how electric drive ran help the dredge 

ney, the following factors enter into the total 

charge against the electric plant: (1) Interest on in- 
vestment, which is affected by the firsl cost of any par- 
ticular arrangement; (2) power charges, which are 
affected by the efficiency of the motors and the system 
of control; (3) maintenance charges, which are affected 
by the type of apparatus chosen ; and (4 delay charges, 
which may he very seriously affected by proper or im- 
proper application. 

'Abstract from Transactions of Am. Inst. Elec. Engineers. 

As stuted above, the gold-saving end of a dredge does 
noi offer any particularly great problems in the appli- 
cation "I :lertrir drive. A motor is required to drive 
either ii shaking or revolving screen, which removes 
the coarse rock from the liner gold-hearing sand and 
gravel, This motor may he either geared or belted to 
the screen. Gearing is preferable on account of its sav- 
ing in space, lint belt drive is preferable as far as the 
motor is concerned on account of the damping effect 
upon the vibration incident to the screening operations. 
Squirrel-cage motors are generally used for this purpose 
and an' entirely successful, but some designers advo- 
cate motors with phase-wound secondaries in order to 
reduce the strain at starting. The writer is inclined to 
favor the squirrel-cage motor on account of its freedom 
from details which may increase the maintenance charge. 

All of the gravel and sand which passes through the 
screen must be washed in order to obtain the gold from 
it. and for this purpose a considerable volume of water 
must be pumped. Centrifugal pumps are usually used 
on account of the low head and large volume to be 
handled, and these are best driven by direct-connected 
squirrel-cage motors. Apart from those features which 
tend to reduce the maintenance charge, such as adequate 
insulation, adequate air gap and adequate bearings, the 
efficiency of these pump motors deserves consideration 
as the amount of total power used by the dredge for 
pumping is very considerable, usually as high as 40%, 
and sometimes higher. 

Hanoi, ixc the Tailing 

The tailing or residue that is sorted out by the screen 
must In- removed to some distance from the hull of the 
dredge so that it will not pile up under the hull and 
strand the dredge. Two methods of taking care of this 
material are in use. One, the less common, is to pass 
the waste down a chute, helping its progress with a 
stream of water. The other, and by far the more com- 
mon, method is to employ a belt-conveyor running out 
of the back end of the dredge for a distance of INI ft. 
or more, which conveyor is commonly referred to in 
dredge practice as a stacker. This stacker is motor 

driven. The service is reasonably severe, owing to 

the fad that the motor is usually at the far end of the 
stacker and therefore often exposed to the weather, and 
also due to the fact that when the stacker has been at 
rest, considerable torque is required to start it loaded. 
Tu cold climates, a stacker when at rest is often likely 
to freeze, due to the moisture contained in the waste 
being carried by it. Starting under these conditions is 
particularly arduous, and in some places this trouble 
is overcome by putting the stacker in a continuous can- 
vas tent like a tunnel and passing steam pipes from a 
little Low-pressure heating boiler up inside this tent. 




minim; i'ki SS 

Thin again inaki's hi'.- hard for the motoi ■ n 

tun vaporised by the heal of the steam pipe* ri 

i- in. I of the stacker where the motor Is situated, 
.in. I there often condenses on t li>- motor wheuever that 

machine is shul down and allowed to »l, Accordingly, 

a motor for stacker service should primarily be designed 
with adequate insulation to resist continued moisture, 

and in some cases drip guards have advantageously I n 

placed over the ventilating openings in the motor. 
S(|uirrol-cage motors with heavy torque characteristics 
have been used successfully tor stacker drive, l>ut the 
general tendencj is to us.- motors with phase-wound in order in obtain a good starting torque. Here 
again is the question whether complications of s phase 
wound motor are justifiable, and in my opinion 
11 is probably preferable to use a squirrel-cage motor 

designed for g 1 torque characteristics, with possibly 

,i trifle more resistance in the secondary circuit than 
is found in standard Bquirrel-cage induction motors. A 
stacker motor is comparatively small compared with the 
total motor installation on the dredge, ami a slight loss 
in efficiency on such a small anil is more than offset 
by a saving in maintenance. 

The Digging End 

The application of electric power to that portion of 
the mechanism used for digging, is a much greater prob- 
lem than anything met with in connection with the 
other applications on the dredge. 

Power is required at the digging end primarily for 
driving the bucket chain, but some power is also re- 
quired for lifting and lowering the ladder and for oper- 
ating the devices that pull or hold the dredge up against 
the bank so that the buckets will bite into their work. 
Ordinary winches similar to those often used on sea- 
going Vessels are used for these purposes. The duty of 
the motors is entirely akin to ordinary hoisting service 
and of very intermittent nature. An intermittent rated 
wound-rotor motor with high torque characteristics is 
successfully used. 

The drive of the bucket chain is the real problem 
on the dredge, and no system that has ever as yet been 
devised has proved itself entirely free from all objec- 
tions. For one thing, power requirements are at times 
excessive, and vary through a wide range. Accurate 
speed control is also essential. Good economy is of 
importance on account of the comparative size of the 
digging motor compared with the rest of the installation 
(in this connection it might be stated that the digging 
motor is usually from 35 to £5% of the total motor 
capacity on the dredge). Greatest of all is the problem 
of adequate and successful mechanical connection be- 
tween the motor itself and the bucket chain. 

The power requirements for driving the bucket chain 
under ordinary conditions may be calculated reason- 
ably close when the size of buckets, the number of 
buckets handled per minute, and the type of ground 
to be dug are taken into consideration. The following 
table gives some fairly typical test results. 

me Input 



ii. |( KM 

Natomi u :i too 


in tt Idaho 
Con re j , it 140 

mi. . ted chalni ordinal 

However, should oi f the buckets in a bucket chain 

encounter a boulder of larger size than it can handle, 

the demand mi the motor is ii liately increased, and 

inaj even cause the motor to pull out if do protective 
devices sre provided. Also, if the buckets run into 
particularly sticky day in the course of their digging, 
the load mi the motor may be very much increased, 

and as such a condition is seldom momentary, tl on 

tinuity of the overload may hum out tin- motor unless 
the speed of .liL'.-'ing is reduoed. 

In addition to these requirements, during ■ 1 1 j-rj-ri i i s^ the 
motor drive must also he capable of revolving the bucket 

chain slowly at no load lor the purpose of repairing the 

1 kets. inspecting the chain, and similar work required 

for the purpose of mechanical maintenance. 

The bucket chain is driven through a hexagonal spin- 
dle at the top of the ladder, over which spindle the 
buckets pass. Each one of the flat sides of this spindle 
or tumbler, as it is termed, engages with a correspond- 
ing flat side on the under side of the bucket, and the 
drive is accordingly a positive drive, just like any chain 
drive would lie. If the tumbler turns, the bucket chain 
has got to move or break. It cannot slip. An adequate 
and successful method of transmitting power from the 
driving motor to the tumbler has been the source of 
considerable study by dredge designers the world over. 

Belt Versus Geab Drive 

The tumbler shaft usually carries two pinions, one on 
each side, which engage with two gear wheels carried 
on a common shaft. This shaft is connected through 
an adjustable slipping friction to another drive shaft 
by means of gearing, and the motor drives the last - 
named shaft. It may lie either belted or geared to 
this shaft. Belting the motor is. of course, the easier 
on the electrical apparatus, but on the other hand, has 
certain disadvantages. A large and expensive belt is 
required on account of the tremendous torques involved. 
There are sometimes difficulties due to maintenance. 
because of the moisture that is often present on board 
a dredge. The belt sometimes slips just when maximum 
torque is wanted. Occasionally, under the heavy st less 
due to the slipping friction having rusted, a belt will 
break. Also, a belt transmission for the transmission 
of the torques involved, takes up considerable space, and 
spare on a dredge is valuable. 

On the other hand, gearing, while economical in space 
and entirely positive in action, lias the disadvantage 
that it imposes severe service on the electrical equip- 



January 2, 1915 

ment, in thai every strain and every vibration from 
the bucket chain finds its way back to the revolving 
part of the motor. Flexible couplings have been tried 
between the motor and the driving gear, bu1 without buc- 
The large variations in torque encountered, sooner 
or later ruin any type of flexible coupling that has as 
yet been tried. The gear drive has. however, proved 

entirely successful where B motor has been secured that 

will adequately withstand tbi stresses. Of the two 
methods, bell v. '-'ear drive, each has its ardent devotees, 
advantages and its disadvantages. 

Motors fob Digging Service 

Prom a consideration of the above, it will be seen 
that the motor required for digging service on an ele- 
vator dredge must have the following characteristics: 

a It must l»- a varying-speed machine; and it' in 
addition it can l»- made an adjustable-speed machine, 
this would he a considerable advantage. 

/. It must 1 apable of being revolved at light 

loads anil very low speeds. 

It must be capable of developing a maximum 
torque, at any speed from zero to approximately full- 
load speed, of several times its normal rated torque. 
id it must he capable of carrying, for prolonged 

periods of hard digging, a torque overload of approxi- 
mately 2:")'; at a speed reduction of probably 25 per 


It must he of substantial mechanical construc- 
tion, particularly as to shaft and hearings, in order to 
resist a heavy belt pull when belt drive is used, m re 
peated shocks of severe gear thrusts when gear drive is 

f it must he reasonably efficient. 
In order to obtain all of the above characteristics, it 
has often been suggested that a direct-current motor 

of the type used in steel mills, with possibly variable- 
voltage speed control, might prove advantageous for dig- 
ging service on big gold dredges. However, every in- 
vestigation that has been made i at least to my knowl- 
edge) of this matter has developed the fact thai the 
losses in efficiency due to the conversion from alternat- 
ing current to direct current, practically offset the ad- 
vantages gained by more flexible control under the ordi- 
nary cycle of operation, and further, the first cost of 
such an installation is prohibitive, considering the ordi- 
nary life of a dredging venture. In this connection it 
might lie stated that, while there are exceptions, the 
average dredge is about worn out at the end of 10 years, 
and will then require either complete rebuilding ami 
remodeling, or will operate with so many shut-downs 
due to breakages and the like, that rebuilding or scrap 
ping will prove most economical. Accordingly, any in- 
stallation more expensive than ordinary must show a 

saving that will repay the extraordinary expense in 10 

years, and this no combination of direct-current equip- 
ment has as yet been able to shcAv. 

Therefore, the only type of motor left available is the 
moderate speed wound-rotor induction type, and for the 

most successful application the motor should In- designed 
with special reference to the work it has to do. 

Type of Motor Recommended 

From experience with the troubles of a dozen dredges. 
large and small. 1 would recommend specifications 
embodying the following: 1 The motor should lie 

capable of tarrying rated load continuously with a 

rise not to exc 1 40° in any part. (2) The motor 

should he capable of developing a torque 25$ in excess 

of its rated full load torque at a speed of ".V, of its 
synchronous speed, for a period of two hours, with a 
rise not to exceed 55 . ■ ' The motor should have a 
maximum torque and a starting torque of not less than 
l>.."> times its full-load torque. (4) The shaft shall be 
of such material and dimensions that strains due to 
the developing of maximum torque shall not appreciably 
affect the dimensions of the air gap on any side of the 
motor. (5) The bearings shall be designed to resist an 
upward thrust, and shall preferably be of the design 
known as rolling-mill bearings furnished with stud bolts 
and lock nuts, instead of the usual design employing 
cap screws. (6*1 The lubrication of the bearings shall 
be adequate. On motors of 200 hp. and over, at least 
two oil rings per motor bearing are recommended. On 
motors of 500 hp. and over, the use of gravity feed lubri- 
cation should be considered. 

The problem of control of large motors used for dig- 
ging service on gold dredges would be more simple if 
direct-current motors could economically be used. As. 
however, their use is impractical, the control for alter- 
nating-current motors that most nearly approaches 
direct-current control is desirable. The control musl 
permit reversing the direction of the motor, principally 
to permit the bucket line being backed away from ob- 
structions. For servi luring the repair of the bucket 

line small variations in speed should be obtainable, 
particularly at part loads. A control permitting con- 
tinued running at low-speed points is particularly nec- 

Magnet-Switch t Iontrol 

For small motors on little dredges, say employing a 
digging motor of 100 hp. or less, the ordinary drum- 
type controller proves adequate. For larger installa- 
tions, a combination of magnet switches controlled by 
a master controller has been used in a large number 
of installations; but for the larger motors the ideal 
control seems to be the liquid rheostat. 

.Magnet-switch control has been used satisfactorily on 
a considerable number of dredges employing digging 
motors as large as -too hp. The large fleet of big 
dredges operated in California by the Natomas Consoli- 
dated mostly employ magnet-switch control on dredges 
having digging motors of 300 hp. and larger. It has. 
however, several distinct disadvantages for dredge serv- 
ice. The principal disadvantage is that a limited num- 
ber of definite points only are available with this type 
of control, unless the number of magnet switches in 




irvuil is u which m lurn malm 

ontroller inordinately expenaii 
variation particularly »i light loads, i- nol 

available with this type of oontrol, and In order lo 
nhiain slow movenienl of the bucket chain ii ic 
Inmar; ill.- motor iiml then ping it, with 

atriiin on nil mechanical parte, aa well ;,- 
on the >-"iii r.'l Farther, this type of control 

>t allow the dredge operator to pick <>ut any par 
ticular speed .ii which he desires to ran Se can onlj 
pick .1 particular poinl on the oontroller, and thi 
responding motor speed "ill depend on the torque being 
exerted by the motor 

Another disadvantage of this type of i trol is the 

tremendous amount of resistance required for a large 
motor, as the resistance mum in- sufficient in amount 

to permit very low motor sp la at light Inn, is. and 

large enough in capacity to permit continuous operation 

ai reduced s| la with heavy torques. This makes a 

bulky resistance, and unless the resistance is large 
enough there is considerable danger from overheating 
of the grids starting a conflagration. 

Liquid Rheostat Control 

The lii|iiiil rheostat for digging-motor control h;is. on 
the other band, none of the disadvantages of the mag 
netic switch control. There are no definite Bteps, and 
tin- speed of the motor may be varied by infinite grada- 
tions. The operiitur simply moves the rheostat handle 
until he obtains the speed he desires. In other words, 
he doea UOl work lor any particular point on the rheo- 
stat, lint works simply with the idea of getting the 
sp,.,.,l he wants. For large motors, the liquid rheostat. 
and its accessories take up much l<-ss room than would 
a corresponding magnetic switch control and its attend- 
ant resistance, and there is never any danger of the 
electrolyte used i water and common washing soda I caus- 
ing a conflagration. 

I low ,-ver. the liquid rheostat for use on dredges must 
In- modified from the forms commonly used for hoist 
service and the like on land. The first liquid rheostat 
installed in died};,- service- was on one of the Natomas 
dredges with a 400-lip. motor, and while it was opera- 
tive, it was not entirely satisfactory, because certain 
,-ssential details of design and application were over- 
looked. A similar liquid rheostat on which these de- 
tails have been given due attention is now being used 
on one of the dredges of the Conrey Placer Mining Co., 
and has been quite successful and satisfactory in oper- 
ation with a 550-hp. digging motor, which I believe is 
the largest digging motor on any elevator-type gold 
dredge in operation today anywhere. 

In order to keep down the size of the liquid rheostat 
for this work, it is practically necessary to provide some 
means of artificial cooling for the electrolyte. Usually 
this is accomplished by circulating cooling water through 
the coils in the rheostat tank. On the Natomas rheostat 
the mistake was made of pumping water from the pond 
in which the dredge floats through these cooling coils. 

I > 

usually pi, tt) muddy, and ol 

s.,h, is in ii,, ihapo ol silt a i S'al 
I tlu inside of the cooling pipi lucing 

then- effectiveness and eventually clogging them up. 

itatiug a abut-down while they wen hlowi i 

with compressed air. Shut-downs on ■ dn 
money, because to realize the greatest return on ihe 
investment the dredge must i„ digging all the lime, 
therefore, tins feature made the Natoit . ,i on 

able, At the Conrey Placer Mining Uo 'a property 

11 ling system consist i i< i ol pipe - oils im 

i in the pond, and the electrolyte la pump, d 
the rheostat tank through the coils and back again, in 

stead of pumping pond water up to the tank ami through 

H> il* installed therein, Then- has never been a shul 

down on the Conrey dredge due to the rl stat or its 

cooling system, The motion of the dredge in the i I 

is sufficient tO k.-,-p silt from settling on H„- cooling 


Another point that was overlooked in the Nat ,,^ 

installation was the fact that dredges swing, and often 
rock considerably. This causes the electrolyte to splash 
out of the rheostat. Usually such loss by splashing was 

replaced by pouring in additional water, but this, of 
eoiirse. changed the density of the electrolyte and caused 
the operators some trouble. On the Conrey rheostat, 
baffle-plates and en, -losing covers were supplied, which 

effectually prevented any splash. 

Another trouble that was experienced at Natoms was 

that, due to deficiencies in the cooling system mention,', I 

above, tin- electrolyte very often attained a high tem- 
perature during hard work, which caused excessive evap- 
oration. Under certain conditions this evaporation was 
so great that the annoyance and expense of bringing 
the amount of fresh replacing water required on the 
dredge and filling the rheostat was considerable. This 
trouble has been obviated at the Conrey installation by 
having an adequate cooling system. 

All in all, it may be said that for large digging motors 
of say 350 bp. and more, the liquid rheostat makes an 
ideal method of control, provided the rheostat is of ade- 
quate mechanical construction for the service and is 
provided with a proper and sufficient cooling system. 
Both liquid rheostat and magnet switch control may be 
arranged to give the same advantages as to protection 
against acceleration at too high a rate and against ex- 
cessive overload due to sudden changes in speed. 

Small Economies Necessary 

It will probably he gathered from the above remarks 

that the successful application of electrical apparatus 

to gold dredging operations depends on a multiplicity 

of details, each of which may be of comparatively mi 

importance in itself, and this is true. With the areas 
that are now still available for dredging, a multitude 
of small economies must be practised in order to make 
the process commercially successful. When it is con- 
sidered that many dredges dig for about 4 to 5c. per 



January 2. L915 

••u. yd., and that the gold content of the ground often 
runs as low as 7c. per on. yd., it can readily be Been 
that a matter of le. economy or waste may make or 
break the concern doing the dredging. Therefore, main- 
tenance deserves consideration. Bnl most of all, free- 
dom from shut-downs is of pri importance. The 

dredge cat t make money while it is not digging: but 

interest, not only on the money invested in the dredge, 
but "ii the money invested in tli<- purchase price of the 
land that is being dredged, goes on just the same, and 
therefore stoppages must be avoided at any reasonable 
cost, and this should be particularly borne in mind in 
lection and application of the electrical apparatus 
and its control. 

A digging motor that may be of sufficient capacity, 
but cannot be adequately controlled, may break a bucket 
chain and put the dredge out of business for 24 hours. 
Ordinarily, dredge operators figure on operating 24 

hours a day. :)65 days a year: and a. fair average is 
to expect the dredge to lie actually performing its oper- 
ations for ,s.V; of the total time. 

i in account of the high load factor, ami on account 
of the comparative uniformity of a large percentage of 
the load, as well as on account of the comparatively 
large Mocks in which the power is purchased, dredges 

make a particularly attractive load for hydro-electric 
central stations, and a few figures as to the power con- 
sumption of dredges may 1»- of interest in this connec- 

Moderate size dredges with buckets of about ■"> to 7.5 
fii. ft. capacity will handle from 60,000 to 100,000 yd. 
per month, at a power consumption of from 1.25 to 1.75 
kw-hr. per en. yd. Larger dredges with buckets up to 
L5 CU. ft. capacity will dig from 125,000 to 250,000 on. 
yd. per month, and will take from 1 to 1.5 kw-hr. per 
cu. yd. The large dredge of the Conrey company, men- 
tioned above, which has buckets of 17 cu. ft. capacity 

I believe the largest in the world), has handled 52(1 

cu. yd. of material per running hour. Including delays, 
this means 325,000 CU. yd. per month. Handling mate- 
rial i heavier than usual weighing 3000 lb. per cu. yd.. 
iis power consumption was 1.28 kw-hr. per cu. yd. The 
above figures are total power taken by the dredge for 

all purposes. The power taken by the digging motor 
is aboul 4it', . on an all-day average, of the total power 
From such test results as are available, the power for 
digging seems about proportional to the yardage dug: 
that is. the kilowatt-hours are proportional to the yard- 
age handled times the number of hours during which 
it was dug. 

Tuabe-MIall Tommiag® Calcdl&ftiiom 


It is often difficult to determine the tonnage actually 
being handled by tube-mills working in closed circuit 
with classifiers. Where either tube-mil] feed or dis- 

charge can lie deflected and weighed lor short periods, 
it is still a quite inexact determination, as an accurate 
lire sample is essential, and where a portion of 
ih. pulp is cut out of the flow and weighed, if the 
;i urn is sufficient accurately to determine weight of 

total flow, it is next to impossible to gel a close sample 
lor moisture. In any case, only by averaging a num- 
ber of weighings and moisture determinations can data 
of any value hi- obtained. 

The following method is. 1 believe, original with my- 
self, and allows a -close determination of tonnage from 
lour screen tests which arc often cither daily or periodic 
routine. The four samples required tor these screen 
tests an-, (a battery discharge; (b) tube-mill feed; 
e tube-mill discharge : (d classifier overflow. 

Tic- object of the calculation is to determine the ratio 

of dry tons tube-milled to dry battery tonnage. The 

calculation is based u) the fact that the minus 200- 

lucsh material coming to the classifier is equal to the 
08 200 which leaves the classifier. 

Lei o = per cent -200 in the battery discharge. 

b = per cent -200 in the tube-mill feed. 

c = per cent -200 in the tube-mill discharge. 

</=per cent -2011 in the Classifier overflow. 
B == battery tonnage dry. 
T= dry tons tube-milled. 

Xow the -200-mesfa material coming to the classifier is 
that in the battery discharge lull' plus that in the 
tube-mill discharge (cT), while the -200 material leav- 
ing the classifier is that in the tube-mill feed (bT ) plus 
thai in the classifier overflow (rfBi. hence: 

,,B -f cT = IT -r <IB 
T <i — ct 

and — = = ratio dry tons tube-milled to dry 

B c — b battery tonnage. 

Thus knowing the dry tons passing through the bat- 
tery daily, the dry tons actually tube-milled daily can 
be readily calculated from the routine .screen tests. 

It is interesting to study the limits of this ratio in 
practice. I should say in a general way that the -200 
in modern line-grinding plants for the four screen tests 
entering into the above calculation would lie between the 
following limits: 

Per cent -200. 
Min. Max. 

Battery discharge 10 :!" 

T mill feed 2 S 

Tube-mill discharge ::.". 60 

Classifier overflow 60 90 

The lowest value of il — n within these limits would 
and tin- largesl value of r — h would be 58; hence 
within the above limits, tons tube-milled could never be 
less than half of battery tonnage. In the same way. 
the highest value of /I — <i within the limits above would 
be 80 and the lowest value of c — h 27. or the maximum 
tonnage tube-milled within the above limits could not 
be over three times battery tonnage. Generalizing, I 
should say that for mills where tonnage is being pushed 
this ratio would be about 1.75. and never under 1. 

January 2, 1915 



c Znimc — ftlhe Re©d PmoceM 

Br t. M. LISLIt 

lii the development of modern metallurgy, "'"■ of 
the chief stumbling-blocks has been the treatment ol 

certain tin mbinationa which have been unamenable 

tu all known metallurgical proc can c o . The solutions pro 
poaed for tliis problem have been many, and the fail 
ive been about us numerous aa the proposals. The 
Reed process, which baa been experimented with on 
i commercial scale for the past year or more al 
Palo Alto, California, is an electrolytic method of zinc 
redaction, the technique of which method lias been fairly 
well worked out in so far, as the redaction of the sine 
is concerned, ba1 those economies of operation so essen 
tial in commercial success of the process are still in 
coarse of development. The Company secures a high 
extraction from the material carrying the zinc in the 
form of a solution of zinc sulphate XnSii, . and from 
tliis solution recovers the zinc in metallic form with 
tin- aid of electricity. These features have passed the 
experimental Btage. The operations have now been eon- 
ducted continuously for more than three months. There 
is no iloulit but that a material reduction in operating 

ill ! ffected by large-scale operations and the 

improved equipment i essarj Eor sueh work. 

It will In- the purpose of this article to discuss the 
metallurgical process and modus operandi rather than 
production costs and commercial possibilities; in thai 
with tin* present state of development of the process 
hut little more than a guess can be made as to what 
the possibilities of the process are, and the present work 
is being confined to small-scale operations for the pur- 
pose of determining the refinements necessary for most 
economic procedure. 

Electrolytic zinc processes arc not new, but have been 
fraught with many difficulties owing to the inamenabil- 

ity ol • ii'i'troli/atiiiii in oelli on ■ coiuu 

scale; impure solutions, formation of .-miss sulphuric 
acid, spongy /inc. ami link of capacity have be< n 
impedimenta to its commercial application. The pi 
ms being conducted al the Reed Zinc Companj pi 
Palo Alto presents many novel features and lias 
come many of the difficulties of the earlier metallurgist* 

who have worked on tin- subject. As a basis for tin- 

I'i'seiit pr ss. it max be said that tin- electrolytic 

pi -ss which was patented by Carl tiering, of Phila- 
delphia, has i» -I n used. This process has been modified 
and changed by Messrs. Reed and Leach and brought 
to its present state of development, which is one ol 
promise and at least a long step toward a commercial 
electrolytic zinc process. 

In electrolytic processes in which the reaction at 
one electrode is nol the exact reverse of thai al the 
other electrode, there is a gradual and progressive 
change in the electrolyte. This is due to the Eacl that 
something is either added to or extracted from the elec- 
trolyte or formed or d imposed in it. thereby chang- 
ing its composition or concentration. In snch cases it 

may happen that the cumulative change thus produ I 

in time interferes with the proper continuance "t p the 
desired electrolytic process. 

The object of the Hexing process is to provide means 
by which such objectionable cumulative changes in the 
electrolyte may be prevented, thus enabling the desire, 1 
process to be continued. This is accomplished by using 
an electrode of such nature and material as to combine 
chemically with the objectionable ingredient as it is 
formed in the electrolyte, thereby rendering it inert as 
far as the electrolyte is concerned, and thus preventing 
the latter from being contaminated. In many cases the 




January "J, 1915 


^*« / j 


Mica -nil \l»>\ S nn VATS. 

objectionable ingredient which is thus removed Erom 
the electrolyte is a useful product, and the Bering 
process further templates the recovery of this in- 
gredient by removing the electrode with which it lias 
combined and passing the reverse current through it 
in a Becond electrolytic process. Thus when it is desired 
tn extract electrolytically a positive ion — say a metal-— 
from a solution containing the same, unless the anode 
is one which continuously replenishes the solution with 
the metal, which is being thrown down at the cathode, 
the negative ion with which the metal is combined mate 
remain in the solution and thus cumulatively hinder the 
further extraction of the metal. To prevent this set- 
ting free and accumulation of the negative ion formerly 
in combination with the metal. Hering's process em- 
ploys the use of an anode of such nature and material 

as upon the passage of tl current will chemically com 

bine with this ion to form an insoluble compound which 
adheres to or unites with the anode. After the anode 
has been acted upon in this manner to its full capacity, 

it may be removed from the solution and placed in an- 
other electrolyte and subjected to the action of a cur- 
rent in the reverse sense of that originally employed. 
thus setting free the combined ion and restoring the 
plate to its original condition. 

In extracting zinc from a solution of zinc sulphate 
in the presence of an excess of sulphuric acid, an 
accumulation of the sulphate radical from which the 
zinc is separated < which forms sulphuric acid when 
insoluble electrodes are used 1 hinders the efficient ex- 
traction of the zinc. This is because sulphuric acid. 
being less stable than zinc sulphate, electrolyzes more 
readily, setting free hydrogen at the cathode with a 
consequent loss of energy, and also tending to form a 

loose ami spongy, instead of a dense and adherent, de- 
posit of zinc on the cathode Furthermore, the presence 

of sulphuric acid formed at the anode tends to redissolve 

the zinc. 

These reactions are even more apparent when nearly 
all of the zinc has been extracted from the solution. 
as there is then present a relatively large pel' cent 

of sulphuric acid. With the Hering process there is 
employed in the electrolyzihg of the zinc sulphate solu- 
tion an anode of spongy lead, the cathode heing of any 
material suitable for the deposition of zinc. The sul- 
phate radical, as it is set free hy the electric current, 
then combines with the spongy lead of the anode, form- 
ing insoluble lead sulphate which adheres to the anode 
and can he removed with it from the solution. After 

the anode has thus been completely sulphated, it is 

placed in another cell containing water or any other 
desired electrolyte, and upon heing constituted a cathode 
hy a current in the reverse manner, the sulphate radical 

is again set El with the formation of sulphuric acid 

if water lie the electrolyte. The spongy-lead anodes 
must, of course, he of a capacity corresponding with 
the quantity of zinc deposited on the cathode in the 
first operation, or else they must he replaced hy new 
plates from time to time. Their exhaustion is indi- 
cated hy a rise of the voltage between the terminals of 
the electrolytic cells. It is to he noted that in the 
first operation, during which the zinc is extracted, the 
voltage required to obtain the zinc is ahout 1.6 volts 
less than that theoretically required to extract zinc 
from its sulphate, ns the sulphating of the lead anodes 
gives rise iii ;i direct electromotive force of this magni- 
tude. This, however, in a continuous process, is no 
gain, as a counter electromotive force of the same amount 
must he overcome hy the current from the external 
source in tin- subsequent operation when the anodes are 
restored to their original condition. 

This is the Hering process of electrolization upon 
which an endeavor is heing made to produce zinc on 
a commercial scale from ores and smelter hy-products 
which have been inamenahle to the recognized processes 
of zinc metallurgy. 

Work it Palo Alto 

At the present time the Palo Alto plant is concerned 
solely with treating a hag-house product from the Mam- 
moth smelter at Kennett. A large tonnage of this mate- 
rial has been accumulated during the past years, and 
to date has baffled every effort of the metallurgical en- 


I'M ■ 



■ ■ 

-I I I'll Ml Mil 11 . Ill -1 M I 1/ M I. IV 

l'i r Tin- composition of the bag house dust or ' fume,' 

as ii is termed locally is as follows: 

Qold, ■■ - 0.05 


Copper, per cenl . .... 1.1 

Iron, per cenl . . . 5.0 

per cenl 8.2 

Araenli . per cenl 6.2 

Zinc oxide, per cenl 1 1.6 

Zinc sulphate, per cent S8.6 

Tliis materia] is delivered in freight cars over a turn- 
out from the main line of the Southern Pacific to the 

plant, which is situated about three-quarters of a mile 
southwest "f tlir western end of the Dumbarton 'cut- 
off' and about three miles east of the town of Palo Alto, 
California. The plant is convenient t" deep water, 
railway, and the power-lines of the Pacific Gas & Elec- 
tric Co. Its proximity to San Francisco, the smelters 
of California, and west roust mines makes the location 
favorable for such a project. As cheap power, however. 
will be the governing element of the commercial suc- 
cess of large-scale operations, this will he the primary 
;iini determining factor of location for such plants. 

The 'fume' as delivered at the plant is stored in bins 
from which it is elevated in 250-lh. buckets to the 
charging floor. Here it is dumped through a chute into 
the digester, which is a unique device made after de- 
signs by C. J. Reed. It consists of a cylindrical vat 6 
ft. diameter and 12 ft. long, made of wood and about 
which there is fastened "1" rails of standard gage. The 
digester is supported by these rails, which 
impinge on four car wheels — being a converted 
street-car truck — and when pul in operation 
cause the digester to revolve. The inside is 
fitted with four longitudinal baffles which give 
the pulp a thorough agitation. The digester 
and driving mechanism is mounted on a second 
truck which moves on rails by means of a motor 
and trolley over the eight treatment tanks. 

The 'funic' is charged through a manhole in 
the digester similar to that used in boiler con- 
struction, and is here mixed with a weak solu- 
tion of sulphuric acid of 1.20 sp. gr. A lead- 
lined centrifugal pump is used for elevating 
the acid from the acid tank to the digester 

W i he .inline, which «t capacity La about i • 

• • ii |nit in He- ■ 
an. I i In digester revolved bj the driving mechanism, 

mid the iu in.- ' treated for ii period oi ill I 

hour* Before discharging;, the charge ii sampled and 
'fume' or aeid added according to the state "i acidity 

The charge on being discharged most be acid foi 
results .is tins assumes the almost complete extraction 

ill the zinc If to,, acid, more ' funic' may be a. 1,1c, I 

When die. -ici ii barge is moved over one of the 

'acid' vats, of which there are Bve in this leriee of 
eight treatment vats, and dumped Here ii is allowed 
to settle for 3 or I days, when the solution is decanted, 
The settling and decanting is a slow pjjocess, and for 
lliis reason liltrati.ui can an. I is about In be substituted 
at this point in the pi lure. The BOlution is then 

returned to the digester and more 'fume 1 is added in 
order to neutralize the acid present and precipitate a 
part of il opper, iron, and other impurities. 

The sec, ii, I digestion occupies about three hours, after 
which a pari .if tin- solution is decanted from the digester 
and the remainder sctlle.l. decanted, and filtered in the 
tanks. This s md Operation is much faster than the 

first, it being only i ssary to allow the solution to 

sland over night. The solution is now pumped by a 

nieju (what is known as an 'acid egg' in the Middle 

West i io the evaporating plant 

Residue from Digesters 

The residue, as filtered from the neutral solution, is 
returned to the digester and here mixed with the next 
charge and so re-treated. The residue or tailing from 
the Hi'st acid treatment is discharge. 1, dried, and will 
he eventually given a further treatment. Analysis of 
i he residue or tailing is as follows: 

Gold, ounces 0.06 

Silver, ounces 19.1 

Lead, ounces 26.3 

Cu, per cenl 2.75 

SKX. per cent . .' 10.9 

Iron, per cent 11.8 

Zinc, per cent 6.5 

Sulphur, per cent 9.8 

CaO, per cent 2.7 

A glance at the above analysis shows the residue to be 


' * / ' ' »• g "c-ii. 




January 2, 1915 

a valuable product and well worthy of further attention. 
There are four pine tanks in (he storage department 
of the evaporating and purifying department, one for 
solution and three for 'mother liquor.' From the solu- 
tion tank the zinc-bearing solution Hows by gravity to 
the evaporator. 

K\ iron \tj\<; Department 

The evaporation of the solution to the proper density 

for crystallization of the zinc as sulphate is done in a 

_ i evaporator which is 4o ft. long. 2y 2 ft. wide, 

and lias a depth of solution of 12 in. This trough 

is lead lined ami fitted a1 oi nd with a Dutch oven 

fire-box in which crude oil is burned. In the top o 
furnace arc fitted three iron flues connected with three 
lead flue pipes which are of 4 in. diameter. The flue 
pipes arc laid through the entire length of the evapora- 
tion trough and discharge the hurried gases of combus- 
tion into tlic air. The process of evaporation is a slow 
one. it requiring about two days to evaporate 75 cu. ft. 
of solution. Tim present equipment is ample 1 for the 
experimental work being done and the limited capacity 
of the plant, but with large-scale operations this depart- 
ment would he materially increased. 

The process of crystallization is for the purpose of 
purification and is the last step in the purification proc- 
ess. Crystallization of zinc sulphate is performed in 
8 lead-lined vats into which the solution from the evap- 
orator flows by gravity. These vats are S ft. long. 4 ft. 
wide, and 3 ft. deep, inside dimensions. The vats are 
lead lined and across their width there arc lilted thirteen 

wooden pieces spa 1 equi-distantly from one another. 

and from these liars there are suspended lead strips. 
there being 3 of these from each har. These sheets of 
lead, upon which the zinc sulphate crystals form, are 
10 in. wide and •'! ft. long, extending almost to tin- bot- 
tom of the vats. 

The process of crystallization is continuous, one vat 
being cleaned up every clay. The time required (or 
crystallization is about eight days. In this process the 
ZnKO, crystallizes out first, forming on the lead strips 
to a thickness of from 1 to 2 inches. This salt contains 
22'..', of metallic zinc, which is removed from the 
plates and vats and stored in a bin for further refining. 
The 'mother liquor' is pumped hack to the storage tanks 

and re-evaporated ami again crystallized. The re-evap- 
oration of the 'mother liquor' requires from 12 to 15 

This process of purification has been found greatly to 
abet tin- subsequent electrolytic precipitation of the 

metal, and as such forms an important step in the 

pr vs. As crystallized the zinc sulphate (ZnSO.) is 

usually snow white, but sometimes tainted with arsenous 
salts and some copper. 

The zinc sulphate is removed from the storage bin 
in -a harrow and shoveled into a vat which is sunk in 
the ground to permit of a gravity flow of the solution 
from the cell room. Here the zine sulphate crystals are 
dissolved in the weak solution returned from the electric 

'ills after extracting the zinc, and the solution thus 
formed is elevated by a small centrifugal pump to the 
purifying vat. Here a small amount of zinc dust is 
added and the charge agitated by air. in this manner 
precipitating the copper and other metals electro-nega- 
tive to zinc, tin' process requiring about twelve hours. 
The purified solution is then filtered through canvas by 
vacuum and pumped to a storage tank. The solution 
as stored for *he electrolytic refinery contains ahout 8 
lh. zinc per cubic foot. 

In the electrolytic plant there are 15 cells. 8 of which 
arc 'charging' and 7 'depositing' cells, placed in alter- 
nate order. Tin- charging cells are connected by lead 
pipes permitting a continuous flow of the solution, as 
are also the depositing cells. In the depositing cells a 
sponge-lead anode is used with an aluminum cathode, 
("pon the passage of the current through the zinc sul- 
phate electrolyte, the zinc is deposited at the cathode 
on aluminum, and sulphuric acid at the anode. The 
acid combines with the lead, forming lead sulphate. The 
reaction which takes place is expressed by the following 
formula : 

ZnSO, + Pb + electric energy = PbSO, + Zu 
After deposition takes place, the sponge-lead anode 
of the depository cell with its lead sulphate coating is 
removed to the charging or acid cell, where it becomes 

the cathode with a lead 'dummy' for the a le. The 

current upon heing passed in a reverse manner through 
this charging cell causes the lead sulphate, formed on 
the anode of the depository cell, to he reduced hack to 
sponge lead, the reaction heing as follows: 
PbSO, + H. () -4- electric energy = Ph + H.SO, - it 

Oxygen Recover? 
The Company controls patents for the recovery o 

oxygen liberated at this state of the process, hut the 
equipment for the recovery of this element has not been 
installed. In that there is ahout one-fourth, hy weight, 
as much oxygen as zinc produced, it is helieved that 
its recovery is of commercial importance. The lead 
'dummy' used as an anode in the charging cell is gradu- 
ally converted into sponge lead and may replace the 
sponge-lead anode in the depository cells. The deteri- 
oration of the anodes, however, is very slight. Some 
of the anodes have been in use for over a year and 
show leterioration. They can scarcely he distin- 
guished from new anodes. 

The electrolytic department is fitted with a irav^lniL' 
crane moving over the cells and suspended from a track. 
A small hoist with attachment for gripping the plates 
of the cells is attached to the erane, and in this manner 
the transfer of plates from the depositing to charging 
cells and the reverse is greatly expedited. The Current 
is supplied by the Pacific Gas & Electric Co. A small 
generator heing used which is connected with a 25-hp. 
motor. Current is supplied to the cells at 350 amperes 
and 32 to 42 volts for the 15 cells. At the present time 
only '■! electros are heing used in each cell, as no uff .it 
is heing made to run the plant at capacity, and will 




mil iiniil all of tin- refinements of tin- process havi 

The nil solutions u discharged from the '-ills i.\ 

gravitj iir Ilected in lump tanks The solution from 

tin- depositing cells, after purring through the 7 cells, 
flows in the weak solution tank, and the small trace of is inn' neutralised with scrap sine li is then 
conducted in another tank where tin sine sulphate erys 
inls are added, and il is brought up in strength and 
returned in the electrolytic department for deposition 
In tin- charging cells water is run into the lirsi of the 
series, but «iil> tin- formation of sulphuric acid in m- 
cordance with tin- reaction mentioned; the solution 
emerges from the Inst charging '-ill sa what is termed 
locally 'strong acid.' This is used in the digester in 
tin- preliminary treatment of the ore, 

Thi- electrolytic sine, as stripped from the cathodes 
J. nut (s I,,, ins of deposition, is in plates of about 
thickness and of a firm minutely crystalline tex- 
ture. Tin' sheets thus formed are melted and casl into 


bars which are a very high-grade product averaging 
99.88^ /.iur. 

Tin- process as installed has demonstrated that elec- 
trolytic zinc is well within tin- range of probability. It 
is being made with an extraction of 93$ of the zinc 
content of tin- material treated; a marked advance in 
extraction over the smelting methods universally em- 
pi veil. Mini the product is ii high-grade spelter of ex- 
cellent quality. From a commercial standpoint the 
process is yet to he proved, and I am not able at this 
time tn discuss in detail its commercial possibilities. 
The present plant and equipment is not a fair criterion 
by which to judge the possibilities of the process from 
,'i e iramereia] standpoint. Large-scale production would 
embody some mechanical changes in the handling of 
tin- materials and solutions which would materially re- 

do. • in,-,, .si hi production The power queatiou, |>owrr 
llie chief expeiiM is tin Important factor in i~- 

iiinl ■ 1 1 tins in n large extent, would 

depend tin- col ercial success ■■! tin- process li will 

he understood that the process in its present itati is 
being employed solely for the treatment ol mis and 
siniliii products which have been inamenahlr tn all 
known metallurgical methods K K Leach anil Ins 

associates have I n making a thorough investigs 

linn iii us possibilities for the past year or re, and 

their efforts have thrown a new light upon the posaibili 

ties ni electrolytic sine extraction. The process is ■ 

thai is full of pi use as in possibilities ami application. 

lis inventors ami sponsors mm- tn be congratulated upon 
Hi.- new technique which it has developed. 

Miners' Hcakftn alt Btrokeini 

A commissi in of three has submitted an important 
report to the New South Wales parliament mi various 
phases of industrial condi 
lions in the lead-zinc silver 
mines ;ii Broken Hill. They 
i ' commended t he foil .« ing i 
1 1 i Tlmi mi pe, s in - iffering 
1 1-, m i uberculosis be permit- 
ted to work underground. 
(2) All pii sons n orking un- 
derground he examined once 

in every six months by a 

medical officer appointed by 
the government, i :i > No per- 
son he permitted tn work un- 
derground unless he can read 

and intelligibly speak the 

English language, i -1 That. 
lead poisoning and its $t qui lot 
(results) he made diseases 

which arc chargeable on the 

Miners' Accident Relief Fund. 
(5) Investigations he made as 
to the liability of miners at 

Broken Hill to pneumonia. 

and that compensation be given if this disease be found 

to he an added and exceptional risk of the miners' call- 
ing. (6 I In mine air the maximum of CO, be 1%, and 
the minimum of oxygen 19%. (7) Provision be made 
on each level of any shaft to provide shelter from the 
cold air for those who arc waiting to be hoisted to the 

TWO DREDGES of the Orsk ( toldlieh Is Co.. Russia, pi'O 

du 1 gold worth K. 72.7IHI ($35,000) from 119,050 CU. 

yd. of gravel during October. Tribttters also recovered 
R.15,300 ($7500). 

Accommodation for certain employees at the Mt. Lyell 

mine is being provided, first-aid and reSCUe-Wbrk in- 
struction has been started. 

•J -J. 


January 2, 1915 

Ekdftrk SinraeMirag Im 1914 


Daring the i>;rst year, smelting of ores in the electric 
furnace made notable advances in the clarification of 
several fundamental technical questions upon which the 
electric smelting of iron and zinc ares depends. The 
visit- saw the completion and operation of the largest 
electric iron-smelting furnace buill up bo date. VVc»k 

was started on the firsl imercial electric zinc s ael ing 

plant to l obstructed in the United States, The firsl 

aluminum plant to be built in this country Bince the 
expiration of the Hall patents was well under way ;ii 
the close of the year. As a result of the high price of 
ferromangauese, caused by the European 
tleetric pig-iron plant of the United Siiii^ starte.l the 
of ferromangauese. There was also in- 
pd attention paid t < > the possibility cf local manu- 
facture of other ferro-alloys such as Eerrochrome and 
ferrotungsten, because of foreign conditions. The lack 
of ;i supply ni' cyanide has resulted in one company, for- 
merly a producer of sodium, renewing the manufacture 
of this metal in tin electric furnace tor lain- conversion 
i i sodium c> anide. 

The chief points of technical interest in which there 
have been important developments during the pas' year 
are the following: 1 1 ' The use of coke instead of char- 
eoal a.s a reducing agent in electric smelting i F iron 
ore: (2) the introduction of much larger units than 
heretofore built for the manufacture of pig irbm Ferro- 
silicon, and calcium carbide in the electric furnace: 
(3 increased attention directed to the production of 
pig sti'i'l directly from ore in the electric fu'rh'aoe; (4) 
further progress made in the solution of the condensa- 
tion problem in electric smelting of zinc ore. 

Use op Coke is v Reducing Agent 

In the early experiments on electric smelting of iron 
ore, at Livet, Prance, in 1904, and at Sault Ste. .Marie. 
Canada, in 1906, coke was used as a reducing agent. 
With the small furnaces employed in both cases, cokse 
seemed as advantageous as charcoal for a reducing 
agent in the electric furnace manufacture of pig iron. 
Bui as the th-st commercial development of electric iron 
smelting was in Sweden and California, where at that 
time charcoal seemed to be the cheapest reducing agent. 
little attention was paid to the use of eoke for this pur- 
pose until recently, within the past two years. In 

[en there is ao immediate need for a change from 
charcoal to coke; but it has become evident, just as in 
the production of blastfurnace charcoal iron, that the 

is Tor the manufacture of charcoal are rapidly being 
depleted in spit.- of decreased consumption since tic 
introduction of the electric furnace. At some time in 
tin- future some reducing ageftt other than charcoal 
must he employed. With the electric smelting of iron 

□ Norway, if was absolutely necessary to use coke 

for that purpi Be, because there are few forests in Nor- 
way. In California, it appeared at tirst that charcoal 

could be obtained cheaply ami in quantity, but later 

when the wo»l ha.l to be hauled from a ilisla the 

cist increased to such an extent as to render imperative 

ui ing of s one cheap reducing agent. Coke is not 

as expensive as charcoal in most localities ami can be 

obtai 1 in greater quantity. 

Where Coke Fails 

Up to the beginning of 1914 a study of existing data 
ami experience with coke in the electric smelting of 

iron i ie would indicate that the only satisfactory reduc- 
ing material for the smelting of iron ore was charcoal. 
The trial run at Trollhiittan. Sweden, had shown that 
coke was not as suitable as charcoal for use in the elec- 
tric shaft furnace. From the somewhat meager reports 
then existing regarding operation at llardanger. Nor- 
way, with an electric shaft furnace of the Trollhiittan 
type, the difficulties of that plant were commonly laid 
to the use of eoke as a reducing agent. The work done 
in the low rectangular furnace at Heroult. California. 
also indicated that coke was not suitable for electric 

Practically all authorities agree that the basic reason 
for the difficulties encountered in the use of coke in 
the electric furnace, is because coke is a much better 
conductor of electricity than charcoal, especially after 
it becomes hot. Hence, when coke is used, the resistance 
of the Charge becomes lowered, and. as the smelting' in 
the electric iron-reduction furnace is done by the heat 
produced by the resistance wliich the electric current 
meets in passing through the charge between the elec- 
trodes, more current is required to produce the same 
amount of heat. 

The causes of the economic failure of the electric-pig- 
iron plant at Tyssedal. Hardar.ger, Norway, which had 
ceased operation during 1913, were investigated by sev- 
eral commissions and engineers. The Norwegian electro- 
metallurgical commission,' through J. H. L. Vogt and 
P. Parup, reported that the shaft furnace, the Trollhat- 
tan type, lias proved a success with coke as a reducing 
agent as a result of the runs at llardanger, wliich con- 
clusion is contrary to the Trollhiittan deductions with 
a similar furnace. 

They stati- that while the Operations at llardanger 
were not economically successful, the cause should be 

attributed partly to the aature of the ores treated ami 
partly to their low iron content, together with the un- 
satisfactory type of roaster used for agglomeration and 
poorly designed electrical machinery. 

G. Odequist, in a paper before the Christiania I'oly- 

I'Electrothermic Iron Ore Smelting in .Norway.' The Emi. it 
Min. -Tour., July 25. 1914, p. 15s. 

I \ 2, I'M ■ 


tekuik Foreuing, did do! agree with the commit! 

rluaiona but believed lhal the unfavorable results 

due to the type of furnace, irhieh, in his npin 

I i" ooke ' r varial 

in the electrical resistance in 1 1 »* - furuaoe itself by the 

owing i" which the average load ai 

production is diminished Als i, he considerx 

r quantity of limestone needed to flux the 

i p »wer c inguuiption. Lindemann 

.i Norwegian engineer, lays the failure of the Hardanger 

plant tii the fact thai tin- furnace had never treated 

irl of charge which would render smelting profit 

able The briquettes charged crumbled in the furnace 

jin. I tin- 'tines' were not properly agglomerated. In h 

review of the paper by Odequist. J. 

Harden 1 concludes that the failui I elec 

trie smelting at Hardanger was due to a 
varietj of causes, but that the use of coke 
in the type of furnace employed was one of 
the more important factors. 

At the Tinfos" Iron Works. Notodden. 
Norway, it is reported that pig iron is being 
made in the electric furnace with coke as a 
reducing agent. Four single-phase fur- 
naces, each of 1250 kw. capacity, are in- 
stalled at ihis plant in such a manner that 
our furnace is connected to each phase of 

Fio. l. tin- a three-phase circuit with one furnace held 
9 IN in reserve. The charge is fed into the fur- 


I I KVU1. 

pace around the electrode through two feed: 
bag shafts leading to a low rectangular 
crucible. The shafts are intended more for distribution 
of the charge in the crucible than for securing any reduc- 
tion by the furnace gases. The current passes through 
iin upper rectangular electrode, through the charge, and 
through the conducting carbon bottom. Coke is said to 
work satisfactorily in a furnace of this type. A similar 
plant has been recently built at the Ulefos Iron Works, 
Telemarken, Norway. 

The IlcltVnstcin furnace, which has three upper ver- 
tical electrodes, each suspended in a separate chamber 
of a low rectangular furnace with a conducting hearth 
common to all three chambers acting as the neutral point 
of a three-phase circuit, has given excellent results in 
the electric smelting of iron ores at Donmarfvet, 

In regard to the use of coke in this furnace. Ilelfen- 
sicin' states that the two essential conditions for suc- 
cessful smelting with coke are: (li the tension in the 
smelting furnace must be lower, anil the density of the 
current in the electrode must he higher: (2) the furnace 
^:i~.s must he removed alter having passed through a 
comparatively thin layer of materials in the melting 

-Harden. J.. 'Electric Iron Smelting at Hardanger in Nor- 
way.' Met. A Chem. Eng.. 1914, pp. 82, 223. 444. 

Hanson, H. T., 'Smelting Iron Electrically with Coke as a 
Fuel.' The Iron Trade Review, Dec. 4. 1913, p. 1003. 

<Helfenstein, A., 'Large Electric Furnaces for Pig Iron. The 
Helfenstein Furnace at Domnarfvets.' Iron and Coal Trade 
Review, April 3. 1914, p. 505. 

Hi Unit, due (o li 

III Ills l.i |||||. |,, 

substitute dm iug agent 

. i ..I 'in daye' o|M*rst t the i,,» reotaugu 

lar furnace of th.- Noble Klectric Steel Co at Eleroult, 
California, with i reducing agent. .1 Crawford 1 





PlO. 2. ELECTRODE!) i\ ill l l rwi l l\ HKNAcl. 

has drawn the following conclusions: il ' any ordinary 

grade of coke, by crushing it. can he used satisfactorily 

from both a metallurgical and an electrical standpoint 
to produce any normal grade of pig iron : i "2 i if the coke 
is of the proper size when it reaches the smelting /one, 
operations may be carried on with as high voltage, low 

current densities, gooil power factor, and as cool a roof 
when using coke as when using charcoal: (3) the power 
consumption per unit of production is higher with coke 
than with charcoal, hut the inereiise is due to the extra 
amount of slag made; (S) the carbon consumption per 
unit of production is higher with coke than with char- 
coal; (5) except for the somewhat more open grain, no 
difference has been noted thus lar in the physical char- 
acteristics of iron made with coke, and iron made with 
charcoal: ( (i i crushed coke has a tendency to make the 
charge hang in the furnace, which might prohibit its 
use in a shaft furnace. A mixture of lii to 2f>*, of 
lump charcoal with the coke appears to prevent the 
hanging of the charge. 

sBull Anier. Insi. Mln. Eng., June 1914, p. L289 



January 2. 1915 

The conclusions of Crawford, which are the result of 
Milne of tin- most extensive work yet done on the subject, 
are summarized in the statement fliat eoke lias nothing 
in recommend it over charcoal for an electric furnace 
reducing materia) excepting the difference in priee. 


As a result of the work during 1!)14. witli eoke as a 

reducing agent in electric smelting of iron ore. it is 
evident that considerable progress lias I n made to- 
ward the solution of the problem. The so-ealleil shaft 

furnace of the type built at Trollhattan and Hardanger 
does not appear to he so well adapted to the use of coke 
in plan- of charcoal as is the low rectangular furnace of 
the Elelfenstein, Tinfos, or California types. Pig iron 
can he produced commercially under the most favorable 
local conditions in a shaft furnace, hut not ;is econom- 
ically as in tin' crucible furnace. The power consump- 
tion and the carbon consumption will he higher in the 
shaft furnace, hot technically and commercially under 

the lust conditions, pig iron c;in he made in this type 

of furnace using coke as a reducing agent. 

There is little agreement as to the cause of the failure 
of the Hardanger plant, hut it cannot he entirely as 

signed to the use of coke as a reducing agent. Tie- con- 
ditions were unfavorable from the start ; a poor grade 
of ore which requires roasting was being smelted: and 
the type of roaster used was very unsatisfactory both in 
its mechanical operation and in the product it produced. 

There appeared to he several things in both the business 

and technical management of the concern which might 

have been improved considerably. Apparently in the 

erection of the works, little allowance was made lor the 
fact that even in the operation of an electric pig-iron 
furnace using charcoal, the process is very young and 
comparatively undeveloped; and that with the un- 
known effect of coke considerable experimental work 
might he necessary. Judging from the character of the 
buildings erected, the Company must have had a con- 
siderable overhead charge to carry. 

During the year it has been established beyond ques- 
tion that better technical results are obtained with eoke 

as a reducing agent, when the low crucible fumai I' 

the Helfenstein or Tinfos type is used rather than a 
furnace of the Swedish type. This is emphasized by the 
early experiments with eoke at Trollhiittan in a furnace 
of the latter type, the difficulties at Hardanger. mid the 
successful operation of the Helfenstein furnace ;il Doin- 

narfvet with coke, and the furnace at Tinfos. The diffi- 
culties experienced with the so-called shaft furnace arc 

not due to tl ffeet of the shaft resulting in the impos- 
sibility of quick removal of gases, or any other effect 

produced by tin- shaft itself, but are due to the arrange- 
ment of tl lectrodes in tie- crucible of the furnace 

III the Trollhattan furnace the electrodes are grouped 

a! tin base of the shaft around a circular crucible. As 

is no bottl lectrode of any sort in the furnace 

and the ends of the electrodes arc practically ill the same 
horizontal plane, the current must pass between them iii 

this horizontal zone. When smelting conditions are es- 
tablished in the furnace, the process is advanced to the 
same point throughout this horizontal zone. As the 
electrodes are high in the crucible where little reduction 
lias completely taken place, considerable iiiiconsiimed 
carbon accumulates in this zone. Coke has a much 
greater electrical conductivity than charcoal when hot. 
Hence, win i% coke is charged instead of charcoal, the 
voltage of the furnace gets low. resulting in decreased 
power factor and a higher power consumption per ton 

of ore smelted. 

The remedy for this difficulty is an arrangement of 
the ..lectrodes such as to make the current pass through 
all of the lower smelting zones of the furnace which 
contain the charge in different stages of reduction. 
Thus if tin- current passes through one upper electrode. 
through the charge and through the furnace bottom, a 
simple type of such a furnace being the Siemens furnace, 
it passes from top to bottom through the following 
smelting zonei — a mixture of partly reduced or,- and 
coke; ;i zone of completed reduction with the metal in a 
pasty munched state; the slag zone: and in the bottom 
molten metal. The result of an accumulation of coke in 
one /one of a furnace of this type is not as noticeable as 
the current has to pass through all of the smelting con- 
ditions of the furnace. A furnace of this type in which 
the current is actually conducted away from the bottom 
of the furnace with cables or bus-bars, has the disad- 
vantage of a decreasing electrical efficiency and power 
factor with increase of size so that furnaces of much 
over 1000 hp. are not. economical. That the shaft has 
nothing to do with the coke problem is further shown 
by successful smelting with two shafts on the Tinfos 
furnace, which has a conducting bottom and vertical 
electrode suspended between the shafts. The results at 
this place show that the success of the low crucible type 
has not been due so much to the absence of a shaft in 
some other rases as to the arrangement of the electrodes 
in the shaft. 


III the Helfenstein furnace the objections to the Tinfos 
type of furnace arc overcome, that is. a limitation of 
size due to conducting current through the hearth and 
away from the furnace. The current in the Helfenstein 
furnace at Pomnarfvel passes down through the charge 
from suspended electrodes, each in its own smelting 
Chamber, and while the furnace bottom acts as a con- 
ductor of current between the three smelting chambers 

of the Furnace, it has no cable or bus-bar connections 

leading to the source of power. By connecting the fur 
naee to a three-phase circuit in this manner, the diffi- 
culties "f leading large amounts of current from a rur- 
al bottom are ma experien 1 with the consequent 

limitation in size of furnace hut it has the advantage 

of passage of current through the whole charge, insuring 
higher electrical efficiency when smelting with coke than 

in the furnace with a horizontal arrangement of elec- 

i miles. 

The rectangular furnace of the Noble Electric Steel 

.Inniiiii . J 1915 


•'" h« iruonUl arrangement of aleetrodea Hi 

Crawford states that ooke if finely ground can : 

reducing agent with aatiafactor} results Proin 
this it iIom uol appear thai eoke would prove ,.s satis 
faetoi oal in the furnace used al Heroull The 

''"• In has nut bee iceaaar) in the 

Hclfensteii, ruruace, and this further indicates thai the 

arrnna (he electrode* in the chief factor of the 

probli earlj experiences in California with coke 

this i\ |i i were apparently uol successful 

- thai il flicieney of the furni is 

decreiiRed when coke i> used instead of charcoal Pur 
ther evidence of difficulties with coke al Heroull are 
shown bj the decision to use a mixture of half charcoal 
mill half eoke in the manufacture of ferromanganese, 
which was undertaken at this place in the Call. 

While eoke is being us.-il commercially al Domnarfvel 
mill Tint'us for electric Rmaltirig of iron ores, and the 

ilitj of its use in the California furnace has I n 

demonstrated in a trial run, it is best to reserve definite 
conclusions until more developments occur, but the prob- 
lem is well mi the way to a satisfactory solution, judging 
from the results of the past year. 

Tin Capacity op Electric Smelting Pi rn 

During 1914 information was made public regarding 
the large Helfenstein furnace which started production 
ut' pig iron al Domnarfvet, Sweden, in May 1913. This 
furnace minks a greal advance in the size of electric pig- 
iron furnaces. Previous to this time the largest pig- 
iron furnaces were thus.- of the Trollhattan type of 3500 
lip. capacity. The Helfenstrin furnace at Domnarfvet 
tlill for a power rapacity of 10,000 to 12,000 lip.. 

bul owing to the high frequency of the electric currenl 
produced at Domnarfvet, b'2 cycles, the power input 
was reduced to 6000 to 800(1 lip. when smelting with 
charcoal and 5000 to 5500 hp. when using coke. The 
power was reduced with this high frequency in order to 
keep the power factor as high as 0.8 if possible, which 
under the circumstances was difficult, 25-cycle current 
lieing preferable for electric furnace work. 

While electric furnaces of as large as 6000 to 10.000 
hp. capacity have lieeu operated for the manufacture of 
Ferrosilicon and calcium carbide, the size attained in the 
Helfenstein furnace is undoubtedly a big advance in 
electric smelting of iron ores. The furnaces of the 
Trollhattan type with electrodes grouped around a circu- 
lar crucible, are limited in size by the difficulty experi- 
enced in making carbon electrodes over 30 in. diameter, 
and also by the fact that the diameter or thickness in 
ease an electrode of square cross-section is employed is 
limited by the distance between the edge'of the crucible 
and the edge of the shaft. Tf a furnace of large tonnage 
of the Trollhattan type is built, the necessary power can- 
not be introduced into it by simply increasing the size 
of the electrodes and using built-up electrodes, but it 

"Crawford. J.. 'Progress of Electric Smelting at Heroult. 
California.' Met. .(• Chem. Eng.. 1913, p. 383. 

~Min. and Scien. Press. September 5. 1914. Vol. 109. p. 379. 

must be done bj increasing the number of elactrodi 

pen. i., i around the eraejhle Tins bjada to do roua 

complications resulting in lowering the electrical effl 
eieucj of the furnace, The limitation ol site of electrode 
thus limits the power and smelting capacity of Iht 
""" I" I he ... ngular furnace having the 
suspended in tl intre of il rueibli 

I-. lll'U' shafts .in both sides as III tl ,|„. ||,||,.,, 

stein and Tini'os furnaces, there is practically mi limits 
11,111 •• i" the possible size, because increase in size aim 
ply m.ans a longer furiuiee with electrodes to corre 
spond. h is similar to the increased capacitj of the 

long Mathewson copper blast funn over the Bhorter 

length furnaces. 

The question of increased size of tl lectric pig iron 

furnace is very imp.. riant if the electric furnace is ever 
'" be in the class of the modern blast furnace in regard 
'" output An electric furnace with a power input of 
3500 hp. should produce per i'i hours on the basis of a 
power requirement of 2000 kw. hours per ton of pig 

iron. 30 I. us of pi", iron, while a In. hp. furnace 

would produce about mi tons in the same period. Com- 
pared with a blast-furnace output ,,f inn to 500 tons 
per day, the electric furnace capacity up to date is small. 
but the rectangular design of furni offers greater op- 
portunities of approaching blast-furnace size than 
the circular furnace. Although the large electric fur- 
nace reduces the cost of production accordingly, the 
actual thermal efficiency is not much greater than that 
of a modern 1000-hp, smelting furnace. 

Production op Steel Directly prom Ore in the 
Electric Smelting Pdrn ice 

Recent experimental work 1 have conducted 8 has 
shown the possibility of producing steel of various per- 
centages carbon and low percentages impurities di tl.v 

from ore in the electric furnace. In a discussion of these 
results, J. Crawford 1 ' has summarized his conclusions as 
a result of experience in the electric furnace manufac- 
ture of pig iron at Heroult. ( 'alifornia. by slating that al- 
though pig steel may have signal advantages over nor- 
mal low-silicon pig iron for steel making. American steel 
makers will probably be found 'from Missouri' and will 
have to be shown. While there is a considerable 

ec miy in both carbon and power in making low silicon 

iron as against high silicon iron, the carbon docs not ap- 
proach in practice the low theoretical consumption. I'ig 
steel of 2.20% maximum carbon when made in either the 
rectangular furnace or the shaft furnace requires carbon 
in excess of the theoretical to prevent excessive iron 
losses in the slag. 

E. Humbert 10 and A. Hethey have performed large 

*'Pig Steel from Ore in the Electric Furnace.' Bull. Amer. 
Inst. Min. Eng., Feb. 1914, p. 349: 'Fluorspar in Electric 
Smelting of Iron Ore,' Min. a?id Scien. Press. August 29, 1914, 
p. 335. 

"Crawford, J„ Bull. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., June 1914, p. 12S9. 

■ "Humbert, E., and Hethey, A.. 'Fabrication direct de l'acier.' 
Journal da Four Electrique et de V Electrolyse. July 1, 1914, 
p. 843. 




January 2, 191.> 

scale experimental work on the direct production of steel 
from ore, using a single-phase Heroull steel furnace of 
fi tons per charge capacity. Several runs were made in 
the furnace on magnetite and silieioua iron ores with 
coke iis a reducing agent. According to the results of 
this work the authors consider thai the direcl produc- 
tion of steel in the electric furnace has many advantages 
over the standard practice of steel manufacture. While 
the process is simple and produces a high-grade product 
if desired, it may be expensive — the chief factor in this 
being the cost of power. 

Pig steel for castings is now being manufactured i!i 
rectly from ore in an electric furnace at the foundry of 
tin- Moffat Irving steel Works, Ltd., of Toronto, Can- 
ada. A 300-kw. three-phase furnace is used which has 
a tilting crucible set under a stationary shall. The 
process is intermittent. Fine ore ami Hue dust are 

smelt'-. I in the furna 

The ensl of production of pig steel from ore in the 

electric furnace is. of course, the main stumbling block 

to the BUCCeSS of sueh a process. As yet not enough 

practical work has been done to give conclusive figures. 

AH work to dale has been almost entirely experimental, 
ami while it has shown that the metallurgical difficulties 
are not impossible to overcome, U-w data as to actual eost 
are available. While there are few districts where pig 
steel could he | irn, I uc, ii 1 ;is cheaply in the electric fur- 

Dl as stcd produced by standard methods, in some 

places and for foundry work it is prohahlc that steel 

castings could he made more cheaply directly from ore 

by this pr ss than in a combustion furnace. At any 

place where there is a market demand for steel locally. 
and pig iron can he made in the electric furnace at a 

profit, the steel ultimately produ I would he chl 

if made hy the electric reduction of iron ore to pig steel, 
followed by refining in another furnace if necessary, 
than 'f the product of the electric reduction furnace was 
pig iron to he subsequently converted to steel iii another 

Condensation ok Zinc in Electric Zinc Smelting 

Tin- most complete statement of tile status of electric 
zinc smelting which was presented during the past year 
was that of \V. R. Ingalls. 1 '- Ingalls concludes that the 
difficulty in the efficiency of condensation of the zinc 
vapors in electric smelting of zinc ore is not due to the 
condensing apparatus, but that the trouble really origi- 
nates in the furnace itself, and that given the proper con- 
ditions in the furnace, condensation is effected without 
special difficulty. If electric smelting is made a two- 
stage process instead of a continuous process, satisfac- 
tory condensation as metal instead of blue powder will 
he obtained. In other words, the high amount, of carbon 
dioxide gas given off as in the ordinary retort during the 
driving off nt' hydrocarbons and decomposition of car- 

"Dalton, A. C. 'Electric Steel Direct from Ore Fines.' The 
Iron Ane, Oct. 15. 1914. 

'-Ingalls, W. R.. 'Electric Zinc Smelting,' Trans. Amer Elec- 
trochemical Soc, Vol. 25, p. 169. 

Inmates, must hi' replaced hy a carhon monoxide atmos- 
phere as in the second stage of retort smelting, when re- 
duction and distillation are accomplished. In consider- 
ing the two kinds of blue powder formed in zinc conden- 
sation. Ingalls distinguishes between the meltable blue 
powder resulting from improper physical conditions, and 

the non-meltable powder due to improper chemical con- 
ditions The uii-meltablt blue powder in electric smelt- 
ing must then he due to the formation of larger amounts 
of carhon dioxide in the electric furnace than in the re- 
tort, which causes oxidation of the zinc in condensation. 

The Johnson Purn ice 

Much publicity has been given to an experimental run 
on 17 tons of zinc ore in the Johnson electric furnace al 
Hartford. Connecticut, in January 1914. for some time 
it has been claimed that the condensation problem is 
solved in this furnace hy the addition of ineanil. - 
carbon columns through which the zinc vapors pass be- 
fore going to the condenser in order to reduce the carbon 

dioxide present to the monoxide. In this run the amount 
of blue powder re-smelted was about 20$ Of the spelt ; 
produced, which is a great advance over the most recent 
report of the work done in the electric zinc smelter at 
Trollhiittan. where in 1912 two tons of blue powder was 
re-smelted with each ton of ore charged. The results of 
the trial run of -liilinson indicate that he has made con- 
siderable progress toward a solution of the condensation 
problem of electric zinc smelting. While in this furnace 
the zinc vapors pass through a hot column of carbon 
condensation, for the purpose of reducing the 
carbon dioxide present, it is probable that the good re- 
sults obtained are largely due to a proper manipulation 
of the furnace so as to prevent formation of any more 
Carbon dioxide gas than can he helped. As the charge 
is preheated outside of the furnace, this reduces the time 
it is in the furnace before losing its zinc. In this way 
carbon dioxide formation is prevented to a considerable 
extent. Also if the temperature of the furnace is con- 
trolled carefully, it is feasible to decrease the possibility 
of carbon dioxide formation by not permitting it to 
smelt so rapidly. If the speed of smelting can be kept 
down, opportunity is given for the carbon of the charge 
to reduce some of the carbon dioxide formed in smelting. 
With electrodes designed to he somewhat larger than 
actually required for carrying the current load, exi — 
sive local heating where the electrode enters the charge 
is prevented, giving a lower speed of reduction. 

The Pato dredge of the Oroville Dredging Co.. Colum- 
bia, has recovered the following since August 1. 1913: 
to September 8. 1914. $676,763 from 1,107,490 cu. yd.: 
from this date to October 1, the boat did not work, as it 
had capsized, but from October 1 to November 24. 
232,350 cu. yd. yielded $108,850. 

Rubies valued at $12,000 were recovered from 67. i 

'loads' (1600 lb. each i of gravel, by the Burma Ruby 
Corporation in November. 




M&8©hmc MnnMng Dnsforkft, Moira© Couurnfty, CalnffoiniMa 


The Maaoiiic mining district is one which well i 1 1 n ^ 
the fact ilmi our mineral resources are constantly 
giving us agreeable surprises, While the district ia al 
present not very active, ;i description of its history and 
development ma) well follow the recent discussions on 
prospecting, as no extensive descriptions of it have thus 
fur been published and the district is distinctly an asset 
developed by our old friend and support the prospector. 
Permission to publish this description is due to the 
courtesy of State Minerah gist, F. .M.N. Hamilton, as 
the information was gathered in course of work now 
being carried on by the California State Mining Bureau, 
which is aiming to furnish similar information upon the 

T6 N 

T5 N 





entire state. The illustrations are reproduced from 
drawings made for the Bureau. 

The district lies about 16 miles, by wagon road, north- 
west of Bodie and about two miles distant from the 
California-Nevada boundary line, at an elevation of 
about 8000 ft. It is the most recently discovered district 

in Mm ountj where an) t'ousiderable nmoiinl of work 

lias been done and ore of Inch grade has been mi I 

Masonic and the neighborhood have been known for 
many years and some slight prospecting had been done, 
Inn the discover} of valuable ore was made August 1. 
!902,whenJ M Bryan, Kaleb Dorsey, and J. H Phillips 
made locations on what has since been called the Pitts 
hurg-Libert) mine. They had followed numerous 
piuga of white ('bull' quartz veins, in the granite, with 
out '-••'• •! results and finally panned some of the dark 
porous cropping8 prominent in the neighborhood with 

i ■•■ encouraging results. The three partners were old 

time miners who regularlj spent a portion of their time 
working for wages and the remainder in prospecting'. 

Not until three years after the locations were made 
was ore in workable quantity or value found, and no 
considerable production was obtained until 1907 when 

they shipped to the Sclhy smelter near San Pranci8C0 

a carload of ore (17 tons', which netted them $1040 per 
ton. This was the product of five men's work during the 
summer and at only a depth of 15 ft. An option was 
given to George Wingfield and a payment of $47,000 
received. The option resulted in sinking a 100 ft. shaft 
and driving a 47-ft. cross-cut. However, title did not 
pass from the locators, due to their not consenting to 

alteration of terms, and they, upon taking charge of the 
property again, shipped ore to the amount of throe ear- 
leads, the poorest of which gave them a profit of over 
$700 per ton. The Pittsburg-Liberty Mining Co. was 
Funned and a 10-stamp steam-power mill was erected 
about a mile down the canon. 

The mine operated until 1910, the reported production 
being $600,000 to +700,0011, and has since been idle. No 
large profit is said to have resulted, which is remarkable 
when it is considered that the maps show only about 
fiOOO ft. of drifts and cross-cuts. Finding a mine and 
operating it, however, are separate and distinct prob- 
lems calling for different sorts of ability and training. 

Careful inspection of the workings is impossible, as 
the property is idle. Several veins or zones were stoped, 
most of them dipping at angles from 70 to fl0°. The 
greatest depth stoped below the croppings was about 
150 ft. The lower works being obstructed at the time of 
my examination, observations could not be made as t<» 
the geologic reason for loss of value. Assay plans show 
orebodies of very irregular shapes and value. Most of 
the value is in gold, some ore running as high as $300 
per ton. Prom inspection of assay plans it seems prob- 
able that the average value was about $20. No ma- 
chinery was used in the mine. Stopes and drifts were- 
supported by nut pine timber from the surrounding 
hills. Chutes to the lower adit furnished outlet to the 
wagon road running to the mill. Timber is cut under 
permit from the I*. S. Forest Service at. an average price 


January 2. 1!H3 

of $1.75 per cord. Some of the raosl noticeable facts in- 
dicated by the mine map are: Five veins, striking N.25' 
\V. and dipping to the east, developed upon the upper or 
130- ft. level, three of them developed on the second or 
17'J-ft. level; exposure by one cross-cut under the entire 
irrou | > of veins on the third or 271-ft. l<-\ <l : and a lower 
adit or 413-ft. level which cuts almost all of the mineral 
zone about 100 ft. smith of the most productive portion. 
An area 300 ft. - irs most of the workings. 

The easl wall of the silicified zone, according I 
scription by J. M. Bryan, is shown on the map of the 
413-ft. level. North of the main adit the general dip is 
said to be toward the east, while on the south side the 
diji is westerly. Horses of granite are said to have been 
common in the mineralized or silicified zone. 

Possibility of extension cf known orebodies cr 
discoveries is the most important economic question re- 
lating to the district. The geologic features and posi- 
tions of soi it' the prospecting works are shown on 

the accompanying map and a brief description of the 
geologic conditions may !»• interesting. 

The oldest rock in the region is the metamorphic 
series which consists of schist, quartzite, altered slate. 
and similar rocks, ll possibly belongs to the same series 
as the so-called -late extending along the eastern Sank 

of the Sierra Nevada mountains. One of the most promi- 
nent e if this series is in the vicinity of Rough 
creek, about tour miles north of Bodie, where it consists 
of some large croppings of chalcedonic quartzite, dark. 
almost black quartzite showing contorted lines either of 

bedding or flow under pressure. In other phiees. as 

nr.i thi' line, T. 5 N . If. 27 E., the quartzite has 

scarcely lost the appearat of a fine hard sandstone, 

with gently dipping beds and also varies t i the appear- 
ance of black Hint and while poi lain. Cinnabar in a 

J-tt. vein of chalcedony occurs in this vicinity and some 
Work "as done many years ago. 

.1 inn of the series near the town of Mas 
consists iiestly of fine grained mica schist, while that 
aloii" ill,, wagon road ahont six miles south of Masonic 
shows light colored slightly altered shale. Small areas 
in Sic. 34, T. 5 V. R. liti E., are interesting on account 

of their isdation and small extent. Faulting is evi- 
denced by slickensided exposures. 

As seen From the above brief notes, the series is com- 
plex, probably having originally consisted largely of sedi- 
ments which have I. ecu altered by heat and pressure 
during the Upheaval Of the Sierra Xevadas and the ac- 
companying granitic intrusion. 

The granite around the town of Masonic varies in 
different portions of the area, but is usually coarse 

grained, showing feldspar crystals frequently a half-inch 
long. It is broken by several series of joint planes. 

North of town their strike is northeast and southwest. 
dipping al.ont 60' toward the northwest, while south of 
town the most prominent fractures strike nearly east 
and west and dip northward. Probably the entire mass 
lias been subjected to severe strains and movements, 
causing some of the more prominent jointing planes. 

Along the southern and eastern borders of the meta- 
morphic area, one-half mile west of Masonic, the rela- 
tion of the two series is plainly seen. 

That the granite is the younger is shown hy its in- 
trusion as dikes, several feet wide, for a distance as much 
as 50 ft. into the schist, which is generally laminated 
parallel to the contact line between the two formations. 

The silieitieA zones arc :niioiig tin- most important fea- 
tures shown on the map. as in them occur most, if not 

all. of the orebodies of the Masonic district. North of 
the main road through the district, in section 15, is a 
hold quartz or quartzite outcrop several hundred feel 

wide and over one hundred feet high, being one of the 

Sect'ons 15, 1 ■;. 21. and 22. T. 6 X.. R. -'« E., .M D, 
i Pittsburg claim; i Liberty i ■'. Liberty No. - claim; 

tm; 5, II. -inline claim: 15. .lump t'p Joe 

claim; .. S, ' Read adits 9, Home View adit; 10, 

New Vork abaft; 11, Serita shaft. 12, Loel Horse shaft; 13, 
urg-Liberty adit, 


no\ oi development; froni California state hiking 

III III \l\ 

mm si uoticeable portions of the silicified areas. These 
zones doubtless exist in places when' considerable frac- 
turing and possibly movement has taken place in the 
granite country rock. Tin- zones correspond closely with 
the general direction of the jointing planes in the gran- 
ite. It is also suggested hy some observations) notably 
about 200 ft. southeast from the Serita shaft, that there 
may have been intrusions of igneous dikes along some 
of the fractured areas. 

In general the rock in these zones is quartz, hut not 
in tin' usual vein formation. It is usually dark colored 
or rusty in appearance and the walls of the zone are not 
clearly distinguished especially upon the surface of the 
ground. It is made up of large quartz boulders, silici- 
lied granite, breccia, and sonic clay as from decomposed 

country rock. The ore of the district has an open or 
porous appearance consisting of light colored chert and 
coatings of chalcedonic quartz accompanying breccia of 

.laiuian .'. 1915 


lifrhl colored angular fragment! cc attd in ■ dark icala were used, labor cut to i nimum, and cost* wen 

hrown L'l-.iiin.l man Ita appearance ia unusual aa com therefore lowered The plant is in splendid ph 

pared with other orebodiea of the neighborhood, which 
doubtless ;!•■•-■ >n hi -. imperatively receul .lis 

ll indicates that after quarts began t>> be de 
re man) diaturbancea in the channels 
opening, dosing, and crushing, irregular shaped ore 
hodieH ■ gpected. 

Ore Treatment and Costs aft Sforaftftora's 
Indef endence 

rtiug data are from the report of the mill 
superintendent, W. II. Harrison, for the year ended 
June 30, 19H: 
There was a total of 39 men employed at the plant, 
sting hi four m the ore dump, tour on coarse crush- 
ing an,! sorting, ten on fine crushing and concentrating, 
ten in the ryanide department, two at the mine breaker, 
inn- on tin- residue dam, ami eight mi general repairs. 
Mill results were as follows: 

condition. Tin- eurrenl year nill see the end <>t mill 

11. ia. at Ion. 




Damp ore treated, tuns 



99, 172 

Mint- in.- treated, ions 





■:::: s7" 

130 1 10 

112 ::»i 

\.. ragi sold content, oz. per ton 

0.] 139 






Concentrate produced: 

Fii - >:is 


ond grade-, tons 



Total concentrate, tons 


-.- sold content : 

First grade, oz. per ton 

4.1 is 


Second grade, oz. per ton.... 




Gold recovered: 

In concentrate smelted, oz. . . . 


As bullion in mill, oz 




Extraction by years: 

In concentrate, per cent 




As bullion, per cent 




Total recovery 


7S. 4s 


Costs is 


Per ton. 

Coarse crushing and sorting... 


Fine crushing, concentrating, and treating concentrate 0.504028 

Cyaniding and special chemicals 



Toial nulling charge 





Tin- gross profit was $124,760, of which $26,251 was 
paid to the mine department on the usual scale of treat- 
ment charges for low-grade mine ore. This left a net 
profit to the mill of $98,509. There were no noteworthy 
changes in treatment methods, the higher recovery being 
due to the increased tonnage of oxidized ore coining 
from "A' level. This is easily cyanided. Less chem- 

< on. i MUM. .11 IHI..M IN BTBATTON's I sin i-l mii \. i MUX. 

ing tin- dump, so rusts will increase here, and profits 
will probably aol in- as high as previou 

Cosfts aft ftlae KalguuirM Mnmi® airadl 

This property is al Kalgoi rlie, Western Australia, 
and during tli.- pasl financial year produced 127. ^7" 
tons of in,- averaging $9.60 per inn. Dividends total.-. i 

Cost cm Ton 


Superintendence $0.04 

Breaking ore ".55 

Timbering stopes and . 

passes 0.04 

Loading and tramming 0.38 

Filling slopes 0.13 

Tools 0.04 

Sundries 0.02 

Total labor $1.20 

Total stores 

Hoisting and drills. . . 
Proportion of manage- 



Total mining $l.sN 


Superintendence $0.07 

Rock-crushers 0.07 

Aerial tramway .0.06 

Ball-milling and con- 
veyors ii. is 

Roasting furnaces . . . 0.68 

Separating and settling 0.06 

Grinding pans 0.26 

Agitating and filter- 
pressing n. is 

Disposal of residue... 0.1 J 

Watei (tit 

Oiling 0.02 

Amalgamation and pre- 
cipitation ii. (is 

Clean-up 0.02 

Sampling and assay- 
ing 0.02 

General treatment.... 0.04 
Proportion of manage- 
ment 0.21 

Total milling 
All costs 

. .$4.(19 

The average residue was 78 cents per ton. 

Metal output of the Consolidated Mining & Smell- 
ing Co. of Canada from 1894 to date totals 1,462,012 
oz. gold. 26,017,332 oz. silver, 333,913.214 lb. lead, and 
57.890.794 lb. copper, worth $66,503,384, from the treat- 
ment of 3.925.822 tons of ore. 

liin.v production of Germ.anv naturally shows a large 
decrease, the output in September being 580.087 tons 
against 1.564,345 tons in July. 



January 2. 1915 

/traders of the Mining and SCIENTIFIC Press are invited to use this depar'ment for the dUCUSSiOtl of tech- 
nical and o'her matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor wetcomqf the expression of vii nc 
trnry to his <ng thai careful criticism is more valuable than casual compliment. Insertion of any con- 

tribution is determined by its probable interest to the readers of this journal. 

Tlhe Gwunm&os Diredlge 

The Editor: 

Sir — I note in your issue of November 14. among the 
aews items from the Philippine [glands, that yon publish 
tin' results of the (Juuiiiis company's dredge For Au- 
gust, giving the value of the elean-up at t*7::.2;>4. equal 
to $36,642 in V. s. gold. 

V. ii als i mention that the dredge worked 517 hours 
and handled B2.000 cu. yd. of gravel during the month 
— all of which is correct — only, I would like to call the 
attention of your readers to the Fact that the percent- 
age of the running time of this dredge is much greater 
than the 517 hours would indicate, due- to the facl that 

the Company operates only six clays a week, dosing 
down on Sundays. The possible running time for the 
month of August would therefore be 26 days or C:!4 
hours, instead of 31 days or 744 hours. Hence the per- 
centage of running time is much greater than indicated 

in your note. 

This dredge was built by my company, the New York 

Bngii ring Co., and the clean-up of $36,642 together 

with the large yardage handled by this dredge, cer- 
tainly affords good evidence of the success of gold dredg- 
ing in the Philippines when the proper equipment is 
selected and properly installed. 

A. C. Ludlum. 

New York. I) oilier 5. 

The Editor: 

Sir — Supplementing Messrs. .Morrison and Thomson's 
notes on Globe filter practice, printed in the Press, Oc- 
toher in. a few words of the experience at the Com- 
monwealth mill at Pearee. Arizona, may he of interest. 

As a preliminary lei it he stated that the filter unit 
consists of four Oliver filters. 11.5 by 16 ft., a dry- 
vaeuuin system being used working through a receiver, 
from the bottom of which an elevated goose-neck con- 
nects with the vacuum-pump. A duplex vacuum-pump 
is used, with a rotary for use in emergencies. In the 
original installation, the goose-neck from the receiver 
to the vacuum-pump was built to allow- a few feet more 
than the theoretical height necessary at this altitude, 
but sufficient ail- was drawn through the filters to form 
what might be termed an air-lift, and it was necessary 

to raise the go. ■ se-neek an additional 11 ft. to prevent 
drawing over of tilt rate. 

In the Commonwealth mill, the arrangemfinl of four 

Dorr thickeners for counter-current replacement after 
agitation has caused much of the pregnant solution to 
be already replaced by the time that the filters are 
reached, so that the metal content of the filter sludge 
is small, and the assays of washed and unwashed resi- 
dues show small loss of 'soluble values.' 

The washing arrangement consists of four 11.,-in. 
spray lines, each having nine Vermorel rotary spray- 
tips. In the course of the regular routine, all water 
entering the mill circuits is added by means of the8e 
sprays. Four such spray lines, with nine sprays each, 
under a head of 25 lb. pressure, give 12(1 lb. of water 
per minute, which with a cake of a scant half-inch in 
thickness, means 120 lb. of water to 1540 lb. of dry slime. 
A cake .if one-quarter inch thickness will, of course. 
double the ratio of wash water to slime, but cakes of 
a lesser thickness indicate a fouled condition of the 
tillering medium, and all of the wash water is not drawn 
through, but runs down the filter into the sludge hop- 
per and dilutes the sludge. The arrangement id' the 

piping does not pel'mif of the substitution of barrel! 
solution for wash wafer, in any of the spray lines. How- 
ever, in this particular case, the mechanical loss of cya- 
nide by such a substitution would be greater than the 
gain in flic lessening of 'dissolved values.' In passing, 
if should be mentioned that extraction in tin- course of 
the four thickeners being nil. none is looked for during 

Tin- filters are provided with the usual side air-lifts, 
for the circulation of the sludge from the bottom to the 
top of the hopper, but the foundation arrangement is 
such that they cannot be readily cleaned, and they an- 
no longer in use. Agitation is secured by means of' 
the mechanical agitator, used for a half hour twice eacli 
shift, supplemented by air jets in case the filter is 
stopped for any reason and the cake dropped. There 
are eight of these jets arranged along the side of the 
hopper and extending down into the sludge eight feet. 
These are used to break up dropped eakes. which tend 
to pull up and jam on the sides of the hopper, or in 
case the mechanical agitator does not work. 

The filter canvas is scrubbed by means of five sta- 
tionary brushes fastened to the traveler screw of tin- 
winding rig working on the long screw alongside of 
the filter, acid solution being sprayed upon the canvas- 
from a spray nozzle and garden hose attached to an 
elevated tank. This, with an occasional hand scrubbing. 
keeps the canvases in good condition. Were it permis- 
sible, an acid treatment by spraying the acid on the- 

i> .' 1913 

minim; I'Ki ss 

dram ipraj line and drawing h through the 

canvas by vacuum, would give the beat man I under 
stand thai tins is dona by baring a unall auxiliary 
vacuum line connected 

which it is pumped back t" 1 1 1 .- spray line It is noi 
•an even to drain the aludgc hopper; merely draw 
down the sludge s. thai it doea not touch the drum, close 
id.- flltrate vacuum line, and open the auxiliarj a id 
line, then (tart the acid circulating. 

ly the practice baa been ad ipted of waahing th.- 
canvas with a fire hoae with water under high pressure, 

the stream being « tir.-.-t .-.1 on the discharging se.-ti. f 

the eanvaa \s this section is under air pressure from 
within the drum, the impinging water exerts a knead 
ing action on the canvas which flakes off much of the 
encrusted lime, and the air assists in forcing oul mat- 
ter in the pores of the fabi 

Tins pressure water wash Ims doubled the period of 
time between .acid washes. It might l»- worth while, if 
high-pressure w .it. r was noi otherwise available, to in 

stall a I *" I > : 1 1 ■ to give a high pressure to a small volume 

of water for washing, as tin- volume of water seems 
nut si. essential as the height of the pressure. 

As the life of the eanvas filter cover seems in have 
been shortened bj rotting underneath the wires, due 
t.i the latter rusting, one filter drum has Keen wound 
with wire that is coated with l* & It paint. This paint- 
ing .if the wire was done by passing the win- over a 
grooved wheel, the lower edge i f which revolved below 

the surface of the paint in a shallow reservoir. This 

filter has not been operated long enough in determine 
whether or noi this treatment is beneficial, yel it involves little Additional trouble ami while the paint will 

quickly wear from tl iitside face of the wire, it is 

reasonable to ex] t that the inside, where it rests mi 

the ca ".as, will retain its coating ami lessen the rusting. 
It' the filter eanvas is kept in good shape, the rake 

kicks off clean, and the discharge apron only serves i" 
divert ii into the tailing launder, hut if .me tries in 


I I.. I nut ,.u thl 

of it i- substituted tpporling pin 

•■hare, apron s., that the apron can i- ■hifted length 
i ins with i aaional filing 

the edirc in L- I 


It W Mi 

use this discharge apron as a scraper to remove the 
eake, he will soon be busy. The saw-toothed edge worn 
on the discharge apron by the drum wires, is taken 
eare of at the Commonwealth mill by a very simple 

Pel i; 

Shall fthe Institute Express- Opinions? 

Membi is of I ican Institute •>! Mining Ei 

tfiiieeis will he asked to vote at the February meeting 

upon import an I amendments t,. the Constitution de 

signed to rem.. v.- the existing limitations uj ... 

pi. -simi of ..pinion whatever by the Institute. Thi 

t.i- is of lirst importance ami we have i iv.-d man.> 

letters on tin- subject, hut have withheld publication 

until members should have r iv.-.l tl fficial state 

iii.-nt i'. i and against, prepared by a special i iitt.-.- 

of the Institute. That n..w being available and the 

whole matter public, we present belnw two of the let- 
ters at hand and will print others next week.— EDITOR. ] 

i,i .sons inn Adopting the Proposed Amendments 

It is noi generally understood by the membership of 

the Instiiute that although its .".nun members include of the men who are in charge of the mining and 

metallurgical industries of the world and tl rganiza- 

tion is therefore one of the dignity I strength. 

il is al the same lime in tie- singular position of a giaill 

in chains. Ii is tied down rigidly by constitutional re 
strictions which permit it to do practically nothing I •• 

yon. I talking and publishing. These restrictions dat. 
back to the origin of the institute when it was feared 
that special interests might utilize it for their own ends. 
The Institute ami its organization has long since de- 
veloped lo such a point that nothing of Ibis kind is pes 
-ii 1.- now and then- is no reason for retaining the re- 

It is therefore proposed to remove them and to make 
il p ssible tor the Institute hereafter to act I'm- its own 
welfare in any way which it may deem wise. The issue 
presented lo members by this circular therefore is 

whether or not they wish the Institute to have freedom 
of a. -lion. The restrictions which it is desired to remove 
illustrate an evil which is found in some form in niosi 
constitutions and which is so subtle that it has doubtless 
crept into ours without any recognition of its true nature 
by the framers of the constitution. 

This is the attempt to tie the hands of our successors 
in order to make sure that they will always act in accord- 
ance with our own views. It is caused by a weakness 
which is common to us all. the feeling that there will 
never lie any wisdom in the future quite equal to our own 

and Unit we should, therefore, endeavor to think of r\r\-y- 
thine that could happen in the future and prescribe to 
the people who are to run affairs then what they ought 
or ought not to do in each case. It is not believed t! at 





any Bel of men are competent to so dictate the policies 

or the acts of their su tssors, nor is there any reason 

why this should be permitted. 

Tli" only proper function of a constitution in an In- 
stitute like ours is thai of formulating the organization 
mill its mode of procedure, and it should stop there. 
i rganized the Institute is i|iiit" competent to con- 
vert tli" "ill of its members into action at any time and 
upon any subject. Whether sojie act in the future will 
in- wise or foolish is tli" business of tli" Institute mem- 
iMil otti.-ials nt that particular date and it is certain 
thai no one "is" will be in any better position for the 

g I judgment. If 5000 members, with a 

complete and modern organization for formulating their 
will and expressing it in action, cannot be trusted to 
ivhal is for their own good al any time, then or- 
ganization becomes an absurdity. 

In short, whenever this Institute wants to do anything 
to do it. At present it is tied down in 
an absurd way by the aforesaid restrictions which limit 
its activities to Bocial intercourse and professional 
papers. These narrow limits prevent any development 
of the general feeling which now prevails that the time 

h;i> mm" for the institute to do something more in this 
world than mere talk. 

The only valid objection which could be raised againsl 
freedom of action is that at some time something might 
I"- d which in our present opinion might not be wise, 

ami it is easy to conjure up an endless list of such 
bugaboos. The Institute might take sides upon th" 
tariff question or the European war, upon religion, so- 
cialism, or some similar thing. As a matter of fact, com- 
mon sens.' «ill always restrict action to suitable fields, 
and no board of directors would venture upon any new 
policy without being well assured either by its gen- 
eral knowledge or a referendum that it represented tin- 
will of the majority. To do otherwise would he to com- 
mit official suicide. As in any organization, the minority 
must bi overruled, bu1 in the professional spirit which 

pervades the Institute, good judgment will naturally re- 
frain from policies which are so extreme in any direc- 
tion as to cause a serious loss of membership. In any 
"as.- there is no adequate reason why 5000 intelligent 
men should tie their own hands. The Institute ought to 
have complete freedom of action. 

Edmund B. Kibby. 

Reasons Against Adopting the Proposed Amendments 

Tin function that the Institute was designed to fill is 
to offer a tield where ideas falling within its province 
may he placed to the test of examination and discussion. 
It has admirably tilled that function, and because of its 
succss it has been suggested thai to its original function 
of examining and discussing ideas shall lie added the 
function of deciding upon and advocating such ideas or 
schemes as meet its approval. 

The Institute, as at present organized, is specifically 
prohibited from so deciding upon or advocating any 

Controversial matter. The Institute, as at present or- 
ganized, cannot take sides. The prop. Bed changes in 
the Constitution would do away with this prohibition 
and allow the directors practically unlimited scope to 
commit the Institute to take sides on any question. 

The tirst effect of the removal of this prohibition will 

he the earnest, continued, and subtle solicitation of the 
directors to throw the influence of the Institute on the 

sole of th" nnaneial or political interests of a certain 
number of members, who naturally- desire to set all the 
available support to their propaganda. While I am 

heartily in favor of having the interests of the mining 
industry adequately presented before the country and 
• 'ongress. the Institute does not seem the hest means 
for making this presentation. It has no means for 

quickly ami accurately ascertaining the wishes of its 

members who. being of many nationalities, have natu- 
rally and inevitably clashing interests, It would he un- 
just to decide, merely by the vote of the directors, a 
question which vitally affects even a small integral 
minority of the members. 

I have seen no means suggested by which the questions 
that will he submitted to the Board of Directors can he 
classified so as to determine certainly and with accuracy 
whether they may or may not he decided by the hoard. 

X of tlie schemes so far Suggested for ascertaining 

the wishes of the members, or for weighing the strength 
of tlie opposition to any project, seems competent to at- 
tain with speed ami certainty the desired result. 

While undoubtedly a certain amount of chafing 
against restrictions imposed by the Constitution has 
taken place. I do not think that the Institute has really 

suffered. I feel sure that if the restrictions were entirely 

removed and the proposed unlimited latitude allowed 

directors, they would he the tirst to rebel at the greatly 

ised responsibilities they would have to assume, the 

increased amount of time they would have to give the 

affairs of the Institute, not only to promote ideas they 
wen- interested in. hut to prevent the adoption of 
schemes they thought harmful. 

The proposed entire removal of restriction on the 
taking of Bides, seems to me unwise. I have heard no 
definition of any new limitation that is sufficiently help- 
ful to warrant a change in the Constitution. Without 
some limitation. I feel that the probabilities are great 
that sides may lie taken on some question that will not 
add to the prestige of the Institute or aid its usefulness, 
and I am therefore not in favor of the proposed changes 
to the Constitution as they now stand. 

Sidney J. Jennings. 

French iron mines and mills at Longwy and Bruges 
have been placed under management of the German 
civil authorities. The significance of this fact will he 
understood when it is remembered that the district 
furnishes approximately 85$ of the entire French iron 
ore production. — Weekly Report, American Association 
Commei & Trade. Berlin. 

.1 >i ii i lii r\ 




W,p,( of |J|0M >'" IN -'I'ly '" ijursty 1 by rn.ii/. Our ».<]</».. dr. tmth'l ti> (Ml OHMllOHI 01 

it^'if iiuifiuM tftoMnf « ifi las stwMoa 0/ munu'v. siMf Jh0, and MitlMng. 

Ti be-miix crashing capacity at the Consolidated Gold 
Fields plants .>n the Rand has been increased by means 
i>f a scoop discharge at the outlet end, which lowers 
tin' level of the pulp m the mill. 

Shaft-sinking iii the Nevada Wonder mine, Nevada. 

i $30.80 to $38.53 per fool in the past financial 

i the Company. These costs are for two and thi 

ipariini'iit shafts respectively. 

As > i\i ii i-ii'i is said to be capable of deliver- 
0,000 bbl. of California "il per day. This is prob- 
ably with light nils heated considerably, bnl is ordi- 
narily in excess of the possibiliti 

Appropriations for the r. S. Geological Survey for 

.i systematic study of the water resources of the country 

have totaled $12,500 to $200,000 during the pasl 18 

From 1903 to 1906 it was $200,000 per year, and 

Bince 1911, $150,000. 

Lampblack residue from the manufacture of gas from 
crude oil makes a useful fuel when briquetted. It 
needs no binder. Analyses Bhow the following com- 
position: moisture, 3.0491 ; volatile matter, 27.329! ; fixed 

earl 69.06%; ash. 0.58%; and heat value. 15,105 

B.t.u. per pound. The latter is about moo B.t.u. more 
than the best anthracite coal. 


capacity of 30, 1,000 gal. per day. of Allis-Chalmers 

iiiaki-. was recently installed at the Broadway pumping 

station of the Toledo Water Works. Ohio. It is far 
more efficienl than the old pumps. Insulation of the 
steam cylinders and pipes is by Johns-Manville mag- 
nesia covering. The pump eost $83,000. 

Advantages have been claimed from the storage of 

eoal in water, hi the annual report of Admiral R. S. 

Griffin, chief of the Bureau of Engineers of the Navy 
Engineers, he says the Bureau has not yel been aide to 
determine the advantage to he derived from the stor- 
age of eoal under water, although tests have hern going 

on for three years at New London without so far de- 
veloping any marked difference in value between coal 
in the open, under cover, and under water. 

States which have taken legislative action in the mine- 
rescue and first-aid movement are as follows: Illinois. 
Oklahoma. Nevada. Colorado. Tennessee. Ohio, Kentucky, 
and New Mexico, according to J. W. Paul of the 1". S 
Bureau of Mines. Mention only is made of tin- states 
which have taken some action in promoting rescue work 

and training, Some of tin- states named have appro 
priated funds fur thi purchase of breathing apparatus 
only; some have required the mine operators to procure 

a eertai tuber of sets of such apparatus; some have 

authorized perative training; and others have pro 

stations, cars, an, | a permanent organization for 
the conduct of the instruction and training ot miners 
in modern equi] nt and methods. 

Thallium is a rare metal with a s| ific gravity of 

11.81 to II. HI. and a melting point of 303 . It occurs 

in certain pyrites and in mineral waters, Physicall.i and 
mechanically it is like lead, but chemically it also re 

scinhles the alkali metals in man) respects, It is mi 
soft that it can he cut with the linger nail. A freshly 

cut sin lac- is lustpius. hut rapidly b >mes dull. The 

metal volatilizes a little above the melting point, and 
when heated before a blowpipe gives a reddish vapor 

having a peculiar smell. Hydrochloric acid attacks thal- 
lium slowly, while other acids dissolve il rapidly. The 

metal is generally extracted from the tine dust of fur- 
naces in which pyrite containing the clement is burned. 
This dust is treated with dilute sulphuric acid, and the 

thallium precipitated in a crystalline form by means 
uf zinc. The child' use of the metal is in the manufac- 
ture of optical glass of high refractive power. Thallium 
is worth about +11 per pound. 

Lime exhibits some peculiar chemical reactions. It 

consists of o parts of calcium and 2 parts of oxygen, 
having the formula CaO. Owing to its chemical activ- 
ity, il is not found native, lint mostly as the carbonate 
t'at'O.. If this he heated, the following reaction takes 
place : 

CaCO a = CaO -f- C0 2 

If the lime produced is exposed to the air. it absorbs 

moisture, forming calcium hydroxide. This absorbs car- 
bon dioxide from the air. resulting in calcium carbonate 
and water. Therefore, if exposed to the air. lime will 
gradually reverl to a substance having the same chem- 
ical composition as that from which it was derived. 
Read ions are as follows: 

CaO + H 2 = Ca(OH), 

Ca(OH) 2 + (•<), = CaCO a lie 

These reactions form the basis for manufacture of 

lime products ami its various uses. The chemical uses 

arc numerous in the agricultural, bleaching, caustic al- 

kali. chemical «as. glass, grain milling, oil. fat and soap, 
ore treatment, paint and varnish, paper, preserving, san- 
itation, smelting, sugar, tanning, and water softening 
and purifying industries. 


January 2, 1015 


Uuiiiiirjr m 



Placer mining <>u Fairbanks creeks lias undergone consider- 
abll change from the i CI ek, whin hundreds 

of thousands were taken out with a tew men working in a 
are a number of large concerns which 
are making Ining, systematizing the work, and 

cutting down expenses wherevei possible, in order to permit 
he low-grade ground to he worked as economically as possible. 
Two plants are at work on No. 1 Below, creek claim, one of 
Grill & Griffin and the oilier of Jacobson & Pi 
The operations of the latter planl are at ih>- mouth of Alder 
crei k, on ground owned by L. ('. Hess. A slip scraper was 
arly In the season, but was replaced by a bottomless 
Ia1 i A 10-hp. boiler and a i'.', by 10 double- 
drum American lioisi comprise the equipment. It was pi 
to wink 25,000 sq. it. of bedrock during the summer season. 
Tin men were employed. The ground prospected $1.25 per 

quare foot. The Bogge, Grill & Griffin plant was on gro 1 

i & Larson. Fifteen men were employed 
Slip Si rated by a 50-bp. plant was used to work the 

■pay' from the bottom of the cut. The ground is 20 ft. deep. 
A second cut was started late in the summer. 
Above Discovery claim. Lapp! & Holkie worked on No. 2 

•[Previous articles in this series by Mr. Hurja on mining in 
Alaska and the Yukon have been Mining Revival In the 
Ketchikan District, Alaska.' .Inly I: 'Wrangell; Alaska.' special 
ondence. July 11: 'Developments of the Alaska Gold 
Minis Co.,' July 18; 'Juneau, Alaska.' special correspondence. 
July 25: 'Cordova, Alaska.' special correspondence, August 8; 
Valdez and Prince William Sound.' August 15; 'Seward and 
tin Kenai Peninsula.' August 29; 'The Koyukuk Mining Dis- 
trict.' September 12; Operations of the Yukon Gold Co..' Octo- 

i 10: Skagway-White Horse Mining District.' Octolier 17: 
'Operations of the Canadian-Klondyke G. M. Co..' November 
14: The Klondike, the Treadgold Placers, aud Outlying Dis- 
tricts,' November 28; The Upper Yukon: Circle City. Eagle. 
and Woodchopper,' December 5; 'Placer Mining lb the Fair- 
banks District.' December 19.— Editor.] 

Above. They, had a 25-hp. boiler and had six men working. 
The depth to bedrock was 22 ft. Fred Parker's open-cut work 
on No, 8 Above is the most important work in the creek, so far 
as size ol plant and output is concerned. The summers' out- 
i ui was nearly 50,000 sq. ft. of bedrock, and the plans for next 
year provided for an increased output In 1915. A :;'._.-:t. Bag- 
lej scraper was operated by a 7 by 10 American three-drum 
hoist The ftoilt r capacitj of the plant was 50-hp. Ten 
w.n kid each shift during the summer. Pole riffles and 
one box of Hungarian i Milts served to catch the gold. Two 
plants worked on No. 4 Above, one. a small one owned by 
Charles Felton and the other by Frank Mueller. On IG Above, 
Charles Schafor operated a small placer plant. Huddleston 
Brothers and Henry Pate worked on 16 Above, mar the head 
of Fairbanks creek, driving into the hill for a bench run of 
'pay.' On No. s Above, creek claim, the Alaska Exploration to. 
is conducting dredging opi rations. The Company was financed 
liy Knglish capitalists and the work was in charge of G. Aarons 
during the past season. Because of the age of the dredge, 
numerous breakdowns greatly reduced the operating length of 
the season. The dredge has :'.'..-cu. ft. buckets in a close-con- 
line and a 40-£t. ladder. Steam is the motive power. 
Wood is used for fuel. The depth of the ground is from 10 to 
12 Ft. Due to an error in judgment, the dredge during 1912 
and part of 1913 worked through a pile of tailing made by 
itself in order to work back to virgin ground that had been 
overlooked. The operation during the present season was re- 
ported to be successful. A Keystone No. 3 drill was used on 
the Company's holdings on upper Fairbanks creek during the 
summer in prospecting work. 

The productive area of the Goldstream basin extends from 
the Goldstream flats, two miles or more below the town of Fox, 
upstream to the confluence of Pedro and Gilmore creeks, and 
both of those streams to the near headwaters. The Engineer 
Creek valley is producing a little. It is tributary to lower 
Goldstream. It was on Pedro creek that the first discovery of 
gold in the Fairbanks district was made, the creek getting its 
name from the discoverer. 


I lill.'l 

Ml\l\i. I 

Itili unimportant mining on Twli 

.1 to 
Mian ut tin in. nub ol 't'w 

li mining »iiii 
H plum I" below in,, 

Qloi tad il'i ii In 01 Mot 

.mil \l. i 
a .in Qolditrram Koch, K. n i 
! i Dl n No 

lOH Met hi 


the !'■ .1 en-cutting plants are ol thi 

oi triple-drum hoisting engines controlllui 

ible through bio il different 

ink .n tin- cut. scraping directly Into ihe 

boxi i Mudgi ii an. I Mogan * Co 

; an. I ».ir fortunate In 
havti condttloni to halp th.-m along In the 

Initial stage* .n the woi ■■ ■ i has been iratlng on 

Pedn or a Dumber of years; in fact, he waj one ol the 

lake on the creek. He was a member of the 
i trading expedition which established Palrbanl 

v. . i_ 

The DeRuchla outfit's work on No. B Below, Pedro, for mil 

provided for cleaning ap 75, ' Bq. tt. ol bedrock. A wheel 

ft. . ai.i.iii was drawn (6 ft. up an Incline to 
a .1 ! bj an Ann rlcan dou 

■drum hoist. Two 35-hp. boilers furnished power for the work. 
a bedrock drain was the work waa attempted. The 

dump-boi has i. link riffles followed by Hungarian riffles. The 
plant operated nlghl and day, with 20 men employed. 

On No 9 and No. 10 Below. Pedro, Janus McPike, and 
Thomas Gllmore have a battery of boilers aggregating 90 lip. 
operating a 50-hp. American triple-drum hoist in an open-cut 
thai i yield for four years more. One Bagley No. 3 

and one No. i scraper are used. The din from the cut is 
scraped directly into the dumiebox. which has a length or 80 
it., a width of four feet, and is underlaid with 5 and ii-in. 
block riffles. The Bluice-boxes hare a width of 20 in. Iron- 
shod pole riffles are used in the string. The work last siiiu- 
ini r cleaned up two blocks of ground, aggregating over 70.000 
sq It. A big block was opened up for operations in the spring 
oi 1915 as soon as water starts to run. 

Koch. Kerrigan & Cuilinaue are operating on No. 2 B?low. 
Goldatream, with a 7"-hp. plant. An American hoist, si, by 
10, operates a yard slip scraper. After the ground, which is 
17 ft. from surface to bedrock, is stripped of 'muck' and waste, 
the last six feet is scraped into the sluice-boxes. Part of the 
■pay' occurs in bedrock. The dump-box is GO ft. long. 40 in. 
wide, and contains block riffles. Hungarian riffles are used in 
the sluice-boxes. 

On No. 5. Goldstream. creek and light limit bench claims. 
F. C. Bleeker operates two plants about l.v.n it. apart. One 
has a 70-hp. loi onio. ivr type boiler, with an 8' , by 10-in. Amer- 
ican hoist: the other has a 90-hp. boiler with a similar hoisting 
engine. The first plant had as its season's work, a block of 
80,000 sq. ft. of bedrock to scrape. The other had a block of 
55.000 sq. ft. The average depth of the ground is Is ft., with 
a minimum of 12 and a maximum of 30 ft. The 'muck' ran-' 
from 6 to 15 ft. deep, with an average of 9 ft. Some of the 
'muck' is ground-sluiced off, but because of the absence of per- 
ceptible grade, most of it has to be scraped. Water is pumped 
15 ft. to the flumeway by two pumps, a Crow and a Morris. 
Six hundred feet of flume carries the water to the dump-box. 
Two slip scrapers are used, each with a capacity of 30 cu. ft. 
Two and one-half feet of bedrock is taken up. The dump- 
box is 54 ft. long. Iron-shod pole riffles are used in the upper 
•end of the dump-box. with perforated metal riffles and cocoa 
■matting below. The cost of operation is 25c. per square foot 
•of ground worked. Henry Wagner has one scraper of the Bag- 
ley type at wo.Ii on No. 6. 

lll'I'M I'll 11M.I UIIHWk- lit- Mill I. 

On Qoldsl ream, Martin i Co had 19 mi n 

.Inns The depth to bedrock in 28 ft. \ ml fur- 

nishes power, vis. i... A: fii. have ■ crew ol ten men working 

"ii No. 9. The gr< I la 86 ft. deep Vlcarr 1 Co., with a 

30-lip. plant and in nun employed, have started driving opera- 
on No in. fii. ground li 10 ft. deep Thej expect to 
ml a dump during the winter. Qenoss ft Co., on No. 11 
Goldstream, have two 25-hp. boilers to furnish power for hoist' 
ing. Tin nun are employed. Mogatad & Co. have a crew at 
work on No. 12. Casalegno & Dunn finished their work on 

No. 14 early in the fall. They had a nvn ol II n working 

\.rai months during the summer sluicing Beason. 

r terson & Co. are preparing to open up a new block of 
ground on No. 17. Goldstream, a claim which probably has 
produced more gold than any other In Goldstream and more 
than many others In the district, li formerly was owned by 
L. L. .lames, now of San Francisco. The depth to bedrock on 
the upper end of the claim is 95 feet. 

James Russell and Huddleston Brothers are working on 22, 
Goldatream, taking out a little gold. The depth to bedrock is 
."u ft. On the Perlenda ground on 23. Goldstream. Brown & Co.. 
and Li at' & Carroll are working. They sluiced a little during 
ibe summer. E. A. Williams, on the lower end of the Owl Asso- 
ciation claim on Engineer creek, had a crew of 30 men work- 
ing during the summer. He has a 70-hp. plant on the ground, 
which is of low-grade and has to be worked on a large scale to 
be profitable. The ground is i;ii t'l. deep. Herbi it Williams is 
prospecting on the upper end of the Owl Association. O. W. 
Fisher also is prospecting on upper Engineer. DeWree & Co.. 
at the mouth of Blanche gulch, an Engineer tributary, had 10 
men working for a time during the summer, usim; a 25-hp. 
plan! In the work. 

The Ester Creek district continues to be profitable, although 
the richer placers have been worked out. The rich tributaries 
of Ready Bullion and Eva creeks are still yielfng one gold, 
although the richer parts of the streaks have been taken out 
long ago. Pr specting is expected to demons rate unworlted 
raits of the streaks. 

On Eva creek. Charles Lind & Co. are prospecting the Min- 
nesota Association claim, owned by Harry Wallace. Drill 
work done there two years ago showed up good ground, which 
was not worked because of the presence of 'live' water. 
Charles Pyne & Co. are working on the upper end of the Happy 
Home Association claim, sinking a prospect shaft. The Happy 
Home has produced between $400,000 and $425,000. Mcintosh 
& Co. have a small crew at work on the Daly bench, taking 
out side pay.' 

The Mihalcik bench yielded between $00,000 and $70,000 
during the past year on Ready Bullion creek, tributary to 
Ester creek. There is no more work in progress on Ready 
Bullion, with the exception of desultory prospecting for a side 
streak on some of the worked-out claims. 





Tom Isaacson <£ Co. are working on No. :: Above, with a 
small crew of men. A new side streak was recently found, and 
a 50-b.p. plant was erected. The depth of the ground is 80 ft. 
The season's probable output of the claim was 10,000 eq. ft. 
Di bedrock. Olson & Sullivan, wor king on the upper end of 
No, 1 Above, erected a battery of boIIeTs. one 40-hp. and the 
other 36-hp. and started to open up for the winter. They ex- 
pect lo Opt u 80,000 gq: It. eel bedrock In readiness lor the he- 
Binning of sluicing next spring. Thirty-five men are employed. 
On No. 1 Above. George Rev is prospecting the Haskell claim. 
Sandelrum L Co. have a lay on the upper end of No. 1 Above 
and recently ere lip. plant. They have a crew 

of six men working. Keith & Co. have a 25-hp. plant on No. :'. 
Above. \vi,h six men employed. On Gold Hill, the left limit 
bench of Cripple creek, three plants worked almost continn- 
darlng the summer. The Gold Hill Mining Co. employed 
15 nun until the first of August. Deck & Co. had 12 men 
Qg uniil the end of the sluicing season. Aim Brothers 
employed eight men for a greater part of the summer. On 
Happy creek there is one plant at work. 

Little Eldorado is a tributary to the Chatanika, a few miles 

[he ntli of Cleary creek. Several small plants wi 

mi the upper i ml ol the creek during the summer, but their 

reduction robably did not amount to more than (10,1 

Jess Noble, on Xo. ."> Above, first tier, right limit, bench, was 
ih own summer and was torced to sink 

ana her shaft. The depth to bedrock is no it. Bight men 
ed in ill'- tail. The- pay' i, said to be rich. 
Howsi i i: Co., working on .No. 2 Above, recently erected a 30- 
lip. plain after finding pay' and made considerable profit 
g the summer. Erickson & Anderson, on No. 2 Below. 
Little Eldorado, had a 30-hp. plant on their ground, which is 
iiiu ft. deep and contains a pay-streak 120 ft wide. The gold 
is In the gravel for four feel above bedrock. Sixteen men 
were employed through the summer. Whaley & Co. had six 
nun working during the summer on No. 0. first tier bench, 
right limit, where the ground is 150 ft. deep. 

On Ihe Eldorado Association, opposite No. S on the first tier 
of lift limit benches, Hearn & Rundlund have a 40-hp. plant 
and have 18 men working. The depth of the ground is 150 ft. 
Hess & Erickson. on No. 9 Below, had 20 men working during 
the summer. They took out 50,000 sq. ft. of bedrock. W. T. 
Burns, who recently was interested in the Chatham Mining 
Co. on Chatham creek, has started to prospect his holdings on 
the Oregon Association at the mouth of Little Eldorado. 

On Vault creek, most of the mining was being done at t he- 
mouth of the stream, where it emptied into the Chatanika. 
The Cook interests operated on the Sarah Association near the 
month of Vault for most of the summer. The plant is 50-hp., 
with a .".'_. by 8-in. American hoist. The ground is 20ti ft. deep. 
of which I"" ft. is 'muck.' The 'pay' is in gravel almost en- 
tirely, a distance of 2% ft. above bedrock. The pay-streak is 
sn it. wide. Ten men worked during the summer, after the 
blocking nut operations bad been completed during the sprin . 
Water Is obtained by gravity through ditching. 

The bulk of Dome creek's placer mining this year was done 
neat the mouth of the creek. The richer placers farther up- 
stream which were the cause of so much strife and squabble 
in Fairbanks' early lite, have been depleted. Quart;: mining 
is taking the place of the placer mining at the head of the 

Chester Johnson had 14 nun working most of the sun 

• i Home. Victor Kleinschmidt had a crew of 18 men 

ng I lie ■ on the upper end of the Niggerheail 

Association claim, In which he holds an interest. Peter Leten- 

«h r worked on tht ire claim for a short time during 

i, but closed down about .August 1. Gust Dourell 

prospecting on Phi Daj Dawn claim, in the 

Hats of the Chatanika. 

s. p. Magnusson operated the lower lay on the Niggerhead 

claim all summer long. The boiler capacity of his plant was 
110 hp.. with a single drum 7 by 10 American hoist. A 120- 
light dynamo plant also is included. The depth of the ground 
is 170 ft., 18 ft. of it muck.' Four feel of dirt was taken out 
as 'pay,' almost all of it in bedrock. The streak is 27U ft. wide. 
.Magnusson has cleaned up 550 tt. of the streak up and down- 
stream. Thirty-eight men are employed. The ground averages 
pi r sepiare foot. 

The gold placer area known to miners as the Tenderfoot 
district is abaat 'in miles southeast of Fairbanks ami embraces 
the watersheds of several small s, reams Bowing into the Tan- 
ana from the north. Richardson, em the Tanana river, is the 
supple centre for the district. Gold was first [ound there In 

1905 and up to 1909 the gold production was alienit (400, 

yearly. Since that time it has been decreasing steadily. The 
Tenderfoot gold assays $12.25 per ounce, lower than any other 
gold in the interior of Alaska. 

Lawrence Albrecht is working on No. 16 Tenderfool creek. 
Die streak, where be is mining, has a width of 50 it. The 

depth tei bedrock is lTo ft. Between $50, and (7t 

will be taken out by him this year. Thirty-five men are work- 
ing. E. Hearn has 12 nun working on No. •" ami .No. 6 
Tenderfoot, where the ground is 90 ft, deep, He is lining well, 
I.enot. Chinquist & Rearden are employing fen mm on No. 4, 
Tenderfoot Melvin. Pohl & L'Kievicz are open-cutting on 
Democrat Pup. a tributary of Banner creek. .laeoii San 
is working at tin' bead of Democrat Pup. H < first 

clean-up recently, taking out from (800 to (1000 bj gi iund- 

Open-cut work will be conducted on Porta- tribu- 

tary to the Little Delta river. 100 miles from Fairbanks, next 
year. The mining work on Portage consists largely of ditch 
building and preparatory work on unwatering ground for 
open-cutting. Val Diebold. .1. A. Gustafson. and Etnil Johnson 
are interested in a group ot five claims, and they expect to do- 
their first work on No. 1 Below. The ground is 1" It. deep, of 
which two feet is muck.' A 200-ft. bedrock drain is under 
way, which will make it possible to work the ground. The 
ground was thoroughly prospected last winter. Kelly & Me- 
Dermott have completed a 4 '..-mile ditch which will supply 
them with water for ground-sluicing operations on Discovery 

Placer mining is being carried on in many otic r par - ol 
the district tributary to Fairbanks. Mini is an working in 

[)R| ! 'i n\ I Mill: INKS CB I ' 

the Salchaket, Big Chena, Kantishna. Nenana, rotalanisfcar, 
Tolovana, and other areas in the Fairbanks region. The Kan- 
tishna is the only district of these which has a steady pro- 

.liiMiuirt -' 1915 



) "r.- 1 1 in i ■>:■ r\ I produotion for » number of 

tin stiii. x and for Ontario n below. Additional 

figures will be |irinted from week to week »* the) In- 
gome a> ailnble. 

U. S. Geological Survey Estimates 

WTO!!!!!!)'! Smwi Mini Villi. 

witii tinui figures for 11 in. nulls and an animate for De 
oamber, the total for last great was 11860 sold, 100 as. illvcr, 

ami 1 . Which Is ii .!• alt in. 'la's 

compared with 1913. Considerable development and construc- 
tion worst was done In the Atlantic Cltj district. 

II l>\h..| V Q AM' Sll \l I Ol H'l I 

The production "i told, according to preliminary estimates, 
was $7,270,000, compared with $7,819,294 In 1918, and that 

.it silver was approxluia elj 174,0 . compared with 172,702 

Oi iii 1913. A in. nulla' quantlt] ol lead was produced. Prom 
i sti. in the end ol 1914 South Dakota has produced $185,224,- 

nnii in gold ami 5,830, OS. of silver. The minis .it the 

various districts hate been covered in the Press by our regu 
lar correspondent 

Mi i m Oi ret i "i Ni w Mi mi '• 

The output "i Ni « Mexican mini's for n months ol 
wiih in estimate for December, Indicate a yield of 81,172,000 

K olil. i silver, 1,840,1 lb, lead, 65,600, lb. cop- 

'»i lb. zinc i in terms of sp.-lt, r and zinc in 

ilnc oxide) These figures show increases of $-'.'», gold, 

90,000 os. silver, 9,300,000 lb. copper, and 1,800,000 lb. zinc, 

and a deer . ,l " 11 lb. lead. Despite lower prices 

for in-tals. the total value was $12,070,000 in 1914, 
$11,694,008 in 1918, an increase of $371 

Tl \ vs' Mi r \l. PbODI s 

The output "i Texas mines for eleven months of 1914 with 
an estimate ror December, according to preliminary figures 
compiled bj Charles W. Henderson, amounted to $9302 gold, 
581,000 .iz. silver. 190.000 lb. lead, 30.000 lb. copper, and 
190,000 lb. zinc. These figures show a considerable increase 
for gold and silver, a large decrease for zinc, and smaller 
decreases for copper and lead. The greater part of the output 
of silver came from the Presidio mine, in the Shafter district. 
Some silver and copper was produced at Van Horn, Culberson 
county, aud some lead and zinc in the Sierra Blanca district. 
El Paso county. 

Metal Pboouction of Coloraoo 

The output for 11 months, with an estimate for December, 
indicates a yield of $19,860,000 gold, 8,712,000 oz. silver, 75.- 

550,01111 lb. lead. 6,677, lb. copper, and 96,000,000 lb. zinc 

(in terms of spelter and zinc in zinc oxide), with a total 
value of $33,300,000. compared with $18,146,916 gold, 9,325,255 
oz. silver. 87,897,773 lb. lead. 7,227,826 lb. copper, and 119,- 
346,429 lb. zinc, with a total value of $35,450,585, in 1913. 

In addition to the decrease in quantities of silver and the 
base metals, the falling off in average value for these metals 
caused a decrease in value of $833,000 for silver, $921,000 
for lead, and $1,890,000 for zinc. 

The tonnage treated by the Globe, Leadville, Pueblo, and 
Salida smelters was approximately the same as in 1913. 
Copper ore from Rico and copper matte from Ouray were 
shipped to plants in Utah. Cyanide precipitate and copper 
ore were shipped to Omaha. The copper-matting plant at 
Ouray was operated steadily during the year, and a 200-ton 
increase was made in its capacity, construction work being 
completed by the end of the year 1914. The tonnage treated 

..I lb. I nil. i! Btatn /In. ' 

.ii Pueblo win- leas than in 

Mi mm. in Ai i-k vi. 

Comi the mineral product] i thi 

nu\ can nol bt collected wiiiiin lees than foul oi five months 

allel tl bUI mi an w nth 

able to .miii publication to prellmlnan 'silt 

which an believed to van not over ■ from thi sctiml fl 
according to Alfred H, Brooks, who ha com 


it ih estimated ihai the value ol the total i iral output 

in 1914 is $19,248,1 compared with $19,416, foi 1913, 

The preliminary Rguri ild output shoe $16,900,000, 

' $16,626,818. Sllvei was $191,000 anil $218,988, 

lively, rhongh the low price "i copper since mid umniei 

greatly curtailed the output ol thai metal, about 20,860,1 

lie. valued at about $2,872,1 was produced In 1914, attains! 

21,669.968 lb., worth $8,367,298 In 1918. The output ol the 
other miners In, marble, gypsum, quicksilver, 

Coal, and pel liileliln. in 1914 had a Value Ol ah- 

ired wiih J27l'.:'il' for 1918. 
Had ii mi' been for the depression in the coppet market, 
the value iii Alaska's mineral product would have been con- 
ilj greater in 1914 than in 1913. Tin- gold-mining In- 

ol i he territory as a whole was prospi ng the 

year, as is made direcU] evident by the figures tttput, 

inn a more Important Item o Is 'in- extensive dead 

wnii, accomplished "" largi plants that have not yel rei 
a productive stage. N progress was made in coal mining, 
there being in 1914 only one small productive mine in the 
territory, anil thai in mi. ol ihe lignite fields. It is expect il 
ihat the n « law providing tor leasing ol coal lauds in 
Alaska will lead to the exploitation ol the fields containing 
high-g e coal. The tin, gypsum, marble, and petroleum min- 
ing industries of Alaska had a 

The certainty of railway connection with the Yukon basin 
has greatly stimulated both prospecting and mining develop 
ment. There was a noticeable increase In investigation of 
large mining enterprises in 1914 compared with previous 
years. This was due solely to the expectation of cheapei 

The data on hand indicate that the value of the placer 
gold produced in 1914 was about $10,700,000, or practically 
the same as that of 1913. which was $10,680,000. The dis- 
tribution of this output is. however, not Hie same in ihe 
two years. Some increases in the output of the Ruby. Seward 
Peninsula. Iditarod. and Hot Springs districts were made, but 
on the other hand, there was a marked decline in the placer- 
gold output from Fairbanks and lesser decreases in some 
of the smaller camps. The abundant rainfall which occurred 
in most of the Yukon and Seward Peninsula districis during 
the mining season of 1914 greatly favored placer operations. 

The Chisana district is the only new placer camp develi I 

in 1914. Promising discoveries are reported in the Healy 
River region of the middle Tanana. and also a find of placer 
gold in the upper Tolovana basin, between Fairbanks and 

About 44 gold dredges were operated in Alaska for the 
whole or part of the open season of 1914. Preliminary ea 1- 
ruates show that they produced gold worth between $2,030,000 
and $2,300,000. In 1913, 39 dredges were operated, recovering 
$2,200,000. The decreased output per dredge in 1914 is ac- 
counted for by the facts that in 1913 several of them were 
working in rich ground, and that several of the new boats 
were not completed in time to operate for more than a 


January -■ 1015 

i .U' was tll>' 
nil' opened later than 
Usual. In addition to the 44 dn there were 

dozen undi r construction, 
gold-lode ininc b \ In 191 i. and 

led at about $5,100,000. In 1913. SO mines 
S13. The decrease In the number of mines 
is die thai - vera] which were operated in the 

HVtirba i ct in 1913 were idle in 1914. Juneau is and 

will continui to he by far the most important Alaska lode 
district. Important progress was made during the year in 
the Willow ( reek district The Port Wells dlstricl was added 

to tie 

made up to midsummer gave promise that 
UU would be the most profitable year In the histor 

Ining. The Gnam tnd collapse 

is rkel thai followed the ESuropean war nol 

down Bome roducing mines, but also put 

a slop to seme very Import lopments. Up to about 

mines were m, bui 

at the elose of the year only three were still working. Had 

it noi been lor the ws I aal lii per mines would 

have been ready to ship ore before the end ol the year. Prob- 
ably the most In events ol the year to the copper 
industry ol re the reopening of the .Mamie mine, 
in the Ketchikan district; the installation of a shipping 
planl - of the Midas mine, near Valdez; and 
the completion of aerial trams at the Jumbo and Mother 
3, in the Chltlna district. 

various districts in detail. These 
have else been dealt with In recent issues of the Press In 
tel< s by Emil Edward Murja. 

Ontario Dividends for the Year 

aid by Cobalt, Porcupin 
ei Ilow 

Total 191 I 

Buffalo 28 

City ei Cobalt 

Coball Central 

Cobalt Silver Queen 

Coniagas 1,320,000 

Crown Reserve 424,47m 

Cobalt Townsite 200, 

Cobalt 93,750 

Cobalt Lake 150, I 

Caribou-Cobalt 50, 


Kerr Lake 6 

La Rose 899,176 

McKinley-Darragh 472. "ir. 

Nlpissing 1.350,000 

Mining Corp. ol Canada 25! 



-mi., 1 135,218 

T. & H. B 69,849 




Hollinger 1.1; 

Porcupii 18 10 

La Hose shared privately 

prior to May 1908 

Private corporations lesi.i 300,000 

ie. and other 

mining corn- 

1 lie Daily .\ uggei ; 





$ 410, 















203 . 19 
































Utah Mines and Dividends 
In reviewing the past years mining industry of the state. 
the Di lews, of Salt Lake Cil he fol- 

lowing comments: Dividends totaled 86,996,118, against 
(7,678,516 in 1913, as follows: 

Dividends Dividends 
In 1914. In 1913. 
..$ 68.607 $ 16,738 

Bingham-Netv llav. n 

Bufta ; 



nial Eureka 



undated Mercur 20,000 

Daly-Judge ■ 

Daly West 

•Dulufh & Utah 10,000 

Eagle & Blue Bell 178,6?9 

Gemini 50, 

Gethin Le Roy 

Gold Chain 

Brand Central ! 

Lngol Gold 

Iron Blossom too. nun 


May Day 24,000 



Silver King Coalition 

Silver King Consolidated . . . 246,706 

Unltl d States Mines, Bingham 77. I 

Utah Consolidated tSOO.000 

Utah Copper 4,828,185 

Yankee Consolidated 

30, I 







20, ' 

2 1.00 I 





Total to 
$ .il 


90.0 10 
6,21 . 

6, ' 







2.300, > 


40. SMI 

71. MIS 


9,660, i 


88,349,808 $60,364.47:: 

The silver market affected operations to some extent. 

Totals $6,996,118 $7,678,616 $75,237,984 

•Proeeeds from sale of property. -: Estimated. 

The total dividends during 50 years amount to $118,818,208. 

The Bingham district produced approximately 8,077,856 tons 
of ore yielding $1,476,315 gold. 1.978.603 oz. silver. 69,520 tons 
copper, 31,876 tons lead, and 1.703 tons zinc, valued at $22,980. 
688, compared with 9,190,374 tons of ore, $1,774, si:,. 2,408,692 
oz.. 72,460 tons. 85,500 tons, and 1711 tons respectively, worth 
,oo7. The war and low metal prices are the causes of 
the decrease. 

The Alta district in 11 months produced 14.112 tons of ore 
worth $221,906. The tonnage in 1M13 was only 5608. With the 
new development in the Cardiff, the current year promises well. 

The American Fork district six mines yielded 197 tons of ore. 

Park City, with 21 mines, showed a decrease of 10,56:: ions 
for 11 months of 1914. the total being 64,641, against 75,104 
in 1913. 

Tintie. with 41 producers, shipped 300,640 tons of ore, a 
decrease of about 75.000 tons. 

The Ophir. Santaquin. and Beaver districts developed in a 
promising way. 

The smelters near Salt Lake City yielded the following: 

Metal. 1914. 1913. 

Gold, ounces 160. si;:: 172,711 

ounces 12,82 13,084,835 

Copper, pounds 157,162,611 161,445,962 

Lead, pounds 190,245,670 166,1 

Zinc, pounds 23,349,295 18,857,827 

Arsenic, pounds 2,051,940 1,288,815 

Total value $40,258,487 $44,974,203 

These values are based on the following average prices: 
silver. 54.69c. per oz.: copper. 13. 15c: lead. :;.s2c: zinc. 5.15c; 
and arsenic. 9c. per pound. 

There were 198 producing mines in the state yielding 8,618,- 
832 tons of ore. against 10,202,566 tons in 1913. 




\ . , ■ . ■ ■ ■ \ V 

Mi ■ Pi hi ism 8 Yn i 

cln ulated around N 

irould build 
ilKnl on the Atlantic seaboard to handle the 
Bhlpped fr 

■ I with any enthi 
there no doubt thai the Com pan j was considering 

the mat illding a plant, bul the .pi put on 

the scheme bj the decision In the frlendlj buII by the 
Zlni Corporation against Sklpwortfa and others, The Bret 
ali. i to the Court of Appeal In London and 

ed, the court holding that the contract of the 
Zinc C nation with Aron Htrscti 4: Sohn, by which the 

take the whole ol the concentrate output ol the 
Zinc Corporation up to 1919, was not abrogated by the war 
Tin' dl the Zinc Corporation hail proposed to abro- 

gate the contract and to entei a new nun tan with the A. S. 
& R. Co., or else to erect a plant in England and treat the 
concentrate there itself. In the face of this decision, no 
Amerlc iny would be willing to go ahead and spend 

the large sum requited to construct a modern zinc smelter. 
• t of having the concentrate supply cut off 
at the end of the war In Europe. This matter is also dis- 
d In the Ixmdon letter of this issue. 
Ii Is interesting now to note that the companies in Aus- 
tralia have been under suspicion because of their German 
affiliations, and offices of some of them have been raided. 
The atl it-ral of the Commonwealth recently made 

the public statement that the investigation regarding the 
Broken Hill Proprietary and other metal companies had not 
disclosed any offense against the law, hut the facts showed 
all question that German capital and German influ- 
• in • s exercised a monopoly over the civilized world's base- 
metal Industry. The monopoly is so complete that it excludes 
effective competition. Peace holds out no prospects satisfac- 
tory or even tolerable to the British and Australian interests, 
since it wil! surely involve resumption of complete German 
domination ot the industry. There seem to be grounds for 
the attorney-general's forebodings, for it seems scarcely prob- 
able that even if the Zinc Corporation attempts to proceed 
with its effort to abrogate the contract with the German smel- 
ters, that a zinc smelter in England would be a profitable 
venture. One of the critical factors in establishing such a 
plant is the labor supply, and the labor situation in England 
is not such as to cause an experienced zinc smelter to think 
that a smelting plant built there would be a financial success. 
The same is true, only more so, as regards the labor situation 
in Australia, and it indeed would appear as though the Aus- 
tralian zinc producers will have no option bul to resume their 
German affiliations at the close of the war. 

The Anaconda Copper Co. is making plans for changes in 
us practice after normal conditions are restored. It was some 
time ago decided to give up the hauling of ore from Butte 
to the Great Falls plant for concentration, as the extra freight 
cost as compared with concentration at Anaconda made this 
disadvantageous. Doing away with the concentrating renders 

available th 

.■In up power, n was good • • Bnd some pi 

Of Utll DW allium il III, I this R 

done I electro] 

ual I., iiir preset u l i Palls Thl 

Falls i, flnerj to 1 10, n 
ui r per year. Mo ,i copper » 111, ol 

have tO go Bl 

the \\ . -l .-• ii stales, and in ,,,, n,,. 

Pacific, i> rather llmitei the nen plant will have the 

advant powei and will furnish work for 

the old stall' at Gnat Falls, it has obvlOUl 

tages. Tb. plan) at Greal Fails will be kepi In 

operation, and the reconstruction which has been in pri 
for some time will i»- carried on to completion. The Improvi 

m, nrs iii |. ocesses which ha irlscd by Ana 

cials in the last yeai oi two will give a considerably greatei 
copper output; and it Is official)} Btated thai when all thi i 
plants are in regular operation the Company will produce 

50, ,000 lb. more copper per year than formerly from the 

same tonnage or ore. The Anaconda li is declared a dividend 
of 25c. per share, payable on .lanuan 20. 
The report that the North Butte and Bast Butte mining 

companies would be consolidated is officially denied. The 

United States Smelting, Refilling & Mining in. lias dciai I 
a quarterly dividend of s7>_.c. on the preferred stock, pay- 
able January 15, but no action was taken on the c mon 


shares. The Mohawk Mining Co. is 'making hay while the 
sun is under a cloud.' Its recovery of copper from the ore 
milled reached 20';. lb. per ton, or over 2 lb. better than its 
best previous record. If it maintains its present rate of oper- 
ation the output of copper this year will be almost equal to 
the best previous year. The Wolverine made a recovery 




•J. 1915 

ol in'; lb. of capper per ton of ore. but tin- Is to 
eteadll] decrease, as it is estimated that the Wolverine has 

only about seven more years of life. 

The Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., which has for years main- 
tained a profound secrecy in regard to its operations in Peru, 
has recently made a statement to the Boston We* •» llureau 
of the amount of cop. per produced during the past three years. 
This is as follows: during 1912, 45.272.000 lb. refined copper: 

13,865,000 lb.; and for 1014. 42.huo.imhi lb. is estimated. 
At present the smelter is operated at 40'.; capacity. N'o obvi- 
ous purpose was served by the former pollCJ of SI 
. nyone who could materially profit by knowing what the pro- 
duction was could obtain the official records of imports, and 
it is not improbable that from henceforth the Cerro de Pasco 
will fall in line with the other copper companies and give 
out the figures as to its production and operations. It is 
reported here that the Copper Producers' Association will 
never resume the publication of its statistics, which were 

■ 1 at i he outbreak of the war. The persistent reitera- 
tion ni this probably indicates that some one would prefi r 
mil lo have the figures continue to he given out. 

The mines ol the Burma Corporation at Bawdwin. on the 
bonier line between Burma and China, are ol much impor- 
tance and interest to producers of lead and zinc because of 
the unusual character of the ore. A recent report given out 
by the Company development work has proved the 

i \isience of about 500.000 tons of ore. and indicates 1,00 
tons more of reasonably assured ore. the latter being of 
higher grade than the former. A recent cablegram says thai 
at a depth of Ifis ft., in a winze sunk from the 170ft. level. 
the orebody averages 35 oz. Silvet d, and 209! zinc. 

Diamond-drilling has. however, indicated that the orebody 
extends to at least 300 ft. below the 170-ft level, ami Is 

de than the ore below. Present smelting operations 

onflned to the old slags left by the Chinese workers years 

a:n. The problem how to smelt these ores at a profit is an 

interesting one. and while contracts have been made with 

a firms to treat the material, it is hoped that some 
method can be devised which will permit Bmeltlng the ores 

arger profit. 


l.l VMM. OIL, G\s. ami Chi Lamps. -WaTKB-PoWKK BILL.— 

Revision of Mining Laws Suit Delayed. 

The Senate Committee on Public Lands Is giving bearings 
on the Administration's conservation measures which have 
alread] passed the House, and there is to he a thorough hear- 
Ing on the so-called leaseholding bill, to which there is gi 
opposition than to any other measure of its kind in Congress. 
This provides for the exploration ot oil. gas. and coal lands. 
but iw essential principle is leaseholding, and the introduc- 
tion of it is feared by many in the mining world. It is the 
plan of the committee to hold protracted hearings on this 
measure with the beginning of the new year, and western 
mining men Bhould be represented if they wish to make a 
considerable showing against the proposal. It is. however, 
forecasted by western senators that Congress will ta! 
action on the bill at this session, which has only two months 
in to obstruct the progress of the meas- 
ure so that it will fail, but nothing can be taken for granted. 
Those who are behind the measure, in the main the admin- 
istration, through th« able activity ol Franklin K. La 

partment of the Interior, will try with grrat patience 

again in the next Congress. The representations before the 

in this session will 1,-ive no mean effect pro or COM 

in the work on the legislation in the nexl session. Bhould 

it remain unfinished business. 

Western senators have been busy in hearings over the so- 
< ailed water-power bill, which, while it does not affect min- 

ing directly, does so in an indirect manner. The mining 
ami He- water-power Interests, through the state issues in- 
are sailing in the same boat. A safe journey is likely 
io mean finished legislation provocative of more. In the 
matter ol water-power, those who are opposing the federal 
legislation now before Congress are saying that nowhere is 
water-power now needed in the West, all states having i 
surplus of it. The legislation is therefore unnecessary, and 
will serve n% other purpose than to project a principle of 
uneasy dimensions. In the public hearings. John Ryan, pres- 
ident of the Montana Power Co., declared it was lolly to talk 
of the possibility of acquiring water-power siles tor specula- 
tive purposes, holding them undeveloped. G. M. Labi, dil 
in the General Electric group, said that any monopolj in 
water-power, developed or undeveloped, was impossible. Gen- 
eral Electric interests, he said, controlled 28,000 hp.. and 
had less than 30'; stock interest in the other companies named 
in the General Electric group: there is no concentration in 
the bands of a lew interests as has been claimed. 

Governor Amnions and Governor-elect Carlson of Colorado 
appeared before the committee. The former attacked the 
principle of leaseholding. on waterways as well as on coal, 
oil, gas, and precious metal lands. He declared that such 
a policy would deprive the public land states of the West 
of the taxes with which to build themselves up. Large areas 
of those states were held by the government, and. under a 
leasing system, only the federal government would profit by 
their development. .Mr. Carlson said that experience has 
shown i hat private ownership was the only system under 
which the resources of the West could be developed. 

The legislation in the House to create a commissi 
codify the mining laws of the land lies as dormant as ever. 
There is a mysterious influence at work to kill the proposal. 
Many promises are made only to be broken. Presently an 
effort will be made to smoke out the opposing ton 

Pikes iisd Extlosion at Copfeb Mines. — Mohawk in in i. 

The third recent disaster in the Michigan copper district 
occurred early Christmas morning when the stamp-mill of the 
Isle Royale Mining Co. on Portage lake, one mile east of 
Houghton, was completely destroyed by Are. It is believed 
that the fire started in the office on the floor of the mill, and 
in spile of the efforts of the mill bands and the Houghton fire 
department, the whole plant, with the exception of the car- 
penter shop. Iioihr house, and office, was burned to the ground. 
The loss is estimated at $250,000. The mill contained three 
Noidlierg steam stamps. 72 roughing jigs, 30 finishing jigs, 
circular slime tables, and Bartlett and Wilfley tables. The 
mill is now a skeleton mass of twisted pipe and machinery. 
Men are now engaged in taking down dangerous pieces of 
framework, and saving as much as possible from the ruins. 
The 'rock' from the Isle Royale mine will probably be sent to 
the Centennial-Allouez stamp-mill at Point Mills. 

On December 18 one of the boilers at the No. 3 shaft of the 
North Kearsarge mine of the Osceola Consolidated Mining Co. 
exploded. The boiler house was almost completely wrecked 
and the firemen killed. No. 3 shaft was put out of commission 
temporarily, and in the meantime the men employed at this 
shaft are getting No. 1 shaft into shape for operation. 

Several weeks ago the boiler house and compressor plant at 
the Superior mine were destroyed by fire. This mine, how- 
ever, is now back to normal production with a daily tonnage ot 

A new record was made during the month of November by 
the Mohawk Mining Co. The production of 1,262,864 He was 
lower than the production for October, but the yield of 20.46 
lb. of refined copper per ton of rock exceeded the October rec- 
ord by more than two pounds. 




In >. 1..1M1 \ r K(»iii~ ivuUllTlUTlllM PBOfWJ 


M I V 

..! the Roaeo-Aalallc Corporation 
icqolred bj n in 

paMlahed m " tht d*pOSll rti.lMiu- 

Rtddei a nl< h li Miuat.-.l in tin 
di i«r from iln' iriNh iiv>T Tin- Oampan] be- 
ta the group iiirimtii ii with the Kyahtlm OorpoimtioD 
i r.pihurt. iin managing director, i* to engini 
loot residence in iin' Ruaelan empire, while Herbert Q 

mi ami financial raaouroaa- The 

.(lull. Hulii' 


01 "lllln ... || 

iund that, i Ii->uki di tulphlda - 

tBlrt) wel - n. .in 

nun for the treatnu nl 

ii.- plan there) i> to remove 

poaalble i.y arater concentration, lb 
iiini Dnelted in retorta, while tha lead-eoppaf oonoai 
win be imaltad ror metallic load and copper matt*. Tha 
developmenl of tha orebody in in thi handa ..i R Oilman 
Drown, and an Independent geological report baa been made 
b] ii ii Knox. The oi been traced along thi 

i rertloaJ at the outcrop, and the ■■ i r > 


I ,.«•>* ,. :tr» ttn— M 

B ji.w .- • i" Chim w/ <Wjf . -»»rtm -t — i — * — | 


Ridder property has been a hard nut to crack for years, and 
many have been the English. French, and American engi- 
neers who have had a look at it. and held up their hands 
in despair. The lode is wide, being as wide as 250 ft. in 
and containing zones of varying richness between 
the foot and hanging walls. The minerals are galena, blende, 
and chalcopyrite, with gold and silver. In the richer parts 
ih. gangue is quartz and calcite, the proportion of gangue 
lit in'.; so low as to justify the use of the term of 'solid snl- 
phldi s' bj the directors. Beneath this zone is another con- 
taining sulphide in patches, and called 'disseminated ore,' 
the gangue being hornstone. which was probably originally 
a shale, hut. much silicified and brecciated. The oxidized zone 
extends to a depth of 140 ft. or so, and has been worked 
for the gold and silver by previous owners. To Mr. Hoover 
and his associated engineers, \V. T. Madge and Deane P. 
Mitchell, the sulphides presented no terrors, for they have 
been highly successful in the treatment of Broken Hill ores. 
The study to ascertain the best way of dealing with the 
Ridder ore required the consideration of questions relating 

soon flattens with depth. In order to test the ore at a lower 
point, two rows of five boreholes 125 ft. apart have been sunk, 
one row 400 ft. from the outcrop and the other 170 ft. farther 
away, both at an inclination of 63". All these holes have 
passed through ore. and the assays of the cores are fairly 
uniform. The width of the solid sulphide portion varies 
from 20 to 90 ft., and that of the disseminated up to 200 ft 
The results of the borings are such as to warrant an estima- 
tion of available ore. Down to 700 ft. on the dip it is cal- 
culated that there is 883,000 long tons of sulphide averaging 
30.9% lead, 14.995 zinc, 1.37% copper, $S.G0 gold, and 10 oz. 
silver, and 1,565,000 tons of disseminated, averaging 2.89% 
lead, 5.6% zinc, 0.3% copper, $12 gold, and 1.29 oz. silver. 
It will be seen that the gold content is high, and judging 
by the relative figures in the rich and disseminated ores, 
it would appear that gold is in the gangue as well as in 
the sulphide, though I am told that this is not the case, 
and that the gold is in the sulphides. It is intended to 
erect a concentrator of 200-ton daily capacity, to treat rich 
sulphide, and subsequently another plant of 400-ton capacity 



January J. 1915 

to treat disseminated ore. It is estimated that a profit of 
•ill he made from the treatment of the ore men- 
tioned above. Of course, the whole of the output is readily 
marketable within the Russian empire. The development of 
this mine has been handed over this week to a subsidiary 
called the Irtysh Corporation. The Russo Asiatic takes £1.100.- 
i in ordinary shares as purchase price. The capital re- 
quired for development is being raised by tlie issue of 
£600,000 debentures carrying >'■■ ■ interest, and subsequently 
exchangeable into shares. The Ridder is not the only prop- 
erty acquire! any, as the Ekibastus coalfield is 
included in the transfer. One of the seams is of excellent 
quality and will make suitable coke for smelting purl 
lli.- smelter will hi reel d on the spot, and the concentrate 
shipped from the Rldder. Readers of the Press will be inter- 

o observe that all the engineers whose names have been 
mentioned are. with the exception of Mr. Urquhart, Americans. 

On several occasions I have referred to plans for en 
lead and zinc smelters in England, to treat the Broken Hill 
concentrate hitherto shipped to Germany. A serious sua? 
in the path of the companies desiring to rearrange their policy 
In this connection promises to be the interpretation bj the 
Englisl ol justice of the contracts under which the 

concentrate is sold. A case before the courts at present is 
that or the Zinc Corporation, in which judgment is desired 
as to the construction Of 'lie contract made in 1908 with 
Axon Hlrsch & Sohn. This contract contains a clause to 
the effect that, in the event of anything happening beyond 

ntrol of the vendors and buyers, preventing the sale 
and delivery, the contract should be suspended during the 

of the disability. The judge in the first court gave 
it as his opinion that the clause covered the present position 
created by the war: knowing that the government and the 
parties involved desired the opinion of the highest court. 
in giving any elaborate judgment. With unpre- 
cedented rapidity, the case came before the appeal court 
during the week ended 12. before six judges. This 

■ mi held the opinion that the matter could not 1 
in the absence of some representative of Aron Hirsch & 
Sohn, and dismissed the case. At the time of writing. I 
am not informed of the future intentions of the dii 
of the Zinc Corporation. As things stand at present, (he 
matter is in exactly the same position of doubt as it was 
before it went to the court. As readers will remember, the 
Zinc Corporation was one of the first in the field at Broken 
Hill with a project for the treatment of zinciferous tail- 
ing by means of the flotation process. The Company has not 
only benefiriated enormous heaps of zinc tailing, but three 
years ago acquired a mine for itself on the Barrier range, 
the South Blocks, and has under option the South Blocks 
Extended. Thus it is a producer of lead concentrate as well 
as zinc concentrate. Active steps have been taken during 
the past three months with a view to establishing metallur- 
gical works, and thus freeing Australia and England from 
German domination. 

Anaconda Company's Extensions, ami Safety First Work. — 
Elm Out. r ami Black lli> t Zinc Mines. — North Butte 
ami Bart Butte Companies 

lite the low price of copper and the gloomy outlook 

Ingland's plat er on the contraband list, the 

a is good. The president of the 

Mining Co.. B. B. Tha her with the 

i . . I ■ i ; 

Of the 
Allan i ma. These gentlemen 

spoke o ally of the future and outlin ments. 

extensio meats, which will Im 

ture of large sums in Montana, forthwith. One of the must 
Important of these undertakings is the enlargement of the 
ilytlc refinery at Great Falls. It would appear that the 
cheap electric power at Great Falls justifies the local refining 
uf the copper, and it is the apparent intention of the Anaconda 
in the near future to do much of its refining at Great Falls 

id of in the east, as at present. The New York 
spondent also discusses this subject in this issue. At the 
Anaconda works the sulphuric acid plant is being pushed 
rapidly to tOTuplet ion, and the new leaching process will soon 
be in operation. Significant experimenting is under way 
along other lines also at this plant. At Butte, the Anaconda 

any has manifested faith in the future of Hie copper in- 
dustry by taking an option on the property of the Butte-Dnluth 
Mining Co. ,<t a price given out as over $2,000,000. It may not 
be the intention of the Company to continue the leaching 
methods now practised at Butte-Duluth. but the disseminated 
orebodies which are claimed to lie extensive will be proved by 
thorough drilling. 

The Anaconda company is giving a lot of serious attention 
to the sai'sty first' movement C. W. Goodale. manager of the 
Boston and Montana department, has been made chairman of 
the general committee having the work in charge, and the 
results are beginning to show for his careful and systematic 
direction. 'Safety first' committees have been organized 
throughout the mining and metallurgical works, and they have 
regular meetings. The latest innovation is a monthly publica- 
tion called The Anoile. which is to be devoted entirely to mat- 
ters pertaining to the prevention of accidents. It is to be made 
readable and entertaining so that the employees will read it 
and profit by it. 

Butte's two zinc mines arc now at work full blast, treating 
about 1500 tons of ore per day. The Elm Orlu mine, belonging 
to the W. A. Clark interests, is shipping about 300 tons pi r 

the new mill of the Timber Butte Milling Co.. and the 
Black Rock mine o! the Butte & Superior Copper Co, has 
staitnl again with its normal production of about 1000 tuns 
■, The success of these zinc mines is very significant 
here. It is well known that some of the mines of the Anaconda 
company contain large quantities of zinc ores, mineralogii ally 
not unlike the Elm Orlu. It is not improbable that Anaconda 
will lie taking its zinc resources seriously before long and 

ivor to prepare a commercial zinc product. 
Humor is persistent that the North Butte Mining Co. has 
bought the property of the East Butte Copper Mining Co. This 
is important news if true (according to our New York cor- 
respondent it has been officially denied. — Eoitok], as it indi- 
cates a further pulling apart of the Cole-Ryan interests for- 
merly so closely linked. The North Butte company would 
thus become the chief competitor of Anaconda in the Butte 
field. What with its former holdings, its recent acquisition 
east of the Pittsmont, and now the acquisition of the Pitis- 
mont itself. North Butte will become an important factor in 
Butte's mineral production. Incidentally. Anaconda will lose 
some custom ore. as North Butte is shipping to the Anaconda 
works at present. East Butte has a mill and smelter which 
North Butte will surely make use of. North Butte will aiso 
make use of the Pittsmont workings of East Butte to explore 
if its own ground to the east. This consolidation should 
be of benefit to Butte, as it makes two strong Independenl 
copper companies, with the resultant activity in the purchase 
and development of new ground. The North Butte has 
'in lead in this prospecting by the organization of the Rain- 
how l.ode Development Co. for prospecting for zini easl ol the 
Black [lock. Likewise the Anaconda takes a hand bj pros 
- the Nt tlie mine west of Butte, If these two Coin- 
get in the habit of watching what il in: is doing 

the districi as i whole should pro: 

rilling for oil near Ryegate, in M 
. i capacity. 

I'll . 

Ml\l\i. I'KI SS 



.1/ A8KA 

Mtu.: and mm. .■ tint i m 

■ i mil mineral products to the value ol >288. 
bet ti in laid, 119,80 I 

In ... a. and tin- i 

id, quickslh. r. 11 

mining began li 1801, and the total production la 

about u . .Tilmu !•• Aim d M. iiroiiks. ,ir tbe 


Tin- total irodnctlon ol Alaskan tin mines since the Industry 

in. i illlc tin, »alued ai 
| 'i in i '.'i i one dredge «.■- opt i ited on the Buck 

roughoul the opi 

rated tor a imrt of the season on Aniknvik river, 

i g ..ii deposits containing both gold and tin. Operations continued and aomi tin was produced al Hie Lost 
In mine. Ml these localities arc on Seward Pi n 
Insnla. Tin was also produi n ral deep placer mines 

in the Hoi Bprlngs district, operated chiefly for the recovers 
-■una'.. i that nearly .'•» ions of stream tin 
overed tram thi In it'H. This output 

be considerably increased, for only u few of the miners 
■■in. in.- attempt to recover the tin. 


a week's heavy rain has resulted in flooding the country 
between Phoenix and the Mexican border. Several lives were 
lost, stock drowned, railways trashed out, and an Immense 
amount of damage lias been done. Thirty miles south of 
Tucson the Santa Cruz vallej suffered greatly. The Tucson 
Farms Co. lost 19 centrifugal pumps and other machinery 
worth 1600,000. At floods flowed through the canons 
between the hills and business area. The San Pedro river 
if Bisbee was a mile wide. At Douglas the railroads 
were badly damaged. Nogales was surrounded by water. 

Gila County 

Minority shareholders In the Keystone property, which has 
been acquired by the Inspiration Consolidated, are to protest 
against its transfer, on the ground that enough Is not being 
paid for it. 

grkkni.kk County 

The Arizona Copper Co.'s output in November was 2,670,240 
lb. of copper. 

Mohave County 

Engineers representing San Diego people have sampled the 
Enterprise mine. 18 miles east of Kingman. The ores contain 
lead, sold, and silver. 

Pima Cot nty 

The Gold Nugget Placer Mining Co.. holding dry placer de- 
posits 47 miles from Tucson, has been absorbed by tbe 
Greaterville Dredge Gold Mining Co.. which owns adjoining 
property. J. West, president of the latter Company, states 
that the purchase price was $75,000 and that 960 acres of 
ground was included in the transfer, this making the total 
holdings of his Company 19S0 acres, which is being developed 
as rapidly as possible. A well, which is to furnish water 
sufficient for the dredge, has been practically completed and 
actual sold recovery is expected to start within the ni 

^ w uu Cm \ M 

\n option has been glvi n mi the 
■ UoCabi to i ' Rankin acting 
for an English compan) that ng thi Hon 

i i.tia mine t>hn i. i iat Is, the mans 

are practical!) together, and the Intention ol tbe 
Compan) la to connect them underground and bi 

b mi. well equipped working abaft. II i that 

a a. » modem reduction plum trill be con trusted II tbi 

'i up, as is expected, These are among the best known 
of the old producers of tbla district, as the] bavi 
continuously foranumbet ..i years and contain on reeer 
many more years of profitable i xtrai tlon, 
l'i . ■ Deo tnber 28. 


Oil production of the state In November was 259,771 bbl. 
per day. shipments from the Held bbl, Stocks 

amount to "iT.iiTl.uss bbl. Tin re were 6122 producing ■ 

I'ki bso Cot It I l 

The geology and oil prospects in Waltham. Priest, B 
water, and Peachtree valleys are discussed by Robert w. Pack 
and Walter A. English in Bulletin 681-D ol the 0. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey. This area is part of the Coallnga field, but situ- 
ated in the hilly region to the west, and was examined in 
the summer and fall of 1913. The Immediate reason for the 
investigation was the need of geologic data (m the classifica- 
tion of the public land In the area that had been Withdrawn 
from all forms of entry, because of Its possible value as oil 
land. As a result of the examination, large areas of unappro- 
priated public land have been restored to entry. The chlel 
conclusion reached regarding the occurrence ol oil is that 

most of the region does not offer reasonable promise i M 

ing petroleum, and that much of it is certainly barren «i oil. 
Coal occurs in the Tertiary beds In the Priest vallej syncline 
and at several places in the hills on the south side of Waltham 
valley. Coal has been extracted from the Stone Canyon mine 
for many years. 

Kkiin County 

l Special Correspondence.) — At Randsburg ihe Consolidated 
Mines Co. is reported to have cut 4 ft. of $25 ore. For ovi r a 
year the Company's mill has been crushing ore averaging $7 

per ton. Rumors connected with the Yellow Aster speak of 

a sale and a large stamp-mill to be built. A How of water 

from 10.000 to 15,000 gal. per day has been cut in an old shaft 
of the Good Hope and Wedge mines, right in town, and sup- 
plies the Consolidated mill. Lessees are busy al several 


At Jawbone the wolfram claims of T. Whalley and F. Fell- 
man are being leased, and work Is to start soon. Low -i ide 
tungsten veins have been found on these properties. 

Randsburg, December 27. 

Mahipos v County 

(Special Correspondence. I— The following notes cover this 
county's latest developments. A. G. Huberty, of Jackson 
dor county, has been in Mariposa for several days examining 
thi ii ! rman, Barbara, and Charles n mines, located I'., miles 
west of Bear valley, owned by C. A. Schlagertej ■ 
The bond on this group is to be $12,500, due in 6, 12, and Is 
months. There is a 210-ft. shall on the properl : - H 



January 2, 1015 

ft hi adits, b lot "i open-cut work, and ■>"> ions of ore 

on ih.- damp which ii is said will assay $12 per ton. A 

bond has been taken by Frank x. F.genhof on tbe Little Won- 
der, owned by Mr. Kellburg ami others, but Mr. Egenhof's 
sudden death las: week will delay the development of this 

property. A contract for driving on the 100-ft. level of the 

Sunshine mine has been lei by Mrs. .1. E. Divens to F. T. 
Schlagerter and partner. The second round of holes broke 
into high-grade ore which it is estimated will plate $100 par 
ion. The property is equipped with gasoline hoisis and other 
good machinery. This mine produced 200 tons of ore last 

summer, averaging $12.50 per ton. .lames ('. Yancey, of 

Portland, Oregon, who recently bonded the Sweetwater and 
mines and mills, has men under C. H. Wedekind build- 
ing a dam t I supply water lor the Sweetwater mill and other 
Improvements lor economical work so much needed in Mari- 


posa mine development. Schroeder brothers and .fudkins. of 

Colorado, Mariposa county, will start a 5-ft. Huntington mill 
on the obi Schroeder mine abi l river, south of Saxon 

creek. Tin- surface of this mine was rich, and as the ore 
soft decomposed material, this machine is adapted to 
the in". — -The Colorado Quartz mine, owned by Judkins. 
i .mil Dearborn, has a new hoisting plant, and sinking 

on th ' under way. It is predicted that this mine 

will become one of the steady producers of Mariposa county. 

The Mountain King Mining Co., on the Merced river, east 

K 'ied high-grade ore and is actively develop- 
ing its property. The Company is installing some new ma- 
chinery, .'in! a mile of iron pipe for a new water-power plant. 

The Clearing House Mining Co. has started its mill. 

which has been closed down on account of low water. George 
W. Egenhof, manager, will install a power drill-sharpener 

in the near future. The Malone mine, now owned by the 

Goldi t lining Co., will be sold under judgment of 

$1900 at Mariposa on December 21. Thomas Gordon is the 

principal creditor. The Monte Cristo claims of Robert 

Wellman and associates, situated in Devil's gulch, are being 
developed and an engineer has been sent to New York ex- 
pecting to place this property with New York and Canadian 

people. The Comet mine is closed* down, and probably will 

not resume operations before next spring on account of the 
snow. The Silver-Lead mine is being developed by the 

new owners, who have erected a 10-stamp mill. No. 5 mine 

is having a reduction plant installed by Mr. Parker of Chi- 
cago. This is a new style of ball-mill, tirst of the kind that 
lias ever been used in California, and its operation will be 
watched wilh considerable interest. The Mariposa Commer- 
cial Mining Co. has been repairing its power dam at Bagby. 
and has been making plans and surveying for a large dam 
betwe, n Mt. Bullion and Mariposa. This dam will he used 

for irrigatio.i and power purposes. There is little question 

but that Mariposa mines will be developed more in 1915 than 
they have been in the past Ave years. What is needed Is to 
have intelligent and economical management, and with that 

the properties will soon resume their former production. 

The county commissioners are planning on installing a speci- 
men case in each of the hotels of the Voseniite valley to show 
the minerals produced by the county. 

Mariposa. December 20. 

Nevada. County 

The regular quarterly dividend of the North Star company, 
of $50,000. has been paid, making $200,000 for 1914. and $4,1 m;.- 
9S9 to date. The dispute between the You Bet Mining Co. 
and the Goodwin estate has been settled, the former being 
in possession again. The Jerry Goodwin property is to be 
reworked at once. 

Plumas County 

Work has been stopped for the winter at the Haskell Peak 
mine near Clio. There is 54 in. of snow on the ground there. 
Good progress was made in the lower workings, which will 

open tbe gravel channel. J. J. Snyder is superintendent. 

The same channel is to be prospected by G. W. Wilson and 
others some distance away. 

San Bebnabdino County 

(Special Correspondence.) — All leases on the tungsten de- 
posits at Atolia terminate on January 1. Only a few miners 
made any profit during the season, and not many, it is re- 
ported, are anxious to renew- leases under present conditions, 
which are really only working contracts. 

Atolia, December 27. 

Shasta County 

This county's mineral exhibit for the Exposition at San 
Francisco weighs over 50 tons, and is ready to be shipped 
from Redding. Large blocks of ores have been given by 

various mining companies. The smelter fume case will be 

continued on February T.\. 

The Mammoth Copper Co. has bought the Friday-Lowdon 
13 copper claims, near Kennett, for $5000. About 1000 ft. 
of development and considerable diamond-drilling, costing 
$50,000, has been done. Owing to the zinc in the Company's 
ore. a sorting plant is being built. The product containing 
an excess percentage of zinc will be sent to Oklahoma smel- 

Sieeba County 

At the Kate Hardy, at Forest, the mill is working 24 hours 
daily. According to the superintendent, A. D. Grant, the 

lower adit is in 600 ft., and six veins have been cut. The 

vein has been found again in the North Fork at Forest. It 
consists of quartz and talc, the former containing consider- 

able p.vrile. A fire at the Plumbago destroyed the 'dry' 

house and stable. A fire at Pike City destroyed several 

buildings last week, including the Alaska Mining Co.'s hotel 

of 100 rooms, occupied by its miners. Gravel has been 

opened by a rise in the Cold Spring claim near Mt. Vernon. 
Los Angeles people are interested. 

Tuolumne Coi-.nty 
It is reported that work is to be resumed at the old 
Soulsby mine, which has been a large gold producer from 
down to Son ft. depth. Pumps are to be installed to cope 
with the water. 

I'll ' 



'.'It lit llll- 
ceunt) tx«\ . 

'Tli ted run. Ii ..,,• I.H' 

'iii. \\ ...... Ball Mountain, Josephine, and other 

tdams Corporation, In the White Plni iiintriit 
ill. bavt i... ii acquired bj W T. v. .mm ..i 
aippl Mountain wan than leaned to other people 

i i r. i,,u tn ii i on iii.- Bcltpaa ere to be moved to 
ih.- t tii 1 1 Mountain. There i* ».ii.i i.> i» a good lonn,- M><> 

Production figures for 1914, December being estimated, from 
• i Survey, iin- quoted under various oonntlea 

Boi i.i.i ii Coi ">n 
production in 1914 waa I9T.0O0 gold, . 
- 150.000 lb. of lead, and 18.000 lb. of copper, an In 

..f $28,000 gold. i">, stiver 10, lb. lead, and 

13,000 II. copper. 
Tin- di n cyanide plant, situated al Caribou, SB mllee weal ol 

Bouldi -Hi ii i.> ll. r Lowe ami others at a coal ol 160, to 

treat ..r.' from the Caribou, Poorman, ami No Name Bliver 
i> in operation. Thr mill in producing three carloads 
..I concentrate per week. Tint-.' mines have yielded a large 
quantity of silver, but have been Idle for over 20 years. About 
■■• has been spent in unwatering them to 1000 ft., re- 
Umbering, ami equipment. Over 60 men are employed at 

ami 1000 ft. sloping ore. Dumps contain good ore 

also. An adit Is In 1500 ft. In the Caribou, and Is to be driven 
about 4600 ft. In all, to work the properties, which cannot be 
done profitably by the shafts. 

I'll Mil I Cot N IV 

This county produced 1480.000 gold, 260.000 oz. silver. 3,600.- 

' lb. lead. 300,000 lb. copper, and 2.000,000 lb. zinc in 1914, 

a considerable Increase for all the metals except zinc, which 
equaled the 1913 yield. 


The output of this c ItJ In 1914 was $540,000 gold, 432.904 

oz silver. 2.700.000 lb. lead. 450.000 lb. copper, and 1,000,000 
lb. zinc, an increase of $70,000 gold, and small increases for 
silver and copper, bin a considerable decrease for lead and an 
appreciable decrease for zinc 

E.m.i i i lot s n 
Eagle county's output in 1914 came chiefly from Red Cliff, 
but included a small quantity of silver ore from the Lady- 
Belle and North Dakota mines, in the Brush Creek district. 
The total yield was $45,000 gold, 116.000 oz. silver. 1,100.000 
lb. lead. 30.000 lb. copper, and 7.664.0110 lb. zinc, a small in- 
crease for gold, decreases for silver, lead, and copper, and 
1,000,000 lb, increase for zinc. 

I'iiiriN Cot'XTV 
Last year's output was $500,000 gold, 150,000 oz. silver. 
'500.000 lb. had. and 600,000 lb. copper, including ore mined 
through the Newhouse tunnel. 

Gi'nms'in County 
Owing to increased shipments of lead ore from Italian 
Mountain, and of lead-zinc from Whitepine, there was an 
increase for lead and zinc in litis county in 1914. 
Lake County (Lkadvtlle) 
Lake county, chiefly from Leadville, but also from the Lack- 
awanna gulch and St. Kevin districts, produced $1,554,000 
gold, 3,860,000 oz. silver. 27,000.000 lb. lead, 2.470,000 lb. cop- 
per, and 79.000.000 lb. zinc, with a total value of $9,000,000. 
•against $1,023,631 gold. 3.400,318 oz. silver, 29,286.183 lb. lead. 
3,923,987 lb. copper, and 93.842,857 lb. zinc, with a total value 

111 00 


in I'M I 
I., a. hill- men 

■ .mi rhurj ami Prospi .t mountain 

bills dip a. .mi toward tin - 

i. inn. I I'.ihl «. all'- | | I with WOI 

lull ami ..ih. -i peru ..t the Bt| Brans dlstricl 

"i> and ll iii. i in. 

■ 01 ami line ores Al the Lap 

lander, In Lake Park, W ll Upton and others haw opened 
"i Ji v i" :. an a.iit ". i" n id pre 

dominates In tl ■■-. According i" t; w. Buehlei ..i ttai 

Miller mine In Lackawanna gulch, the property is la 

than at anv previous nine. Bad roads work against 
development in this area, 

Ml Mill I COI Ml 

iii-.. I. produced th.. gold, 648,0 - Hilv.-r. 1,460,000 

iii. li-ail. ami 86,000 lb. copper, but no zinc last year, an appre- 
clabli for mild, silver, lead, and sine. 

Pitkin Cm s i\ 

The Pitkin County ( Aspen i yield last year was 864,01 

silver and 22,200.Onn lb. lead, a decrease of 200.O110 oz. silver. 

bin an increase of 5.000,0011 lb. lead. But for the tire in the 

Smuggler workings the mil put would have I n even larger. 

Sill 111 I fill MY 

The output of gold from dredges and pocket mines at 
Breekenridge was $665,000 in 1914, an Increase of $230,000. 
The total output of the county was $700,000 gold. 63,000 oz. 
silver. 1,300, lb. lead, and .".. ,000 Hi. zinc 

(Tkliiii ( 111 Mil Cbtppls Cheek 
According to the U. S. Geological Survey, the gold output of 
cripple Creek was $12,048,000, an increase of $1,143,000. This 
is the largest production for any one year since 1908. Cripple 
Creek to the end of 1914 has produced $259,000,000 In gold. 

The Sax Juan 
The San Juan region of Dolores. La Plata, Ouray. San Juan, 
and San Miguel counties produced $3,721,000 gold, 2,470,000 
oz. silver, 12,820,000 lb. lead, 2,490,000 Ml COI r, and approxi- 
mately 1,40Q,000 lb. zinc, compared with $4,071,683 gold, 
2.769.077 oz. silver, 21,740,502 Hi. bad, 3,373,935 lb. copper, and 

^Hifli. Dlrld. \ ported 

( \Al«,r.l(l. O D K\A V ) Lok. 

, X 11 I O I MS L c, ""'i 1 , , 

Vii c.1. -a TeThiriile r- S£ " 

V»m..iiu.,T-v - .. \ ir—lutf*-. c While Lruii 


"I""* Vortq^/biirnii 


Ma[i of the 


6,867,410 lb. zinc in 1913. There were increases for gold of 
$30,000 in Ouray county and of $10,000 in Dolores, but de- 
creases of $159,000 in San Juan, $42,000 in San Miguel, and 
of $192,000 in La Plata. There were increases for silver of 
137.000 oz. in San Miguel and 90,000 in Ouray, but decreases 





of 386.000 oz. in Sat. Juan, 60, "■ In L,a Plata, and 

In Dolores. Dolores county ilticoi. San Juan county, and 
Ban Miguel count) all showed heavy decreases in lead, copper, 
and zinc. Tl companj produdld no zinc concentrate, 

as the Montana vein contains little or no zinc Ouray co 
Ion ai the Camp Bird, the si 
.,.ii ol the Wanakah mill and copper matting plant, and 
i!m successful application ol dotation to the Atlas ores, showed 

d copper output, and a 

small Increase for lead. The boarding and bunh house of 

ild Lion mine, 10 miles souih ol Ouray, has been burned. 
The 1088 is abOUl $X5,000. ll Was one Ol the best In Colorado. 

John Davey is manager tor the Company. 


i i i. Counts 
Ore ;, 10 oz. silver and 559! lead is being mined 

from the 500-ft, level of the Wilbert, 25 miles east of Areo. 
The mill, which is temporarily shut down, lias had a Symons 

disc crusher added. At ft. in the Nan Aim. 12 miles 

Hailey, two new ore-shoots are being opened. Ore beins 
Bhi| I assays so oz. silver and 02' ; lead. Concentrate is pro- 
duced bj the new mill. Humps on the surface contain 12, 

tons of $1 I ore K. C Wooley is in charge. 

Shoshone Cm mv i Coi eb d'Au ne i 

The Caledonia Mining Co. has distributed a dividend auiouni- 

(36,079. aiiothi r ol ac per share will be paid on Janu- 

oi (218,429 since October 6. A dotation 

Is ic.u operating In the mill and adding considerably to 

ihe profits Onlj 80 miners are employed extracting the rich 

ore. — i H la Mining Co. paid 8220,000 in 1914, and S3 

A large tonnage of ore is available for the mill. 

According to the manager of the Laclede mine, F. Cusbing 

in ihe Mullan district, development is promising for 

,1,,. 200-ft. level. 1" Hi" suit, of the Marsh Mining Co. V. 

the Washin- ' Co., be latter has compromised 

with ihe former over power rates. In the suit of the Marsh 

Mining Co. i>. the inland Empire Mining & Milling Co., involv- 
ing the right ol the former to appropriate part of the surface 
ground ol the Never Sweat claim, about 3.3 acres, to be used 
as a terminal for a tramway, ore-bins, etc., Judge John M. 

Plynn decided in favor of the plaintiff. Developments In 

the Interstate-Callahan are most, encouraging. On No. t level 
the ore-shoot is 1200 ft. long, and from 20 to 50 ft. wide, assay- 
ing up to 6095 zinc. A shaft was sunk 450 ft. from this level 

and a cross-cut has opened 8 ft. of good grade ore. The 

Pine Creek district is showing several interesting develop- 



The Anaconda Copper Mining Co. will pay a dividend of 
25c. per share on January 20. At 1600 ft. in the Butte-Balla- 
klava. the Jessie vein shows 30 in. of glance. The 1600-ft. 
level is considerably better than at 1400 ft., the shoot being 
long on the former, and 140 ft. on the latter, copper 
Content being about the same. Ore shipments of 50 tons per 
day are being made. Charles \V. Newton was superintendent. 

but has gone to another property. Directors of the North 

Butte company recently met at Duluth, Minnesota, and de- 
Cided not to pay the quarterly dividend on account of large 
expi ii liture at Ihe mine. Sinking the Granite Mountain shaft 

I.. ::i 'i etc., cosl $220 171 to Deoembi I. The new hoist 

and other equipment will cost (246,956. 

During 1914, 804 persons senl in 1681 samples fron 
localitli -. in" 1 tl i oratory mail.' 66 13 4i 

nations on I bese samp • of almost 

untiles for 1913. Those 

sending samples would derive much greater benefit from its 
work, if they all took large samples and crushed them down 
and quartered them and finally sent a considerable quantity 
to the laboratory, than if. as is commonly the ease, they sent 
only a few fragments. 


The Dexter mill and cyanide plant at Tuscaroia has been 
destroyed by fire, the loss being estimated at $1 5". Him. It has 
not in en operated for several months, and arson is suspected. 

The Nevada Journal, devoted exclusively to mining 

in Nevada, is being published weekly al Elko. A preliminary 
issue has been made. 

Esmeralda County 

Drifts from Ihe slalion al the top of rise 503-C, above the 

level of the Velvet claim of the Jumbo Extension are 

out 60 and CO ft. respectively, showing 5 ft. of $50 and $60 ore. 

Daily shipments are 100 tons assaying $55 to $60 per ton. A 

l.ove 921 ft. is opening 4 ft. of $25 ore. The Jumbo 

Junior Mining Co. has been organized to work the Spearhead 
Fraction claim. A shaft was sunk 300 ft. several years ago. 
Sinking will be resumed to the latite-shale contact. The prop- 
erty is well situated, The Kenanas winze is 75 ft. below the 

7i.ii. i, level. The Black Butte shaft is being unwatered. 

Nvt. Cot MY 

Six mines ai Tonopah produced 10,505 tons valued at (216,130 
during the week ended December 20. The Belmont com- 
pany paid each employee $5 as a Christmas present. Like- 
wise- the Jim Butler men, under the same management. 

Six feet of $15 ore, with a 2-ft. vein of rich ore on the hang- 
ing wall, has been opened at 500 ft. in the West End. This 

discover) is in a little prospected portion of the property. 

All testimony has been taken in the Jim Butler-West End 

suit. Argument will be started on January 25. W'ater in 

the Cash Boy shaft is down to 65 ft. below the 1100-ft. level, 
and should soon be all out. Sinking is then to he resumed 

lo lino ft. The North Star senl 100 tons to the West End 

mill last week. 

At tile Round Mountain mine a station has been cut at 

ft. A drift on the foot-wall of the new shaft vein has 

opened $51 to $2S1 ore. At 950 ft. this shoot was 30 ft. wide. 
ihe loot-wall portion assaying (80 per ton. Good results are 
coming from the Sphinx claim, especially at S00 and 900 ft. 
The pipe from Jett canon, S' L . miles long, should be deliver- 
ing water in May. It will carry 400 in. for the gravel deposit. 

White Pine County 
The Ely-Gibraltar Mining Co., operating 2'j miles north 
of McGill. has shipped ore worth $5000 to Salt Lake City. 
The last carload averaged 79% lead, 3 oz. silver, and 40c. 
gold per ton. An adit is in 950 ft. in tough ground. A mill 
is proposed for second-grade ore. C. E. Street, of Salt Lake- 
City, is manager. 


Sin ciiKo County 

The Socorro Mining & Milling Co., on application to the 
state engineer's office, has obtained an extension of two years 
for the completion of its hydro-electric plant, work on which 
has been in progress about three years. The Company has 
already expended $90,000, and the total cost will be at least 
double that amount. The plant will have an initial capacil 
of 1000 hp„ and is designed to furnish power for the oper- 
ation "1 Hi-' Company's mine and mill, and other mines and 
mills in the Mogollon district of this county. Oil-engines 
now are being used in that district, but the operating cosi is 
high, due to the necessity of transporting oil overland from 
Silver City, a distance of 90 miles. 

The Mogollon district, which in 1913 yielded (619.886 
06 .'■ i . silver, showed a small increa 01 1914. 

MI\l\t. I'KI SS 

li \n 001 RT! 

i in annual report >■< tha Colorado Mln >r ihe 

'>•!• il N©> •• i I hat nndei the 

| li. 01 

\ir i ••• i i" lead and a 

IUU« copper I I and net return 

per inn R rom to i" 

log in an- rain* ol the ore, from $i" to ISO and over i" i i"" 
lA ia ae wi received s.'v-'Ti Tba Company*! rovenn* from .hi 
mi at tha and nt the rear bad 184,624 
mi hand. K. i\ Bird enaral managei i"i the 


l-atlver concentrate is belnj shipped bj the Utah Min- 
erals Concentratlni Co., which lias a nea plant tt 
dump material a) thi laolidatad mine al I 

a crusher, mils, tube-mills, ami tables have a capai 

^ per day. Qeorgi W. Parahall is mill superintendent. 

Tin- dnc orebod) at 1200 ft. ami tin- lead-silver sinvoi 

on tin- same level are developing well in tin- Tlntlc Standard 

at Tlntlc, K. i. Raddati is manager, l-'our feel ot 125-oz 

Bllver ore lias been opened in tin- May Day. J. C, Dick is 
man. . 

Salt Lake Coin i \ 
The Columbus Extension company is now controlled by A. 
0, Jacobeon ami associates. Miners are driving an adit to 
cut tin- same contact rocks in which the Cardiff ore occurs, 

about 40uii ft. away. Machine-drills are used. Smelter 

returns inn:, ore sen! by the Wasatch Mines Co.'s Columbus 
illdated, in the Alia district, yielded $7.", per ton net 

Tooele Coi 
At the Buffalo Consolidated, in the Ophir district, ore assay- 

Ing ISO oz. silyer. 0.21 oz. gold, ami ln.v, lead is being blocked 
out. Two shipments sent out by a lessee contained 13G.S 
ami 164.1 oz. silver. 0.21 and 0.20 oz. gold, ami 10.4 and 11.5% 
i Ively. 


Okanogas Cotjsty 

A new furnace to treat antimony ore from the Lucky Knock 

mine, near Whitestone mountain, is to be Installed, according 

to advice from Tonasket. The deposit is considerable, and 

mar a railway. 



The steamer Amur recently arrived at Seattle from Granby 
bay with 550 tons (1,100,000 lb.) of copper from the Granby 
company's smelter at Anyox. This is the first shipment for 
some time. 


The Beaver Consolidated shaft is down 920 ft. The rich 

shoot cut at 530 ft. has been proved at 460 ft. also. The 

Nipissing company will pay a 5% dividend on January 20, 
amounting to $300,000. On December 19 the financial position 
was as follows: cash in bank, $401,410; bullion in transit, $420,- 
937; ore on hand and in process, and bullion ready for ship- 
ment, $467,206: total, $1,289,553. About 600,000 oz. silver has 

since been sent to England. During the year ended October 

31 the Coniagas mine produced 2,497,395 oz. silver, about 
1.000,000 oz. less than the previous year. The output to date 
is 20,160.389 oz. Dividends amounted to $1,320,000, making 
S7.ihi0.000 since November 1906. Ore reserves are estimated 
to contain 11,904,000 oz. Cost of mining and concentrating 
was 12.444c. per oz.. including all general charges ami roy- 
alty, but not shipping, smelting, refining, and marketing, 
which totaled 3.5SSc. per ounce. 

The Dome Lake, at Porcupine, has shipped Its firsl bars of 


I I \ MM. II » 

\ C. Lawwon has returned from T pah 

I: H LE8I.ii w.i Mi i 

Wll uav m I. in \> in, i I, III Bl 

Knimii is managar for tba i 
i. .a. Ne« Mexico 
i'. W ., has returned from the Lenskol mini 

I'.!'.. . I i 

Howlaxd iiwiitnii has gone to British Columbia ^ ting 

ill a I., i lenver about the middle ut Jam 

\ii;iai III in il has resinned as manager for the Qoldfleld 

Consolidated Mini tainlng his position as ., dlrectoi 

and consulting engineer J, W I f ■ rcBrnso;) has been made 
general manager and EC. M. Simpson assistant 

Hi i.ii DuBi tary for the Roeaaler ft Haaslachei Cheni 

o., a member of the Aim man Electrochemical - 
since March 27. L909, <ii.»l August 18, 1914. 

A. K. Beatson, who died December 16 at Los Angel. 
most generally known as the discoverer and long time man- 
ager or the Bonanza copper mine on La Touche Island, near 
Valdez. Alaska. He was one of the older generation of Pacific 
coast mining men, and prior to going to Alaska had bet D 
actively connected with various mining enterprises in Cali- 
fornia. One of the tunnels now used by the Great Western 
Power Co. was driven by him originally in connection with 
mining. He was long superintendent for the Big Bend T. & M. 
Co. In 1901 he was one of the original locators of the claims 

on La Touche with which his name is especially col cted, 

and he managed the property up to 1910. when control was 
purchased by the Guggenheims, Beatson remaining a director. 
Since 1910 he has lived in California. The La Touche, l:i>- 
nanza. which is often confused with the other Bonanza mine 
owned by the Alaska syndicate at Kennicott. stands as a 
monument to his insight and persistence in the face of many 
difficulties and discouragements. 

The annual meeting of the AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF Minim; 
Engineers will be held in New York February 15 to 18 

The annual meeting of the Mining and Metallurgical So- 
ciety of America will be held at the Engineers Club, New York. 
January 12. 

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers held its 
302nd meeting in New York on December 11. Two papers 
discussed the subject of insulators. 

The Utah branch of the A. I. M. E. will hold an executive 
meeting ot Salt Lake City on January 15. The necessary 
commjttees and program will be arranged for 1915. 

The Geological Society of America will meet at San Fran- 
cisco the first week in August in connection with the t itin| 

of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
The Corrtilleran section of the Society will act as host. 

The F.wiwiAY Society held its annual meeting in London 
on November 23. Sir Roben Hadfield. of steel fame, was 
elected president for 1914-15. Several interes 



January 2. 1915 


Weekly Summary of Prices of shares and Metals 

Meital Prises 

tnber SI. 

• ny 16 — 15-T4 

Electrolyte copper 18% — 14 

Pig lead 4.05— .'..on 

quicksilver i Musk i $52.50 

Spelter ' — TA 

Tin 34 V4— 36 

Zn.. dust, 100-kg. zinc-lined cases 9 

(By wire from New York.) 

NEW vnUK, 1 mber 31. — Copper is quiet at 12.75c. lead 

dull at 8.80c, and spelter steady at 5.40c. per pound. November 
outputs "i Chlno, Nevada Consolidated. Ray. and Dtab Copper 

047.694, 2,612,071, 3,196,457, an. I 6,668,040 lb. res lively. 

Inspiration balance sheel as at October 31 shows $3,195,231 cash. 


Prices of electrolytic In .New York, in cents per poun.i. 

Average week ending 


26 12 26 l.) 12.50 

2 12.62 


■ jr. Holtdaj 

27 Sun. lav 
' 23 


. 12.76 



12. M 

Monthly averages 

IV I, 


1 1.21 

1 1.1 l 
14 19 


July 14.21 

Auir 15.42 


. lei 

Nov 15.08 

Dec 14.26 

13 26 





l 1.98 


Apr 15.22 

May 15 12 

June 14.71 

Th. copper market held steady last week, which was sacls- 

presei imptlon is not much ..v 

of normal There has been talk ol the possibility of Increasing 
the ..input If the price continues to rise, but this can 
Iiappen, as refineries undoubtedly have large stocks, with no 

el ol rei ig them. 

Lead le quoted in cents per pound or dollars per hui 

pounds, New York delivery. 


25 Holiday 
27 Sunday 







Jan.- 4.33 



Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

N..v. 18 8.70 

• 25 3.90 

J 3.80 

9 3.80 

•• 16 3.80 

25 3.80 

" 30 3.80 








. 4.35 
. 4.60 
. 4.70 
. 4.37 
. 4.16 


Zinc Is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. St. Louis 
delivery. In cents i 



week endl 




' 28 

'■ 25 



. . 5.50 

•■ 16 
■ 23 
•• }fl 





:. 9 t 





5.5 1 


.... 5.22 





.... 5.09 





The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price Is fixed in the 

open market, and, as quoted weekly In this column. Is that at 
which moderafl quantities are sold. Buyers by the carload can 
usually obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting but a flask 
or two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. Average 
weekly and monthly quotations, in dollars per flask of 75 lb., 
are given below: 

Week ending 

52 5" 









1 1.00 


Dec. 17 52.51) 

" 21 53.00 

" 31 

1913. 1914 

Jury 41.00 37.50 

Aug 40.50 80.00 

Sept 39.70 76.25 

Oct 39.37 53.00 

Nov 39.40 55.00 

Dec 40.00 

Imports into England in November totaled 632, and exports 

1217 Masks. For 10 months the totals were 37.325 and 1'.'.7Ti; 

Masks respectively. The average in November was £11 2sa;.l ..1 

$53.40 per Mask. 

Prices In New York, in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages. 

1913. 1914. 

Jan 50.45 37.85 

19.07 39.76 

M.I, 46.95 38.10 

Apr 19.00 36.10 

Mav 49.10 33.29 

June 45.10 30.72 

•I'm ,. .lull at 22.75 t.. .::; 50c 
cussed on the following past, of this issue. 
Below are given the average New York quotations in cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 

1913. 1914. 

July 40.70 31.60 

Aug 41.75 50.20 

Sept 42.4 5 33.10 

Oct 40.61 30.40 

Nov 39.77 33.51 

Dec 37.57 

The market in December is ,iis- 


i iec. 21 

•■ 25 Hollda i 
•• 2i; Holldaj 
27 Sunday 
•• 2!- 

" 29 

" 30 

. IV. 27 


. IS. 75 
. IS.S7 

Average week ending 

Dec. 2 49 33 

9 49.91 

" 16 19.83 

•■ 23 is, (it; 

" 211 IS. 115 

Monthly averages. 

1913 1914. 

63.01 57 58 

61.25 57.53 

57.87 58.01 

Apr 59.26 58 52 

May 60.21 58.21 

June 59.03 56.13 


Mi ii 


July 58.70 

Aug 59 32 

Sept 60.53 

Oct 60.88 

Nov 58.76 

Dec 57.73 


r. i J -, 

53.7 5 
4 9 12 

The market is somewhat weak and erratic. Cobalt mines are 
sending large quantities to England. In the week ended Di 
Cember 19, exports totaled 320.377 oz.. and during half of the 
next w...-k the total was 375.519 oz. The Beaver Consoli.iat.-.l 
'i.oOO oz. at the mine. The tone in England has been fairly 
g i. according to Samuel Montagu & Co. Purchases on ac- 
count of china have afforded some competition, and have put a 
little animation into the market. The demand for this quarter 
from the approach of the Chinese New Year, which com- 
on February 14. 1915. 
The recurrence of this festival each year is accompanied with 
settlement of outstanding accounts between the Chinese. 

They are keen speculators, anil holders of cash naturally at- 
tempt to lighten rates at this period, and silver has to lie bought 
In this market as a counter stroke. The silver may or may not 
i ped actually to China. In any case, buying goes on more 
or less until the contending parties come to terms. For this 
reason any hardening effect upon prices from these purchases, 
mst before the Chinese New Year, may prove hut tem- 
porary, for the silver thus acquired, or a portion of it. may be 

re-sold when the cash holder has lost his power to sqi ze. 

The amount of supplies each day during the second week ol I ie- 
cember In London has been singularly unequal, and as demand 
also has been erratic, the result was curious. The price has 
ii i, when supplies have been large and fallen when they were 
exceptionally small. 

Exports of silver from London to the Orient to December 10 
totaled £5,099,500, or say 51.000.000 oz., less than In the same 
period of 1913. 

mi\i\u I'm ss 


Current Prices for Oils and Candles 

i monthly • 

tir f .• I. San i .r« lar 

t |o Chang* wttliouf 

It* UllllIlK 

. . > 
I0l . . t% 

to-14 01 '•- . . »H 

is-l« OS •»!>» 10 

ta-l«o< -Its ..10(4 

i »ct higher t linn th.< I 
Thi» following prloa* are for Oils (Oalol) In barrels; 
cuaea (I-l Kitl I 3r. per gallon Dlgl 

Compressor oil to 

Amber gas engine oil to 

OaMor machine oil JO 

: motor oil. . . . 24 

Engirt* "ii 24 

ri fin* oil 2< 

Ka» engine oil t5 

red engine oil. . II 

re, I Journal oil 21 

I* laohln* oil 28 

Per eel.. 

Light gas engine oil. .. 

Rod .omproeaor oil 

Hod engine oil 17 

oil 35 

Tin lone oil. heavy 35 

englns oil to 

Cylinder oil 37 

Hlgh-pressura cylinder oil. 50 

Low-pressure cylinder oil. 37 

Valve oil 4 1 

The following price* are for oils In Iron barrels, eas. ■ 
mil ' " xcepl on Boceno, whloh Is 8c. per 

gallon higher 

Per gal., 

1 9 

Headlight oil 10 

F. no oil 11 

Red Crown gasoline rj'._. 

Per gal., 

engine distillate 7 

s roturpa 16 

V. M. arid 1'. naptha nit 

Per bbl. 
Mar fuel oil, f.o.h. Rlchmonil Reflnery 10.85 

Per ton. 

latte cement X 113.00 

ii.- cement XX 12 00 

Asphaltum . .7.16.50 to 12.50 

Gminreinift Prices ffor Ores aurad Mkerals 

(Corrected monthly by Atkins. Kroll & Co.) 
Th.- prices are approximate, subject to fluctuation, and to 
variation according to quantity, quality, and delivery required. 
They are quoted, except as noted, f.o.b. San Francisco. Buying 
prices marked •. 

Mir. Max. 

Antimony ore, ).". t.. 56%, per ton $27.00 133.00 

Arsenic, white, refined, per lb 0.05 0.06 

arsenic, red, refined, per lb 0.12 0.15 

Asbestos, chrysotlle 100.00 350.00 

estos, amphlbole 5.00 7 50 

Asphaltum, refined, per ton 11.50 20.00 

Barium chloride, commercial, per ton 50.00 60.00 

Barium sulphate (barytes), prepared, per ton. 20.00 30.00 

Bismuth ore. 15%. per ton '250.00 upward 

China clay. English, levigated, per ton 15.00 20.00 

Chrome ore, according to quality, per ton 7.50 10.00 

Cobalt metal, refined, f.o.b. London, per lb... 1.90 .... 

Coke, foundry, per 2240 lb 12.00 15.00 

Diamonds (according to size and quality): 

Borts, per carat 2.00 15.00 

Carbons, per carat 55.00 80.00 

Feldspar, per ton 5.00 25.00 


Silica, per M 50.00 55.00 

Snowball, per M 40.00 45.00 

Flint pebbles for tube-mills. Danish, per 2240 

lb 24.00 28.00 

Fluorspar, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Fuller's earth, according to quality, per ton... 20.00 30.00 

Gilsonlte, per ton 35.00 40.00 


Amorphous, per lb 0.01 0.02^4 

Crystalline, per lb 0.04 0.13 

Gypsum, per ton 5.00 7.50 

Infusorial earth, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Iridium 55.00 .... 

Magnesite, crude, per ton 5.00 7.50 

Magnesite, dead calcined, per ton 20.00 25.00 

Manganese ore. oxide, crude, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Manganese, prepared, according to quality, 

per ton 30.00 70.00 



ngth, lev U il 

1 ismlrldlu 


Inlni roi ml..- .mills, i • 

Un| to quality, per t.u 

Tin ..■ 

Vanadium >o... 

vVolframlt* inn tungsten oi 

Zinc ore, ton 

Ho 00 



. 16.00 

•15 00 

46 00 

par unit 

Cuanremilt Prices ifor Clbeinniacali 

(Corr*Ot*d monthly by Briiiin- K ne. 1,1 II. n >n 

:■ f,.i ordinary quantities In paokM 

• i For round lot» lower pi ss :ted, while 

in smaller Quantities advancsd prloss are ordinarily charged. 

"•u I aie f.oh Sun FranclBOO anil Mlli.le.t to Bucti 

Other conditions govern afaaican ami foreign business. 

Ilin. Msx. 

Acid, SUlph i ...". drums, per 100 lb.. I 0.80 t 1.10 

Acid, sulphui per 100 lb. . I, II 

Acid, sulphuric. C. P.. 9-lb. bottle, bbl., per 11. 

Acl. I. sulphuric, C. P.. bulk, carboy, per lb.... imi'.i'.. 1.11 

Acid, muriatic, com'l, carboy, per 100 lb 1.60 

Acid, muriatic, C. P.. 6-lb. bottle. 1. 1. 1 . par lb 

Acid, muriatic, C. P., bulk, carboy, per lb O.lOii 

-i nitric, com'l. carboy, per 100 lb 

Acid, nitric, C. P.. 7-lb. bottle, bbl., per lb.... 0.16 

Acid, nitric. C. P.. bulk, carboy, per lb* 0.12 H 

Argols. ground, bbl., per lb 0.10 

Borax, cryst. and cone, bags, per 100 lb 3.00 

Borax, powdered, bbl., per 100 lb 1.60 

Borax glass, gd. 30 mesh, cases, tin lined, per 

100 1b 10.50 14.00 

Bone ash. 60 to 80 mesh, bbl., per 100 lb 0.50 

Bromine. 1-lb. bottle, per lb " .:."■ 0.15 

Clay, domestic Are, sack, per 100 lb 1 '." 2.00 

Cyanide, 98 to 100%, 100-lb. case, per lb (Joe 

Cyanide. 98 to 100%,. 200-lb. case, per lb 

Cyanide. 1299a, 100-lb. case, per lb 

Cyanide. 129%, 200-lb. cose, per lb 

Lead acetate, brown broken, casks, per 100 lb. 9. 00 10.50 

Lead acetate, white broken, casks, per 100 lb. . 10.50 10 76 

Lead acetate, brown broken, casks, per 100 lb. 9.00 10.50 

Lead acetate, white, crystals, per 100 lb 12.50 13.25 

Lead. C. P., test., gran., per 100 lb 13.00 15.00 

Lead. C. P.. sheet, per 100 lb 15.00 18.00 

Litharge, C. P.. silver free, per 100 lb 11.50 13.50 

Litharge, com'l, per 100 lb 8.00 9.50 

Manganese ox.. blk„ dom. In bags, per ton.... 20.00 25.00 

Manganese ox., blk„ Caucasian, In casks, per 

ton (85% MnOj — : !i% Fe) 65.00 120.00 

Nitre, double ref'd., small cryst., bbl., per 100 lb. 9.00 1 1 ne 

Nitre, double ref'd., granular, bbl.. per 100 lb.. S.50 10.50 

Nitre, double ref'd., powdered, bbl., per 100 lb. 9.25 11.25 

Potassium bicarbonate, cryst., per 100 lb 14.00 16.00 

Potassium carbonate, calcined, per 100 lb 18.00 30.00 

Potassium permanganate, drum, per lb 0.20 0.30 

Silica, powdered, bags, per lb 0.03 0.05 

Mln. Max. 

Soda, carbonate (ash), bbl., per 100 lb 1,45 1.75 

Soda, bicarbonate, bbl.. per 100 lb 2.00 2.50 

Soda, caustic, ground, 98%, bbl., per 100 lb 2.75 3.25 

Soda, caustic, solid, 98%. drums, per 100 lb.... 2.50 2. IT, 

Zinc shavings. 850 fine. bb!„ per 100 lb 12.00 14.00 

Zinc sheet, No. 9 — 18 by S4. drum, per 100 lb.. No quotes 

•Extra charge for packing nitric acid for shipment to con- 
form to regulations. 

Roessler & Hasslacher quoted as follows on December 15: 

Ammonia, anhydrous, in 50-lb. cylinders, per lb Jn.27 

Arsenic, white powder, in 500-lb. bbl., per lb 

Cobalt oxide, black, in 10-lb. tins, per lb 1.06 

Cyanide, potassium, 3S.4% cyanogen, per lb ".2.". 

Cyanide, sodium, 51% cyanogen, per lb 0.25 

Sodium, metallic, in 1-lb. tins, per lb 0.4O 

Further progress has been made In re-establishing g< m rnl 
normal prices. 


January •_'. 1915 

uontb "l 1914 v. II the metals 

demand went, but the situation was 

ol buying for ei the manu- 

poi d. i ! i- was notably 

id, and spelter. The tone of the market la 

il than it lias been, and it is believed that domestic 

,11 enter the' market Btrong in January. 


Llthougfa t). 

. .. - I ! 

: ought they will 

■ Ision. Out 

win ii. a i v nearly normal ractoi 

in the market. In Iron and steel lim s then, was better buy- 
iter il« liverj In December, but it 
was d markel a 

ol machim i ail inui d, and thi 

ol -ales runs Into millions. The United States Sti 
poratlon announced that it would not cut wages, a proposi- 
tion which had hen discussed, and Mr. Gary, the chairman, 
,.ii there ai i a of a chan 

etter. Wall Street houses are restoring their employees 
or full pay: nionev is easier, and the Christ- 
mas retail trade In New York city was better than merchants 

I r advanced, and lo.-t but 

ifter the rise. Exports ol Ii ad * hail been 

heavy, and The tin markel was 

quiet, and fairly even, despite a Bcarcity of spot 

i I in a dull markel. 

December opened and finished quietly, though events oi 
the month caused prices to rise, and thi advance was held 
Fairly well. In the first eight days, the quotation foi 
trolytii ish, New York, bul on Decembei 9 there 

was in adva l2.87Vfcc. Then came frequent adi 

until D when the New York quotation was I3.37*4c 

cash, a level which was maintained until December 21, when 
there was a drop to 13.26c 1 p to the tlmi ash. or 

12.STI4.C. 30 days, delivered, was reached, a large business 
was done, bul consumers refused to follow the market up. 
In th.> first week <>i December the larger selling agi 
ablish 13c full t. mis. as the n 
'nit 1 1 would bav< none of it. and 12.76c. cash was 

adhered to for the time. 11 should he noted that at this 
deliveries were commt advance of about 

V, over prompt copper. The cause for the advances which 
9 was heavy purchasing on the part of 
Europe m no time was domestic demand for electrolytii 
anywhi d the trade does not expeel 

activity on the pari 01 home consumers until about the middle 

nuar) Lai her hand, has sold 

as a SUlt of the war, C< rait, 

Lake are understood to he pne 
static ] m Dei uiber 1 

was 13c. cash Ne« York, bul on r 11 il started up- 

ward, advancing '*•■ per day, until 13.62't.c. was reached 
The following daj declined to 13.50c, 

i 84. Good business was done it 13.5 
ould have been done had sellers heen willing 
to grant ci Special brands ol Lake commanded 

premiums. According to statist!, the Depart- 

in. in copper exports to Bu- 

rope in the flrsl three weeks of Decembei reached a total 
724,367 lb. Of this amount, nearly half, or 14.8G2.15il 
as exported in the week ended December IS. France 

luck 6,978,996 lb., ttalj 3,457,042 lb., and England 3,209,461 
lh. in that week. Henry it. Merton & Co.. London. rei>orted 

80, to he about 
31,749 tons, against 31,565 tons November 14. and lft, 757 tons 
November 13, 1913. On December 1 the quotation for hot- 
rolled sheet copper was advanced '_.c to 18c, and again on 
in < 1 nili. r 1." to 18% cents. 

The trade \»is greatly surprised when the largest producer 
announced a reduction ol 10 points. November 28, making 
the New York price 3.80c. and that at St. Louis 3.6714c, quo- 
tations which held until late in December, although the St. 
Louis market showed weakness. Prior to the drop, the 
metal w:ts regarded as strong. The most plausible reason for 
the cut was thai outside sellers had been cutting 3.90c While 
thi domestic demand was poor, exports were good. The larg- 
onsignment of pig lead which ever left this country 
board the Bteamer Indrakuala, which cleared for Vladi- 
vostok in November. On the Steamer Kursk, which cleared 
i 1, November 20, was 1300 tons. In England metal 
1 was reported as scarce on December 11. 


Heavj buying of spelter for foreign consumption sent quo- 
tations up in Decembei. after which came a decline, but not 
all of the advance was lost. The New York prices were as 
follows: December 1. 5.36c; 8, 5.65c: 15, 5.80c; and 22 
Russia has been a heavy buyer of spelter. In Eng'and the 
imports totaled 6432 tuns in November, only half of what they 
were In the same month a year ago. A factor in sustaining 
the markel is the fact 1 hat the supply of ore is not over 


Throughoul Decembi r the spot supply of tin was short, ami 
nail there heen any big demand prices would have soared. 
Up to December .'4. only 650 tons had arrived, though on 
thai day there was 2585 ions afloat. Nearly all of the latter. 
however, was due to arrive December 31 or early in January, 
and consequently could not be used to make December deliv- 
artes. The quotation December 1 was 33.15e. New York: 
8th, 32.50c; 16th, :'.4.75c: and 22nd. 33.30c. Buying was 
spottj and mostly for future delivery. A curious circum- 
stance was the buying of about 200 tons of tin in the New 
York market for export to Russia. This the trade could 
not understand, as London would seem to he the natural 
markel for Russia. The announcement of the freight rate 
advance granted to Eastern railroads tended to stimulate the 
market, but the elTecl was not great. The stock of unsold 
Banca tin in Holland. November 30, was 3944 tons, against 
160 tons on the same date in 1913, The deliveries in Novem- 
ber totaled 2600 rons. of which 4110 tons came from Pacific 


The market was dull and prices were weak throughout the 

month. The quotations December 1 were 17 to 18c for Cook- 

15 to 16c for Halletfs, and 13.50 to 14.50c. foi Chinese. 

December 24. prices quoted were 14.50 to 16c, 13.50 to 14c 

and 12.50 to Lie., respectively. 


Spoi aluminum in ton lots was nominally quoted al 18.50 

to 19.50c at the end ol ! 

.I011. ix ore prices the last week of IS14 were the highest 
they attained in 1914, the basis range being from $511 to $52. 
basis of mi', metallic- zinc. Few producers accepted as low 
as $51). base, while, on the other hand, not a great many car- 
load lots brought as high as $52. An average settlement of 
$51.50 was made, with the buying extremely heavy, with the 
exception of one high-grade ore buyer. 

J 1915 

Ml\!\t. I'KI SS 



1914, thl 

Work "ii ill' 
I. hi profit 
.i 1 

I'll, null in in. WB, > leldlns 

ix run. in and 


Tin in' company eovi re I hi 

ended Julj 11 1914 Development footage totati 

..i diamond-drilling and 2638 ft of Bample hole-. 
The ili ill « is used exti testing the deeper ground, 

but nothing encouraging was .lis, i" oi below 1850 

Irllllng has been done in calc-achlat, il n 

• Bnd weal on reaching the contact between 

k and quartz-diabase splii up and apparently gradually 

cut ont. The opinion of J. Malcolm Maclaren, as published 

In tin November 8, 1918, has i n confirmed in this 

although difficult to estimate, are placed at 
200.000 urns, according t>> the general manager, it. s. B 

The mill treated 127,870 tons ol ore with 92.439! extraction. 
The Income was £256,185, of which the profit was £101,330. 
Adding £11,121 from the previous year, there was available 
□ 12,451. of which E9H.000 was paid in dividends, leaving a 
balam 151. 

The output to date is a.s follows. 1,348,290 tons. £3,604,692 
gold, and £1,444,500 in dividends. 


The report of this well known Colorado company deals with 
the Mar ended June 30. 1914. The report of the consulting 
engineers and acting managers, Philip Argall & Sons; the 
mine superintendent, Erick Johnson; and mill superintendent, 

W H. Harrison, contains the following notes: 

Development totaled 2311 ft. on Company and lessee account. 
Tin re were t>6 men employed by the Company, of whom 33 
were mining on the surface, and 44 lessees' men. Development 
was mainly directed to proving the mill veins at greater 
depth, and following them south into the granite area. This 
resulted in opening new ore. as over 93'v of the shipping ore 
■on Company account came from these veins. They are the 
sole source of shipping ore mined by the Company, and have 
yielded $237,992 to date. The estimated output for the cur- 
rent year is ijo.iinO tons. The grade is low, having averaged 
J2.M per ton during the year under review. Work on the 
southern spurs of the Bobtail vein on No. 2 and 4 levels was 
not satisfactory. Lessees' operations in the Independence 
claim did noi yield anything important. The Washington 
claim is still worked under lease. The vein at 1150 ft. is 
worthless. The claim produced $25,258 net. yielding a royalty 
Of $7935. As the mill veins may pass into this area, the out- 
put may increase this year. The outpui of the Company and 
lessees in the whole property showed a decrease of $20,277 
and $53,832 respectively, compared with last year. The dumps 
are now scattered and are costly to remove, but there should 
he enough for the mill for two years. 

Lessees shi| ped 7783 tons of sorted ore valued at $158,17:;. 
against 10,314 tons and $229,528 in the previous year. Freight 
and treatment cost $48,744, while the royalty, etc., to the 
Company was $34,992. or 31.97'v, leaving $74,437 net. The 
mill treated 369 tons of lessees' ore, giving $106S net and 



i « ith 

In an. 
Tin • 

I rofli Lddln iii.- i". vlou i 
100, there « Idand 

intlng to $18 

id and in banks In L Ion and Cripple Ci 


Company Is the most Important In a, and 

the report of the consulting W R Feldlmann, cov. 

year ended June 80, 1914 The ramifications of the 

Companj arc somewhat of a rations 

at seVI outside p| >n\\ vr-plau! , and three 

M U' 01 WES1 M UK AN '.HI I 11-. 

treatment plants. The manager at the mines is John Swan 
Watkins. The native lahor situation was good, and owing 
to the cocoa industry being somewhat depressed, there is a 
surplus of natives available. 

Prospecting and development work amounted to 18,27s ft.. 
at a cost ol £55,493, or $14.5u per foot. Ore reserves are as 


Mine. Tons. Value. 

Ashanti main workings 34,100 $21.08 

Ashanti Obuasi shoot 213.40U 27.30 

Ayeinm 12". I 10.00 

Justice's 65,1 11.00 

Total and average 132,500 $19.56 

This is an increase of 67,200 tons. The gross value is £1,797,- 
000, of which there would be £653,100 profit. 

The Central treatment plant, using roasting and direct 
cyanidation, dealt with 97,293 tons of ore yielding $2tt per 
ton, with 93.29! extraction. The Cote d'Or filter-press plant 
treated Hi. 915 tons yielding $9.40 per ton. with 80.19! recovery. 
The Cote d'Or plant also treated 15.501 tons of tailing giving 
$2.70 per ton. 

Revenue for the year-totaled £441.053. of which £145,731 was 
profit. The balam-e of £63.809 from 1912-13 made £209,540 
available, of which £147,327 was paid in dividends, making 
£1,245,8(14 to date. Construction and equipmenl expenditure 
was £30,040. 



January 2, 1915 

A Small Portabl • Air-Compressor 

Commercial Paragraphs 

The small gasoline engine driven air-compressor shown in 

i bas recently been placed on the 

' by the IngerBOlI-Rand Co., of New York. This small 

compressor has been designed to meet the requlremi ate ol 

small operations and those of a temporary character where 

ah tools of various types are used. The compressor has I 

found particularly adapted to rock cutting, calking joints. 
drilling, riveting, tamping, and other purposes. As is well 
known, compressed air tools have proved their merit on this 
class of work. and have effected a savins of time and labor 
over hand methods. 

The compressor being portable and self-contained, is well 

ir "dBM' : 'i 


wv> #•«. . _j jHt~ 


adapted to tins work, n is operated by a single-cylinder 
gasoline engine which is coupled directly to the compressor, 
both pistons working on the same crank-shaft. The engine 
is of the single-action two-cycle type. The air-compressor is 
one of the Company's standard types, known as Imperial XII. 
has a capacity of IS cu. ft. per minute at a pressure of 9b 
lb. Cooling is provided for by a gear-driven pump and an 
automobile type radiator with large tank capacity, serving 
both tin- compressor and engine. The radiator is assisted bj 
:. large (an. 

The frame, axles, and wheels are of steel and the front 
axle is arranged with a swivel connection to the frame, per 
mltting horizontal rotation for turning corners and sufficient 
vertical movement to accommodate the wheels to the inequali- 
ties in the road without .strain on the frame. An air re- 
ceiver tested to 300 lb. water pressure and fitted with safety 
valve and pressure gage is at one end of the frame. The equip- 
ment also includes a gasoline tank of 15-gal. capacity which is 
supported on a large tool-box. The complete outfit weighs 1500 
lb. ami is designed [or transportation by hand, but can be fitted 
with tongue and singletree if desired. The compactness of 
the plant is evidenced by the accompanying illustration. 

Wood Dbill Works, Paterson, N. .1.. has issued an inti 

di r entitled Talks by the Drill Master.' Told in narra- 
tive form, the old driller relates the story of his experience 
with Wood rock drills. 

A. M. Bvnis Co.. Pittsburgh, Pa., has for distribution a cir- 
cular entitled 'Meeting the Mine Owner's Demands,' which is 
devoted lo i be application of wrought iron pipe to the severe 
usace ni mining operations. 

The In wm Kim Clay Co.. Denver, Colo., in Bulletin No. 50 
discusses tin- Case inutile type oil-fired assay furnace. The 
bulletin shows two views of the battery of muffle furnaces 
in operation at the proper,} of the Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Co., <>f Canada. 

Tin l.i xKKMihiMKii Co.. Cincinnati. Ohio, is distributing 
two booklets devoted to Ferrenewo' and Clip' valves. The 
■Ferrenewo' valve is made in globe, angle, and cross patterns, 
all parts of which are replaceable. The 'Clip' type ol sate valve 
has been manufactured by the Company for a number of wars. 

('. I.. Hi i: .1,1 & Sn\s. Boston. Mass.. general catalogue ot 
engineering, surveying, and mining instruments is one of the 
most complete that has been brought to our attention. Pub- 
lished in hook form, this catalogue is complete in every detail. 

i!i- with illustrations and containing a large amount of 
data on the subject of surveying instruments and their appli- 

Tut; I 'i i .\l v \ i i m it.'ui.xu Co.. Mishawaka, Ind., through 

its New York branch, has received an order from the Alaska 
Sastlneau Vlinlng Co., Seattle. Wash., tor 20 sets of special 
Hour stands and worm-geared shafts complete. An order has 
ii received from the Inspiration Consolidated Copper 
i $7300 worth ol equipment covering shafting and about 
25 split clutches for the crushing plant. 

Tut. Co. is the manufacturer ol J-M asbes- 
ongi felted pipe covering, a product made up of lam- 
inations of fell composed of asbestos and finely ground sponge. 
The materials being naturally cellular, they form the basis 
Of the claim that this covering confines more dead air cells 
than any other covering and therefore possesses higher heat- 
insulating value. The Company has recently contracted tr» 
equip the high-pressure pipes in the new Ctah state Capitol 
with this material. 

Tut, Western Electric Co., New York, begins the new year 
by distributing the first edition of its 1915 Electrical Supply 
Year Book. This catalogue is a marked departure from the 
regular publicity literature in the electrical supply field. In 
place of the manufacturer's list prices which catalogues of 
this kind have usually carried in the past, this new book 
announces a complete series of Western Electric list prices 
upon which a uniform basic discount applies, such a discount 
ing to the holder of the catalogue his approximate 
iii on all of the articles listed. Although containing over 
12011 pages besides an alphabetical index, it probably weighs 
less than any general catalogue of this nature which has here- 
tofore been issued. One feature of the book is an advertising 
bulletin embracing examples of advertising and selling helps 
which the Company furnishes to its agents in connection with 
the sale of goods manufactured by the Western Electric Com- 


1 n «• 



I lump ensa nun j 

i * I 



1 si 



Per $100^ of Payroll 


(Compensation Insurance Brokers) 


Sutter 2420 



(J[ Ever since the present compensation law has been in 
force the mine owners of California have been forced to 
pay exorbitant rates for compensation insurance. 

(H By special arrangement with a prominent casualty 
insurance company the mine owners of the State of Cali- 
fornia can obtain special rates for compensation insurance 
through our efforts in collecting the data necessary to 
show the hazard as it actually exists in the metal mining 
industry in California. 

(J[ We have been engaged in this work during the past 
eight months and are glad to announce our success in 
quoting the following rates for unlimited compensation 
insurance complete in every detail: 

Per $100 of payroll. 

All kinds of metal mining (underground), . . $3.00 
Ore milling, smelting and reduction, . . .1.85 

Dredging 3.00 

Commissary department (cooks, etc.), ... .98 
Office employees (not exposed to operative hazard), .08 

Other surface employees to be rated in accordance 
with the hazard. 

<U Coverage can be furnished at a moment's notice. 
Requests for information will be given our immediate 


Compensation Insurance Brokers ^ 

315-17 First National Bank Bldg. 

San Francisco Is 


■ i in 2, 1913 

\1I\1V. I 




' ' . >efllgned to Dig 15 Fi 

k 1 iredglnB r " ■ Shoi e] < !reek, n 

We have built the machinery for over one hundred placer dredges— from _'_• foi ed by 

oil. electrlclt) and steam more than any other concern in America- heavy, powerl -or California condl- 

nous ami durable light dredges fur conditions where strength ami light welghi itlal — all wearing pari 

made of the famous Bucyrus yz steel, of onequaled strength ami wearing qualities oi ind our material are 





Snn I'm ruis.-i. 


HmuciiGv General 


General Metallurgy 

By the same Author. 
909 pages. 6x9, fully Illustrated. $6.00 
25s ' net. postpaid. 
From its first publica- 
tion "General Metallurgy" 
has been recognized not 
only as the standard work 
on fundamentals and gen- 
eral practice, but as an 
epoch-making treatise. 

There's little to add to this: 

Knclncering iintl Hlnlllg; J our mil in review of "Metillluri; v of Copper," October 17. Dili 

"The magnitude of his task excites our wonder, His execution of it elicits our admira- 
tion. Here we are having such an exhibition as Bruno Kerl and John Percy save ua ualf a 
century ago. and more recently Carl Schnabel. it was high time that another metallui 
giant should have essayed the task. None but a giant could do anything of this sort. 

"No other single treatise, not excepting the classics of I »■-. I 'eters, covered the entire 
ground. Professor Hofman does it, and does it admirably. His producl Is satisfying U Is 

as nearly up-to-date as any such work can be, it is painstakingly a< CUratt and it Is adi QUS te 
in its presentation of details. 

"As to the last point, a noteworthy feature is the copiousness of the footnotes. \\ 
enormous research do they exhibit. In this we are reminded of Karl's famous Grundris 
Metallhuttenkunde, but that classic covered all the fields of metallurgy and apart from the 
footnotes the text was necessarily slender. In Prof. Hofrnan's fat volume devoted to a single 
metal there could be an amplitude of text, and for those who desire minute study then 
the footnotes to take them hack to the original authorities, Praise of Prof. Hofrnan's trea 
on copper is as unnecessary as it would be to try to gild burnished gold. The appri ciath 
the metallurgical profession will come to him." 

Metallurgy of Copper 

By H. O. HOFMAN, B.M.,, Ph.D., Professor of Metallurgy. Massachusetts tostttu - oi 

."<> pages, «3ti>. 548 lllnatratlona, *.~.oo (21a.) net, postpaid. 

This second volume in the Metallurgical Series by Prof, Hofman Is the first modern book 
to cover the whole subject of copper. It gives physical and chemical facts, alloys and com- 
pounds, and .overs Cully the details of modern practice throughout the world. 








I 'i op. i ties of Copper. 

Copper of Commerce, 

Its Impurities and 
Their Effects. 
Industrial A Hoys. 

Copper Compounds. 

( "opp< ]■ i >res; Tin ir 

Metallurgical Treat- 
Smelting of Copper. 

A. Smelting Copper 
Sulphide ' Ire. 

1. Roasting. 

2. Smelling in the 
i '.last Furnace. 


3. Smelling in the 

4. Smelting in I he 

:. Smelting of Copper 

A. Smelting, etc. — 

5. The Sulphide 
Smelting Plant. 

B. Smelting Oxide 
Copper Ores. 

C. Smelting Natiye 
Copper On j s. 


D. Fire-Refining ■ 
Impure i topper. 

i teaching of ' topper. 

a. Leaching oi ■ top- 
per i 'res. 

B. Leaching Copper 

i ■ Leaching Mets llic 

Electrolysis of Cop- 

a. Multiple System, 
B. Series System. 
i ' Multiple 
Series System. 

MINING PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



January -, 1915 



Arranged geographically. For addresses see cards on following pages. 

RATES : One -hair Inch, S25 por year 148 cents per tveeAr . Combination rate with THE MINING MAGAZINE oT London, 
one-hair Inch In oach, 940 por year (77 cento pel- wee#f* Subscription Included. 



W. R. 


Blauvelt, Harrington. 

H, Kenyon. 
Collins. Edgar A. 

lib, Courtemiy. 
Smith & Zlesmer. 

i »l ll iihni \. 

James W. 

Arnold, Ralph 
Bain. H. Foster. 
Beatson, A. K. 

tnln, Edward n. 
. Fred W. 
Buret), Albert. 
Burch. Caetani & 
nt, Gelaslo. 

Alvin E. 
Chodzko. A. E. 
Clark. Baylies C. 

tiger, G Lowell. 
Cranston. Robert E. 
Crowell & Sanborn. 
Dakln, Fred H.. Jr. 
Dennis, Clifford G 
Farri 11, .! H 
. Arthur. 
Grant. Wilbur B. 

Qrunsky. C. E„ Jr. 
Haley, Charles S 
Hartley. J. H. 
Harvey. F. II 
Hollan.l. L. F. S. 
Hubbard & Spiers. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Huston. H. L. 
Hyde, .lames M. 

n, Charles, 
.loh n son. Harry R. 
Juessen, Edmund. 

Kinzle. Robert A. 

Leslie, Eugene H. 
McLaughlin, R. P. 
Merrill. Charles W. 
Merrill Metallurgical Co. 
Merrill. Frederick J. H. 
Morris. F. L. 
Mudd. Seeley W. 
Munro. C. H. 
Myers, Desalx B. 
Newman. M. A. 
N'oyes. William S. 
Osmont. Vance C. 
Pepperberg. L J. 
Pollak Co.. The A. J. 
Prlchard, W. A. 
Probert, Frank H. 
Radford. William H. 
Ray. James C. 
Rogers. Austin F. 
Ross, G. McM. 
Rover. Frank W 
Scott. Robert. 
Slmonds. Ernest H. 
Slzer. F. U. 
Smith. Howard D. 
Stebblns. Elwyn W. 
Storms, William H. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Tlmmons. Colin. 
Tolman. Cyrus Fisher. Jr 
Turner. H. W. 
von Bernewltz. M. \V. 
Wartenweller, Otto, 
& Co. 

nati, Philip, 
woir. .1. h. o. 

I 'III. lilt vim. 

Allen & Colburn. 
Argall & Sons. Philip. 
Bancroft. Howland. 
Chase, Charles A. 
Collins, George E. 
Dorr, John V N 
Farlsh, John B. 
Finch. John Wellington 
Griffith & Co.. T. R. 

Hills & Willis. 
Radford. Walter J. 
Rickard, Forbes. 
eater, s. A. 


Brodle. Walter ML 


Anderson & Son. G 

Easton. Stanly A 
Hershey. Oscar H. 


Mollis. H. L. 

Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 


Stanford. Richard B. 


Dickerman. Alton L. Robert H. 
Rogers. Allen Hastings. 


Cutler. H. C. 
Ferguson, Donald. 
Lakenan, C. B. 
Symmes. Whitman. 


Dickerman. Alton I,. 


Bowman. Frank A. 
Collins, Edwin James. 
Longyear Co., E J 
hell, Horace V. 


Copeland, Durward. 
Hall. R. G. 

Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Klrby. Edmund B. 

M;<l'olmson. Jas. W. 


Bard, D. C. 
Creden, William L. 

Gl ne. Fred T. 

Valerius, McNutt & 


Aldridge. Walter H. 
Arnold. Ralph. 
Ball. Sydney H. 
Beatty. A. Chester 
Benedict, Win. de L. 
Canadian Mining & Ex- 
ploration Co.. Ltd, 
Charming, J. Parke. 
Clark, C. Dawes. 
Cranston. Robert E. 
Dorr, John V. N. 
Dunster, Carl B. 
Dwlght, Arthur S. 
Erdlets. J. F. B.. Jr. 
Farlsh. John B. 
Fearn, Percy Lt 
Finch, John Wellington. 
Fin lay, J. R. 
Garrey, George IL 
Hamilton. E. M. 
Hassan, A. A. 
Henderson. H. P. 
Hendryx, Wilbur A. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Lloyd. R. L. 
Mercer, John W. 
Mlnard. Frederick H. 
Mines Management Co. 
OlCOtt & Corning. 
Perry, O B. 
Polllon & Polrler. 
Raymond, Rossiter W. 
Read Thomas T. 
Rlcketts & Banks. 
Rlordan, D. M. 
Rogers. Allen Hastings. 
Rogers. Edwin M. 
Sharpless, Fred'k F. 
Slmonds & Burns. 
Spilsbury. E. Gybbon. 
Sussman, Otto. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thomas. Klrby. 
Von Rosenberg, Leo. 

Webber, Morton. 
Westervelt, William 

Yeutman, Pope. 


Valerius, McNutt & 


Miller, Bernard P. 
Morse, Ed. C. 


Ayres. W. S. 
Chance, H. M. 
Clapp. Frederick G. 
DuBols. Mixer & Armas. 
Garrison, F. Lynwood. 
Goodale. Stephen L. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Myers, Desalx B. 
Queneau, A. L. 
Spurr, J. Edward. 


Eye, Clyde M. 
Hanlon, Russell Yale. 
Wilmot, H. C. 


Bradley. 1). H.. Jr. 
Klnnon, Win. H. 
Nicholson, Francis. 


IiuBois. Mixer & Armas. 
Jennings, E. P. 
Kirk & Leavell. 
Krumb. Henrv. 
Neill. James W. 
Schmidt. F. Sommer, 
Sears. Stanley C. 
Talmage. Sterling B. 
Win wood, Job H 


Bellinger. H. C. 
Clarke. Roy H. 
Mallhot. Charles. 



Bristol, J. J. 

Chennells. J. A. 
Emery. A. B 

<;. n. 


Beadon, W. t; Coleridge. 
F. L. 

\ C 
Eardley-Wllmot, s 
Maenutl C n 
Mills. Edwin w. 
E, J. 


■ "I'm. 
William l 
3 I' An, Hey. 

. v\ IDA. 
Charles A. 
Brewer, Wm. M. 

Brown. H. B. 

lining & Ex- 
ploration Co., Ltd. 
Ferrier, W. F. 
Fowler. Samuel S. 
Hardman. John E. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Keffer. Frederic. 
Klrby, A. G. 
Lamb, R. B. 
Levy, Ernest. 
Summerhayes, M. w. 
J. B. 


Hartley. J. H. 


ler Hill & 


Allen. A. W. 
Arnold, Ralph. 

Ba< h William. 

Baj I, Ion. H. c. 
Beadon. W. R. Coleridge 
Beatty, A. Chester. 

Botsford, Robert S, 
Brown, R. Gllman. 

Collins, Henrv I'. 
Curie. J. ft 

de Marny. E. X Barbot. 
Denny B os 
Drucker. A. E. 
DuBois. Mixer ,v. Armas. 
Erdlets, J. F. B.. Jr. 
Fennell. John Howard. 
Geppert, R. M 
Henderson, .1 a, Leo. 
Herzig, Charles S. 
Hoffmann. Karl l\ 
Hoffmann. Ross B. 

follows . Geo T. & Co, 

II. C. 

i ■ er, Theodore J. 
Hunt. Bertram, 

Hunt & Co., Robert W. 

Ins, John Power. 
In, ler & Henderson. 
Insklpp & Bevan. 
Jones, Henrv Ewer. 
Kuehn. A. F. 

Lanagan, W. H. 
Loring. E. A. 
Loring, W. J. 
Mayrels, L. J. 
Miehell. George V. 
Mines Management Co. 
Nichols, Horace G. 
Payne & Co., F. W. 
Pearse, Arthur L. 
Perkins, \\ alter G„ & Co. 
Purington. Chester W. 
Queneau. A. L. 
Rii ka i -I. E3dgar. 
Rickard. T. A 
Shaler, Millard K. 
Smith, Charles A. 
smith, Reuben Edward, 
Stephenson. Geo. E. 
Stines. Norman C. 
Stockfeld. G. A. 
Thomas, E. G. 

Thomas. H. M 

Thorne, w. E. 
Tltcomb, H. A. 

Turner, Scott. 

Weatherbe, D'Arcy 

Wright. Charles Will. 


Caldwell. Forest B. 
Denny Bros. 
Eveland, A. J. 
Grothe & Carter. 
Hoyle. Charles. 
McCann, Ferdinand. 
Mines Management Co. 
Xahl. Arthur C. 
Oldfleld. Frank W, 
Raymond, Robert M. 
Royer, Frank W. 
Simpson, W, E 

Stevens, Blarney, 
Tweedy, Geo. A. 


Chede & Davidson. 
Copeland, Durward. 
Couldrey, Paul s 
Lamb, Mark R. 
Lewis. H, Allman. 
Strauss. Lester W. 




ABBOTT. James W., 

Mining Kngiorrr 

ALDRIDGE. Walter H., 

Minimi mill Mr lnlluri£li-nl KlgllHI 

■f Win II Tin .ir.: 
It Wall B1 . New V.rk. 

BARD, D. 0., 



P • • 


Mining 1 n.. 

i "i i. No -. Sirdar* 



MliiliiK i:u K |tif->-r 

• vl ' .nil, 

BRODIE, Walter M., 

ilinliiK i:«ul<iirr mill MrfnllurcUt. 

i Ugh lands. Codoi ctleul 
Washing.. m. D C 


• • m.ultlaB Knflarrn ami MrlnllurslNf n 

» Broad Bt Plaoe, London, B C 

BEADON, W. R. Coleridge, 

Ml III lit 1 ■lliuliirrr 

\ Si otl fl <•■■ , ', ii s King A Co . 

Rangoon, Burma. 66 Corn hi 11, 

OUili-. Miiitui, KmiKonii, K. »" 

BROWN, H. B., 

Brltlih Columbia Ulnai Bought, Bold 

and Operated 

786 Paolflo Him-k. Vancouver, B C 


ALLEN, A. W., 

"'iiiiiuri;. ..i •..•i,i md Slrrer. 

'• Inst M A M 

i Plnaburi indon, D. C 

l/sual codes. 


Mlnlim I :.iuln,-.-i 

Formerly nun, lend, < !al, 

Later at Latoucbe, A I 

111.' Union Oil Bdg.. Lob At, 

BROWN, R. Gilman, i m . 

1'ftnNiilllng KiiKlnrrr. 

HI, London Wall, London, 
Cable: Argeby, London, Usual Cod 


Mining. Hydraulics. 
Milling. Irrigation, 
ldtiil Bdg.. Denver. 

BE ATT Y, A. Chester, 

ConaaJtlos Minima Bnjrlaeer. 

71 Broadway, New York. 

No. l London Wall Bdga., London E.C 

Cable: Granitic Code: Bedford McNeill. 

Burch, Caetan 



BURCH, Albert, 

' i hi -uli hit: 

10k in err. 

Crocker Bdg;., San 


Cable: Burch. 

Usual Codes. 

ANDERSON & SON, G. Scott, 

i nnoullInK Mining EnKlnrers. 

< '■••- iir d'Ali ne U 

Code Bedford McNeill, 


Metallurgical Kiiuiiii-r. 
Spokane, Wash. 

BURCH, H. Kenyon, 

Mechanical ami Metallurgical |.;,, K i,i n . r , 

Care Inspiration iNinsulidat*-d 

Copper Co., 
Miami. Gila County, Arizona. 

ARGALL & SONS, Philip, 

MloltiK anil Mciiilliiruli'iil Engl ih-it-. 

First National Bank Bdg.. Denver. 

Argall. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


William de L., 


<iu Engineer 

in Ci di 

r St., New York. 

Burch, CaetanI & Hershey. 

CAETANI, Gelasio, 

Consulting Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Caetanl, Usual Codes. 

ARNOLD. Ralph, 


'•■ -ologlnl and 1'etroleum Engineer. 

Union oil Bdg.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

116 Broadway, New York, 

No. 1. London Wall Bdgs., London, E.C. 

BENJAMIN, Edward H., 

Consulting Mlulug Engineer. 

805 Linden Street, Oakland, Cal. 

CALDWELL, Forest B., 

Supt. Candelarla Land, Mining & Power 

Co., Ltd.; Cons. Eng. Estaca Mln. Co., 

San Dimas, Durango, Mexico. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 

AYRES, W. S., 

Mining und Mechanical Engineer. 

Hazleton. Pa. 
iltatlon, Exam., Reports. Many 
years' exp. as Mgr. Iron and Coal Mines. 

BACH, William, 

Placer engineer. 

Glyngarth, Beechwood Rd., 
rstead, Surrey, England. 
Code: McNeill, 1908. 

BLAUVELT, Harrington, 

Mining Engineer nud Metallurgist. 

Prescott. Arizona. 
Mines examined and reported upon. 

BOTSFORD, Robert S., 

Mining Engineer 

Nicolo-Pavda Mfi. l.iist Co., Pavda 

Estate, Vyia Station, Bogoslovsk, R. T., 

Government of Perm, Russia. 



Consulting Mining Engineers. 

Mines and Prospects Purchased 
or Financed. 

43 Exchange Place, New York City. 

Canadian Offices; 

Traders Bank Bdg.. Toronto. Ontario. 

Drake Block, Victoria. B. C. 

BAIN, H. Foster, 

Mining Geologist. 

Editor Mining Press. 

No professional work undertaken. 

BOWMAN, Frank A., 

Mining Engineer 

Plans, Surveys, Reports, Management 
Gilbert, Minn. 


Mining Engineer 

California Bdg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

BALL, Sydney H., 

Mining Geologist. 

71 Broadway. New York. 
Cal It Sydball. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BRADLEY, D. H., Jr., 

Mechanical Engineer. 

Specialty: Mining & Milling Machinery. 
Exam. & Equipment of Mexican Froper- 
tles. 1700 Rampart St., El Pasn. Texas. 

CHANCE, H. M., Coal. 

Consulting Mining lOnglueer. 

837 Drexel Bdg.. Philadelphia. 

BANCROFT, Howland, 

Consulting Mnnlng Geologist. 

Suite 730 Symes Building, 
Denver, Colorado. 
Cable: Howban. Code: Bedford McNeJ 

BRADLEY, Fred W., 

kilning Engineer 

Crocker Building. San Francisco. 

Cable: Basalt. 

Code: Bedford McN'-ill 

CHANNING, J, Parke, 

Consulting Engineer. 

61 Broadway, New York. 

BANKS, Charles A., 

Mining and Metallurgical 

Jewel-Denero Mines, 
P. O. Box 130, 
Greenwood, B. C, Ca 




BREWER, Wm. M., 

Mining engineer nnd Geologist. 
. P. O. Box 701. Victoria, B. C. 
Cable: Brewer. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


73 1 Pll 

Liberty 1 

Charles A., 

Mining Engineer 

st Nat. Bank Bdg., Denver, 
ell G. M. Co., Tellurlde, Colo. 







( oanlflBS Miuinu Engineer*. 

Examinations and Reports. 

resentatlor, and Management of 

Foreign Compai 

Kep. of Ci.;. 
Bad. McNeill, Lleber, A.B.C Bth. 


Mining Engineer 

Gen, Mining Supl Min- 

ing < '<>.. ' '•!!•• - A. 


CRANSTON, Robert E., 

Mining Engineer 

137 Holbroofc Bag., San Fran 

1408, \'i. 11 Pine St, New York 
Cable: Remus. Code: McNeill, 1908. 

DORR, John V. N., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

First Natl Bank Bdg.. Denver. 
50 Church St.. New York 
Dorr Code: Bed McN., West Un. 


Meelinnli-nl and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Ore Dressing, Cy ind Copper 

Leaching:. Testing, Designing and Plant 
Construction. 02 London Wall, London. 


Minim; Engineer 


McNeill, 1908. 

CREDEN, William L., 

consulting Mining EnRlneor. 

i "xamlnation ami 
First National Hank Building, 

■ ■ i ana. 

Dubois, mixer & armas, 

Commltlng Minlni: llimiiu'cr-.. 

302 Harrison Bdg., Philadelphia 
229 S.W. Temple st,. Salt Lake City. 
4 8 Boul. Emile Augier, Pa ris 


Consulting Mecnanlcnl Engineer. 

Specialty i Q Air. 



V. S. Mineral Snneyori. 

and Mining Engli 
Merchants National Bank Bdg.. 

S;i ii i ' 

DUNSTER, Carl B., 

Mining Engineer 

11 Pine St., New York. 

Mgr. Mines Dent., Breltung & Co.. Ltd. 

New York-' l-Marquette 

CLAPP, Frederick F.,a>ie/ oeoiogm 

iaaoclated Geoloffleal Engineer*. 
Repa Gas and -M li 

::?.] Fourth Ave., Pltteburg, Po. 

CURLE, J. H., 

Mine Valuer. 
li in Wa ii. London. 

DWIGHT, Arthur S., 

Mining i:ii(iiiHir anil Metallurgist. 

29 Broadwa y, New York. 

Ca !'!■•: Sinterer. 

Code: Bed. McNeill; Miners X- Smeltei 

CLARK, Baylies C, 

M i ni lie nml Mechanical Engineei 

Suit. i Tl 151. 


Hilling l-lntinrvr 

: Reno, Nevada. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer 
10, Strand Road Calcutta, India. 
Cable: Warble, Calcutta. 

■ ford McNeill: West Union. 

CLARK, C. Dawes, 

MlnlnK mid Bfllcleacr Engineer. 

Mining and Industrial Economy. 

With ( Staff. 

166 Broadway, New Fork. 

CLARKE, Roy H., 

Mining Engineer 

ii Bdg . Spokane, Wash 

CLEVENGER, G. Howell, 

M,-tnllurgtenl Engineer. 

381 Hawthorne Ave Palo Alto, Cal. 
Code Bedford McNeill 

COLE, F. L., 

Mining Engineer 

ghal, China. 

COLLINS, Edgar A, 

Mining K nginecr 

• Common wealth Min. . 
Pea i ce, Arizona. 

COLLINS, Edwin James, 

Mining Engineer 

Mine Examinations and Management 
1008-1009 Torrey Bdg.. Duluth, .Minn. 

COLLINS, George E., 

Hlning Engineer 

Min.- Examinations and Management 

■ mac. 

COLLINS, Henry E„ 

Mining Engineer 

Huelva Copp< r & S aur - :o., Ltd.. 

Valdelamusa, Prov, de Huelva, Spain 

' *'■ '• I- " ll' ,,|,. i 'oil.-. l:i.,.,uihall. 

COPELAND, Durward, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 
Missouri School of Mines. Llallagua. 

Rolia. Mo. 


DAKIN, Fred H., Jr., 

M ining I Engineer 

1 1" Sutter St, San Frai 

DE KALB, Courtenay, 


& Mining Co. 

Tucson, Arizona. 

Cable: Dekalb. Codt Bedford Mi N< III. 

de MARNY, E. N. Barbot, 

MlnlnK Engineer 

W. O. Sredny Prosp 

Peti i sia. 

bol de Marny. i lode McN., '08. 

DENNIS, Clifford G., 

Mining Engineer 
Crocker Bdg. San Francisco, Cal. 
3inm d. i !ode Bi dfoi d McNeill. 


< .insulting Mining Engineers 

704. Salisbury Hous London, E.C. 
Bancarla Bdg.. MexJ< d 
Cable: Engicont, London and Mi 


< mi- ill 1 i hi; Mining i ■!■■' r. 

7" State SI . Boston, Mass. 
Temporary address: H Mich, 

DICKSON, Archibald A. C, 

Mining Engineer 
Kodarma. K. I. Ry„ India, 
Cable: Dickson, Nawada, I 

DIXON, Clement, 

Mining Engineer 

P. O. I :mx 305, Bui .. .sia. 

I dement I >lxon. 

DODGE, W. R., 





EASTON, Stanly A., 

Ml nine Engineer 

Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Min- 
ing & Concentrating Company. 

^ Kellogg, Idaho 

EMERY, A. B., 

Mi ni mi; KnKliierr 

Management and Equipment of Mines 
Messina, Northern Transvas I 

South Africa. 

ERDLETS, J. F. B., Jr., 

Mining Engineer 
No. 1, London Wall Bdg.*.. Loni 
Ci lli'oadwa v. New York 
Cable: Branderlet. I'su. 

] C 



Mining Engineer 

Cia. de Santa Gei 
Pachuca, Hidalgo. Mexico 

EYE, Clyde M., 

Milling and Metallurgical Bufflneer. 

Mgr. Bengtiet Consolidated Mining Co. 

Bagnio. B.nguet. P. T. 
Per, address: Box 1398 Phoenli Ariz 


Mini uk Engineer 

25 Broad St., New York 
315 Colorado Bdg., I 
Cable: Farish. 


Planning and 
'- Yellow As 
burg, Cal. 

J. H., 

ilug Geoloslat. 

on of i ...'. 

ter M. & M I ■ 

. lode: Bedfor 


1 Mi-N. 


FEARN, Percy L., 

Mining Engineer 

17 Battery Place, New 

FENNELL, John Howard, 

Mining Engineer 

'Holmer,' slough, Bucks 





FERGUSON, Donald, 

hint till,!,,,; | itKlirrr. 

II. .% ■ 



• •■■ioiiIi on. ^llliluK I :»Klurt-r ,tn.l 

< 'III 

FINCH. John Wellington, 

l>ri<l<i|il<ii mill 1 aitilurrr ul Mini- 

■ ■: k 

- Bdg., I ten 


Hlnlns I :oilnn -r 


FOWLER, Samuel S., 

^Iimiik. I MKimiT ami >lrlllUurKlH(. 

on, British Colum 

Fowl ST. I'sual Codes. 


J R . 


m SO*, I 



■ William 

Bl . 

FRASER, Colin, 

>iiniiiK Geologist, 

ink of N'.-w Z.-ulund. 

Sydney, n. S. w. 

Code: McNeill. 


GRIFFITH <fe CO.. T. R., 

i .'i.-iruiii,..,, Mrinlltir«lenl n*H 

« "I I.. k I .ui..Prr», 

nk llilu. 

OROTHE & CARTER, , , „ , 11 "^ r r .. 

Mi-xlni, l>. K. 

GRUNSKY, C. E., Jr., 

Mllllllit lai^lm , r 

American EBnglneerlns Corporation. 
Si Post St., Sun . 

HALEY, Charles S„ 

MIbIds Bna*tne*r 

i Drilling, 
531 i'-'si si . San Franolsco, California 

HALL, R. G, 

HeitilliirKleiil mit( Chemical Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. United Zinc & Chemical Co., 

Kansas City, Mo, 



Specialty: Cyanldlng Gold S Sllvei Ores. 
Room 1883, 50 Church St., Now York. 

HANLON, Russell Yale, 

MIuIiik I iimliiriT 

Manila, p. i. 
Cable: Nolnab. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

HERZIG. Charlei 8., 

M lulus l.npiiurrr 

i London Wall Btrildtni 

■ i if . 

Vh vv. wiiii- 


MImIiik I iiiHlnri-r*. 
l-lllili.: Hlllwlll 1'au n. 


>llnliiK I '.MUlnrfr 

London (Fall, i Ion, i. 1 ! 

Mi Nolll, 1908 


Mluluu Kniclnrf r 

■ i fondon W .1 1 1, bond 


Mliiluit I :muIiu-it 


•;••! n. w. 11. 
Los Angc 


' ■■■! 






Connnltlng Miniim Engineer 

lind MrtiillurKlnt, 

1117 First National Bank Bdg.. Chi 

HOLLOWAY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 

Metallorgtata nn<i Wetall unhea l 

9-13 Bmmetl si.. Umehouse, London, E. 

Cable: Neolithic. I'mii- Bedford Mi Nell] 

GARREY, George H., 

t iinotilllnK MlnliiK <wroloicl*t nml 

Broadway. New York. 


4 MiiNllItlng Mining I Sugl r. 

LIS St. .lames St.. Montreal, Canada. 
1 'aide: Hard man.,-: I : . - , 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 MeNHll. 

hoover, H. c, 

Mi.iiiiK KiiKlnetT 

i. London Wall Bdgs.. London, E.C 
No professional work entertained. 
Cable: Crevooh, London. 

GARRISON, F. Lynwood, 

MiuiiiU CiiuIih.t 

882 i in sel Bils.. Philadelphia 
Cabl< Aurnm. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer 

sbury House. London, E.C. 

McNeill (Both Editions). 


Mining Engineer 

Abangares Gold Fields de Costs Rica, 

Temporarv Address: 
:i.:- W.-hsfr St.. Berkeley. Cal. 

HOOVER, Theodore J., 

Mining l . i. u. i ,,,..- . 
1, London Wall Bdgs., London, K.O, 
I'aMe: Mlldaloo. 


Mining a ml ( ii us. i) 1 1 i n- | ; )c i n i-.t. 

Gait, * '.a lifornla. 

HOYLE, Charles, 

Mining; MmuIim-it 
Apartado S, El Oro. Mexico. 



MlnlnK I'.nul 



clalty: Placi 


Sonora, Calift 


XJ A CC A W A A Mining <~«eulogl!«t and 
XIAOOAIN, A. A., ConMultlne Engineer 

Exam illation. Management and Opera- 
tion of Mines. 
61 Waldorf Court. Brooklyn, N. V. 

' '.ili]-; Asgbiir. Any (.tide. 

J. i>. Hubbard. James Spiers. 

Mining, Metallurgical umi Mechanical 

M:: Mills Building. San Francisco. 

GOODALE, Stephen L., 

Mining 1 Engineer 

Professor of Metallurgy, 

University of Pittsburgh, 

Pittsburgh. Pa. 


Mining Engineer 

86 Broadway. New 5Tork, 

HUNT, Bertram, 


'■, B. Hunt & CO., 
12] West George St., Glasgow. 

GRACE, William 

Minims 1 

Gen. Mgr. Walhl 

Cable: Gracefully. 



Grand Junction, 

N. Z. 

Usual Codes. 

GRANT, Wilhur H., 

C-eologie ami Mining 1 '.nil i nrcr. 
445 Ho] brook Bdg.. San Francisco. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 

GREENE, Fred T., 

Miniiiu Engineer and Geologist. 

401-2-3 State Savings Bank Bdg.. 

Butte. Montana. 


Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

::. London Wall Buildings. 

London, E.C. 

Cable: Oleosophy. Code: Bed. MeN.-il 

HENDRYX, Wilbur A 

V.P. anil Gen. Mgr. Henc 
Mailii' Co., 10T-109 Wlllla 
Cable: Henelecy 

ryx C 

m St., 



Burcb, Caetanl & Hershey. 
HERSHEY, Oscar H., 

CoiiHuUlug Mining Geologist, 

Kellogg. Idaho. 

Cable: Hershey. i'q.i.-: Bedford McNeill. 

HUNT & CO., Robert W., 


Bureau of Inspection, Tests A Consultation. 

Chicago-San Francisco-New York-Pittsburg. 

San Francisco Office, 251 Kearny St. 

St. Loulp-Montreal-London. 

CouBulting, Designing and Supervising En- 
gineers. Inspectors of Railroad, Structural 
and other Materials and Equipment. 

Chemical and Physical Laboratories. 


Mining Kim i ueer 

634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Haruston. 






HUTCHINS, John Power, 

MliiInK Engineer 

441, Salisbury House, London, E.C. 
Cable: Getchlns. Code: McNeill, 1908. 


Consulting: KiikIui'itj.. 

Examination, Manugi-innii, :ind Opera - 

tlon of Mines. Design Equipment 

Newhouse Bdg., Salt Lake I'itv. Utah. 


>l I nl dk Engineer. 

Care Burma Mines, Ltd 
Namtu. Northern Shan States 
Burma, India. 

HYDE, James M., 

Treatment of Difficult Ores. 
American Agent Murex Co., Ltd. 
634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Jameshyde. 


Consulting BnKlneen. 
Dredging and Hydraulicklng. 
70, Gracechurch St., London, E.C. 
Cable: Inderdaad. 

KRUMB, Henry, 

Mining Englnfer. 
Felt Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah, 

KUEHN, A. F., 

Conn ul ting Mining Engineer. 

1, London Wall Buildings, 
London, E.C. 
Cable: Norite. 

MAILHOT, Charles, 

H> droinetnllurgy of Copper. 
Permanent address: E. 1707 Mission Av. 

Spokane, Wash. 


Consulting Engineer, 

1012 Baltimore Avenue. 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Dudley J. Insklpp. John A. Bevan. 


Mining: Engineer*. 

1, Broad St. Place. London, E.C. 
• 'able: Monazlte. Usual Codes. 

JANIN, Charles, 

Mining Engineer 

722 Kohl Bdg . San Francisco. 
Cable: Charjan. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Cable: Chaleoclte, Salt Lake. 

Code: Bedford Mc.\e(ll. 

JOHNSON, Harry R„ 

Consulting Geologist. 

Petroleum, Water Supply. 

ml". H. W. Hellman Bdg., Los Angeles. 
Cable: Jopet. Usual Codes. 

JONES, Henry Ewer, 

Mining Engineer. 

Parliament Mansions, Victoria St., 
Westminster, London, S.W. 

Cable lEwcrones, Code:BroomhaH's Imp. 

JUESSEN, Edmund, 

Mining Engineer. 

906 Mechanics Inst. Bdg., 
San Francisco. 


Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Cyanidation Plants Installed. 
310-314 E. Market St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

KEFFER, Frederic, 

Mining Engineer nnd Geologist. 

The British Columbia Copper Co., Ltd., 
Greenwood. B. C. 

KINNON, Wm. H., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurglnt. 

307 San Francisco St., 
El Paso. Texas. 



Robert A., 

Mining Engineer. 

National Bank Bulldl 
San Francisco. 


KIRBY, A. G., 


Mill Designing and Construction. 

Specialty: Concentration & Cyanidation. 

Dominion Red. Co., Cobalt, Ont. 

KIRBY, Edmund B., 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

918 Security Bdg., St. Louis. 

Specialty: The expert examination of 

mines and metallurgical enterprises. 


Mining Engineer. 

Ely, Nevada. 

LAMB, Mark R., 


Mgr. Allis-Chalmers Co., 
Santiago, Chile. 

LAMB, R. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Traders Bank Bdg.. 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

Cable: Bnhlam. Code: McNeill Iboth ed.) 


Mining Engineer. 

Orafc Gold fields, Ltd. 

Nikolalevsk, Eastern Siberia. 
Cable: Orskold. Code: McX. (both ed.) 

LESLIE, Eugene H., 

Mining Engineer. 

Asst. Editor Mining Press. 
No professional work undertaken. 

LEVY, Ernest, 

Mining Engineer. 

Representing Alex. Ilill & Stewart, 

Rossland, British Columbia. 

Cable: Truculent. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

LEWIS, H. AUman, 

Managing Engineer. 

The Porco Tin Mines, Ltd., 

Casllla 52, Potosl, Bolivia. 

Cable: Porcorama. Code: McNeill (1908) 

LLOYD, R. L., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Specialty: Pyro Metallurgy of Copper 
and Associated Metals. Cable: Ricloy. 

t'ode: I-V.l. McNeill. l'!< Urondwav, N. Y. 


Exploring Engineers und Geologists. 
Diamond Drill Contractors. 

Manufacfurers of Diamond Drills 
and Supplies. 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bank 
Bdg., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable Address: Longco. Minneapolis. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 

Bewick, Moreing & Co. 


Mining Engineer. 

62, London Wall, London, E.C. 
Cable: Wantoness. Usual Codes. 


Mining Engineer. 

Tanalyk-Balmok, Russia 

McCANN, Ferdinand, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Cyanidation a Specialty. 
7a Guerrero 143, 
Mexico City, Mexico. 

Mclaughlin, r. p., 

Conaultlng Geologist and Engineer 

Oil and Metal Mining 
„ - 818 , Mtlls B( JS.. San Francisco. 
Cable: Roylaugh. 

MERCER, John W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. South American Mir 
Mills Bdg., Broad St.. New York. 

MERRILL, Charles W., 


„ v., 121 . Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Codes: Bedford McNeill 
and Moreing & Neal. 



121 Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Usual Codes. 

MERRILL, Frederick J. H., 

Sllnlng Engineer and Geologtm. 

(Late State Geologist of New York.i 
631 Higgins Bdg.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

MICHELL, Geo. V., 

Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Placer Mining. 
15 Great St. Helens, London, E.C. 

MILLER, Bernard P., 

Mining Engineer. 

6314 Sixth St.. Portland, Oregon. 

MILLS, Edwin W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Supt. Tul Ml Chung Mine. 
The Seoul Mining Company. 
Holkol. Chosen (Korea). 




62, London 
Cubic: Rlnglo. 



ng En 


lng & Co 




il Codes 


Consulting Mining Engineers and 
Mine Managers. 

60 Broadway, New York On 


London, England. 

28 and 29 St. Swithlns Lane. 

Mexico, D. F., 

Avenlda 16 de Septlembre, Num. 4S. 

Cable: Minmanco. Code: Bed. McNeil 

2 IU1, 



MINARD, Frederick H., 

Ml ul uk llnxlai-rr. 
Trinity Bdg ,111 Votk 

I "r.illiutil !■ M.-Nrlll 

MORSE, Ed. C, 


inldlni a Bpaclalty. 
llnd Kit s i: . i-.. i ii. in. i. • n 

MUDD, Seeley W., 

tllulitlE Koxlarrr. 

1301 rlolllnsaworth Building. 

Loa Ann' 
'.-I. I:. .Ifnr.l McNeill. 

MUNRO, C. H., 

Mliilut IliiKliirrr. 

Mound nook Bdg.. Bn Francisco. 
Cable: Ornum. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

MYERS, Desaix B., 

Mining Englaeer. 

::i Story Bdg. Loa Aaffelea, Cal. 
Philadelphia Address: 1521 Sprit 






*3. 1 1"ii \\ 








Cable I'r «-.|iii"i 





Noll I 

PEARSE, Arthur L., 

'■lain* l.iiKlnr,,, 
Worceatei II- ,.k, 

London, I 
Ciihlg t'ndvrinlned. UfiiaJ . 


Mining «.. ,.I,.kI»i. 
i:\ainlimtloil Of Oil LAT1I laity 

661 Howard BL, San Fran- 

PERKINS & CO., Walter G., 

Metallurgical Knulnrrr. 

81, London Wall, 
London, K.i !., Ena*la 

PERRY, 0. B., 

Mining I iniiln. ■ r. 

165 Broadway, New York. 

Howard Polllon. C. H. Polrlcr. 


Mining I :nt lii.-.-i-. 

63 Wall St, New York City. 

RAYMOND, Rowiter W , 

tllataa llaalarrr and Mflallnratai. 

READ, Tbomat T., 

a»» lata i .iiiii.i lllnlni I 
\V....|»rorth Bdg.. New York 
Cable: I'eriuaola. 

RICHARDS, Robert H., 

nr*- llrraalna. 

Muk. < in .ful . . iiirutliiK ' 

• • ik fm difficult 
<!' I Hnyl.tnn St. Hi.. Ion. M»i. 

RICHARD, Edgar, 

Mnnaaini Dlreotoi 

MlnliiK Ma| 
Sail . . London, i: • ' 

I'lilili-milKw-leae. < •.ul.:Hiilfm .1 M. 

RICKARD, Forbes, 

Mining linitlnrtT, 

Equitable Building, Denvi 


Editor, The Mining Itesacl 
Salisbury House. London. E.I 
No professional work undertaken, 

Cnble:( HlKoclase. Cude:ncdford McNeill. 

NAHL, Arthur C, 

Mining Engineer. 

Trlunfo, Baja California. M 


Conn tilling: Petroleum Englueers. 

California Oil Properties. 

Mills Building. San Francisco. 

Cable: Petreng. Usual <Vh1--s. 


Mi ni im Knglm iri and Metallurgies. 

80 Maiden Lane. New York. 

Complete ore testing plant. 

NEILL, James W., 

M.'iiillurnlil and Minim; Kuglneer. 

159 Plerpont St., Suit Lake, Utah. 

Pasadena, Cal Snelling, Cal. 


Mining Engineer. 

Room 210. 255 California St., 
San Francisco. 


Conaultlng Engineer. 

Mining investigations carefully made 

for responsible intending Investors. 

165 Broadway. New York. 


Mining Engineer. 
Vantrent. Placer Co.. Cat 

NICHOLS, Horace G., 

Mining Engineer. 

■ s.tllsbury House, London, E.C. 

Usual Codes. 

NICHOLSON, Francis, 

Mining EnelDeer. 
% Rio Grande Valley Bank & Trust Co., 

El Paso. Texas. 
Cable: Nlckhop, Code: McNeill, 18(18. 

NOYES, William S., 

Mining Engineer. 

819 Mills Building, San Francisco. 


(E. E. Olcott, C. R. Corning.) 
Mining; and Metallurgical Engineers. 

36 Wall St.. New Y'ork. 

OLDFIELD, Frank W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Mexican Mines Co. 
Bolanos, Jalisco. Mexico. 

OSMONT, Vance C, 

Mining Engineer. 

10S3 Monadnock Bdg., 
San Francisco. 


Frank H., 

« I.IIMlM Iiik 

Engineer und Mlnlnu 


' Central Bdg. 


Cable: Probert 




PURINGTON, Chester W., 

Mining llnniiirrr. 

62, London Wall, London. E.C. 
Cable: Olenek. Usual Codes 


Metallurgical Engineer. 

Zinc Smelting and Electrometallurgy 

Jemeppe sur Meuse. Belgium. 

Cable: Aljonak. rC'ii Chestnut St . Phil 

RADFORD, Walter J., 

Mining Engineer. 

Placer Testing a Specialty. 
Breckenridge, Colo. 
Cable: "Waterford. 

RADFORD, William H., 

Alluvial Mining. 

2360 Broadway, San Francisco. 
Cable: Bandan. 

RAY, James C, 

Mining Geologist. 

Microscopic Examination of Ores. 
Palo Alto. Cal. 

RAYMOND, Robert M., 

Mining; Engineer. 

The Exploration Co. of England and 
Mexico, Ltd. Mutual Life Bdg.. No. 523, 
Mexico. D. F. 

ROGERS, Allen Hastings, 

Conmltlns Mining Engineer. 

201 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
71 Broadway. New York, N. Y. 
Cable: Alhasters. 

ROGERS, Austin F., 

Mineralogist and Petrographer. 

Microscopic Investigation of Ores 
Stanford University, Cal. 

ROGERS, Edwin M., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

32 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Emrog, Code: Bedford McNeill. 

ROSS, G. McM., 

Mining and Consulting Euglneer. 

Yosemlte Club, Stockton, California. 



City Deep. Ltd. 
P. O. Box l-lll. Johannesburg. 
South Africa. 

ROYER, Frank W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Consolidated Realty Bdg., Los Angeles, 

and Apartado 805, Mexico. D. P. 
Cable: Royo. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

SCHMIDT, F. Sommer, 

Mining Engineer. 

507 Newhouse Building, 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 



January ~2. ]'.>]'> 






entor nn<i 
San Jose, 


Il*er 1 


( 'ill if. 

r «f the 





tie: Stanford 

Richard B., 

UK lOuulite.'r. 

tropolltan Ba 
Code: Hc.]r..t 

Ik 1 

.1 Mi 



Milling Kimini'iT. 

141, Salisbury Souse, London, E.C. 
Cabje Wet home. Code: McNeill, 

SEARS, Stanley C, 

Mlnlnic Mniiliieer. 

Repo ment. 

;.." \\ .. ik. i 
Sa II l.nk. i'Uv. 1'lali. I'sual Codes 


>lllliDKr l)tlU It. t-rr. 

818 Mills ;.i. Ban Pi b. o 

TIMMONS, Colin, 

Mining Engineer. 
Huntington Park. Callforni; 

SHALER, Millard K., 

Mliilnu (•■■oImuIni I Englnrrr. 

Brussels, Belgium. 


Minlug Bawtneer* 

r , K. T. McCarthy, 
in. Austin Friars, London, 


Salisbury House. 

London, E.C. 

Cable: Tlteomb <"->de: Bedford Mi NelU. 

(two editions, i 

SHARPLESS, Fredk. F. ( 

I oiiHiiltlnK Mining Engineer. 

■ . Broadway, New York. 

i". McNeill. 

STEVENS, Blarney, 

> II 1 1 i n u I " 1 1 u I ii ff r. 

Temascal tepee, Est, dc Mexl 

r . Lane Kfncoti Mines, In< 

TOLMAN, Cyrus Fisher, Jr., 

i <>ii».nl I i n ii EcOnOByiC < ■«' nliiglMt. 

P. O. Address: 

Stanford University, i';il. 

SIMONDS, Ernest H., 

Metallurgical Eng I ih-it. 

mi.'. ti Krancisco. 

STINES, Norman C, S55el 

Polefskoy, Mramorskaya Sta1 
Porm Government. Ru 
Cable: Norm mines. Ekat. 

rod.-: Bedford Mr-Nelll ih.uli ■ ■diti..ns». 


Mining KnR-ineer. 

6S4 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Cable: Latlle. Code: Bedford McNeil! 


Mlnlim K.uKlnriTN. 
IX Madison An-., New Fork. 


( oniMlltlDg Engineer, 

Egypt House, se-::^ New Broad Si 

London. E.< ' 

TURNER, Scott, 

Mining KuRlnnr. 

Thoniso, Xorwav. 

Cable: Arctlccoal. Code: McNeill, 190S. 


Mining timl Metallurgical Knul r. 

Fundlclon da Loa Arcos, Toluca, 

i Code; Bed McNeill. 




Minim: l 

• eol<>gl»t mill Engineer. 



., Spe 


213 7 Hilt: 

a r'l A\ e., 


ley. Cal. 

TWEEDY, Geo. A., 

Mining Engineer. 

isarlo, Sinaloa, Mexico. 
Gen. Mgr. Minas del Tajo. Rosario, Mini -.« Co.. RolanOS, Jail SCO, Mex. 




I ..UN 111 



iiu Engineer. 

:. 1 


1 rs t 




Franc Ibco. 

STRAUSS, Lester W., 

Bnffineer of MULues. 

Casllla U7i. Valparaiso, Chile, s. a. 
Cable: Lest ra -Valparaiso. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer and GeologUt. 

534 Confederation Life Bdg., 

Toronto. Canada. 

Cable: Tyrrell. Usual Codes. 

SMITH, Charles A., 

Design ami Construction Metallurgical 

'. The Mining and Metallurgical Club, 

?. London Wall H.lKS. 1... It. I. .ti. I'M' 

SMITH, Howard D., 

Mlulng Engineer. 
ECohl Bdg., Sit n F ra nclSCO. 

* able: Dtorlte. Code: Western I 

SMITH, J. D. Audley, 

Mining Engineer. 

P. ' I St.. 

Sydney, Australia, 
Cable: Jadunand. All Codes. 

SMITH, Reuben Edward, 

Mining Engineer. 

'-, Lenskole <: M :•■•. Siberia, 

re Lenzoto. 

fle: McNeill. 1908 


Mining Engineer. 

Mgr. Porcupine Crown Mines, Ltd., 
Timmins, Ontario, Canada. 


Mining Engineer. 

in Broadway, New 5To 

SYMMES, Whitman, 

Mining Engineer. 

Mgr. Mexican Mine, e 

Virginia City. Nevad 

TALMAGE, Sterling B„ 

Mining tifuloglnt and Engineer. 

Geologic Maps. Examinations, Reports 

200 Vermont Bdg., 

Salt Lake City. Utah. 


Geologlntft nnil Mining Englneer-i. 

Examination, Purchase and Manage- 
ment of Petroleum and Mining Proper- 

Tulsa. Okja. 

Billing Mi mi i 


Mini as 

Rahman Tin Co.. 

Code: Me 

E. J., 


In tan, Cpp« 

• St, 'lies. 

\>lll (both 

r Pel 



von ROSENBERG, Leo, 

< onwtiltlng Mining Engineer. 

12 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Porphyry. 


i Franklin W. Smith. Ralph A. Ziesmer.) 

ConMiiltlng Mining Engineers. 
\\ ork in HcxlCO il >• pre I ii It J". 

Ariz. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


rOO Union Oil Bdg., Los Angeles. 

Ill Broadway. New York. 

5. London Wall Bdgs., London, B.C 

Cable: Duntho. Code Bedford McNeill 


Engineers n ml ContraetorM. 

Mining an.i Metallurgical Plants, 

Industrial Equipment and Installations 

Van Nuys Bdg.. Los Angeles. 

SPILSBURY, E. Gybbon, 

Consulting, Mining nmi Metallurgical 


15 Broadway, New York, 

I roe 


Mining Engineer. 
SG ChlSwell St., London, E.C. 

Usual . !ode 


] 1 ' '..pthall A 
Cable Natchekoo. 

D 'Arcy, 


ve.. London. 


botl ed 

SPURR, J. Edward, 

Mining Geologist, 

Bullitt Bdg., Phi lad i 
opah Mining Company of 



THOMAS, Kirby, 

Mining Engineer. 

Examination. Valuation and Explora- 
tion of Mining Properties. 
4:: Exchange Place, New York. 

WEBBER, Morton, 

Mine Vnl lint Ion 11 nil Development 
39 Cortland St., New York. 
1 .rebacks. 

J. l!M."i 



WESTERVELT. William Young, 

t oimtillliiK Mi«t»a 1 imlnrrr. 
M ad 


XltiliiU r.iiulnrrr. 

s.iit Laks »•((■, 


Hi . It unlet. I H In I n« llnnlnrrr. 



MlnltiK llnKlui-ir. 

M.iti.i k- i S\ ii. 1 1 .1 u Mining • '■> . 

WISEMAN, Philip, 

Mining i:nulnrrr. 
1310 Holllni 

< 'llwlieman. 

WRIGHT, Charles WU1, 

>llnlnK BlfiMW. 

Imiiiii tosu, Sut.hiii ... i 
Wright, Arbus rode ri< -i u 

WINCHELL, Horace V., 

■ ii ii » Ml I I iik >l I n I lit; 4,rnlt»Kl«l. 

tDOll MlMl 
R win. 

WOLF, J. H. G., 

Manage) North lm< 
Exploi .i Hon »'•>. 
103 I Mill* Bd| , San Franplaoi 


Minimi HiilDMr, 

\. ■»■ V.nk 
Cable: lie , Oodo 1 1 .-. i r . . .-. i MrNVill 


A. VAN DER NAILLEN SCHOOL s,a "offlpftf^*" 

.Mlslie.l In 1S0T. 

la nui in \i. i:\i;i\i:i:uim;. 
Mining. Mechanical, Civil or Electrical, 
i Cor catalogue. 


\nit \«-** .%%«-. mill 1'onI St.. Mm IriiiH-lMcii. 


Special work may be taken In assaying, Cyanldlng, Metal 
lurgy, Drafting, Surveying and General Engineering. 

For lulWninl Ion address «'. BL HBAXD, AmmI. Supl. 

illy located In the heart of the Rocky Mountains. 
Complete courses In Mining, Metallurgy, and < leology, 
1'i-r catalog and Information address 

\\M. <.. II ALDA.XE, Golden, Colo. 


A department of the University 
in 1871. Foui ■ 

i' Missouri. BIsts i> ; I 

.v ut-|>.u win-ill oi in.- i niversicy m .Missouri. titnn.\>- 

in is;]. Four-year courses in Mining, Engineering, Met* 

ajlurgy. Civil Engineering, General Science, 

A.l.lnss: Missouri Srhool of Mines. Rolla. Missouri 


Located In ihf Lake Superior mining district. Mines and 
mills accessible for college work. For Year Book and 
Booklet of Views, address President or Secretary, 

H'-njLiliti>n. Michigan. 




< iitli-ii 

' of 


Seattle, WnMhlnicton. 

Coal i 
Spec la 

nd Me 
l CoUrs 

al Mining 

•- for Mir 

i Ire 1 'r.sslng. Meti 
ng Men, January t<> 


A I 


Recent Copper Smelting 

Edited by THOMAS T. READ 

459 pages 6x9 in. 102 Illustrations Cloth $2.50 postpaid 

THE articles which make up this volume have, with some exceptions, appeared in the 
pages of the Mining and Scientific Press during the past four years. Several of the 
more important papers on copper smelting read before the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers have been reprinted. The classic papers by John Hollway on ' Using Sulphide as 
Fuel in Smelting' and by Lewis T. Wright on 'Pyrite Smelting Without Coke' have been in- 
cluded, and an excellent account of smelting at Cananea has been written especially for this 
book by A. C. Cole. 

Few branches of metallurgy have been more in ferment in recent years than copper smelt- 
ing, and few have made greater progress. In this book the progress and present status of the art 
are summarized by the men who have been doing the work. It is the best statement of present- 
day practice available. 

Published and for Sale by the 

MINING PRESS, 420 Market Street, San Francisco 



January 2. 1915 



Drury, L. M. 


Cole & Co. 


Atkins & McRac 
'allfornla Ore Test- 
ing Co. 

if. k & Payne. 
Walter L. 
Hanks. Abbot A. 
.lames Co.. The Gi ■■ A. 
Luckhardt Co., C. A. 
Perez, Richard A. 

Smith, Emery & Co. 
wilke. a. It. 


Burton, Howard E. 
Frost, Oscar J. 
Richards, J. W. 


Young, H. W. 


Ledoux & Co., Inc. 


Ogden, John. 
i Petrologlcal Laboratory. 


Crltchett & Ferguson. 

Bardwell. Alonzo F. 
Bird-Cowan Co. 
General Engineering 

Co., The. 
Officer ft Co., P.. H. 


Assay ers. Chemists, ami Metallurgists. 

Control and Iniplrc 

Careful Analytical Chemlata 

t.lfi South Olive St.. J^.s Angles. Cal. 

CALIFORNIA ORE TESTING CO., a\ders e. almixd, Manager. 


All tests conducted under experienced supervision. Write for booklet. 
Office: 630 Sacramento Sr. Testing Plant: 591 Bay St.. San Fran 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F., 

■ ssor to Settles & Bardwell.) 
i uHiuiii \wiivit and Chemist. 
158 & W. Temple St.. Salt Lake. Utah. 
Ore Shippers' Agent. 

iiiiiimiriiii < iiemlHtH and Aaaayen. 

Technical and Chem. Analyses of Ores, 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials. 

228 W. First St., Los Angeles. Cal. 

GENERAL ENGINEERING CO., THE, j. >i. callow, i-re-id-m. 


169 Plernont Avenue. Salt Lake City. Utah. 
Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants. 


Charles S. Cowan, Manager. 

' iiinuii Assayers and Chemists. 

Agents for Ore Shippers. 

160 S. W. Temple St. Salt Lake. Utah. 



Supervision of Ore Sampling, Technical Analysis, Cement Testing. 
No. 28-32 Belden Place (off Bush near Kearny). San Francisco. 

BURTON, Howard E., *\T*Z", na 

605 Harrison Ave., Lead v tile, Colorado. 
Specimen Prlcee : Gold, 50c; Gold ami 
Silv.-r. 75c.; Gold, Silver and Lead, |1: 
Gold. Silver and Copper. $1.50. 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc., 


Independent samplers at the port of New York. 
Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard. 
Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street. New York. 

cole & CO., 

Assnyers, ChenilntM, Ore Buyers. 

Shippers' Representatives. 
Box BB, Douglas, Ariz. 


i A. H. Ward. Harold C. Ward.) 


Sampling of Ores at Smelters. 53 Stevenson St., San Francisco. 

Telephone, Kearny 5951. 


Assayers and Chemist*. 

El Paso. Texas. 
Umpire and Controls a Specialty. 

SMITH, EMERY & CO., (Ore Testing Plant, Los Angeles.l 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills. 
651 Howard Street, San Francisco. 245 So. Los Angeles Street, Los Angelefc 

DRURY, L. M., 

Tnnnnn Assay Office. 

Fairbanks. Alaska. 




Amtayer and Chemist.. 


South West Temple Street. 
Salt Lake City. Utah. 


AstnviT and Chemist. 

118 Nineteenth St., Denver. 

Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelt'-rs 

FROST, Oscar J., 


r.ll ISth St.. Denver. 

OGDEN, John, Metallurgist, Chemist. 

(16 yrs. Mgr. Ogden Assay Co.. Denver.) 
Specialty: Platinum. Assays, Analyses. 

Rich Ores and Bullion Bought. 

1106 Filbert St.. Philadelphia. Pa 



420 Market St., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

GIBSON, Walter L„ 

Successor to 

Fnlkenuu Assaying Co.* 

Assay Office and Analytical Laboratory, 

School of Assaying. 

SLM Washington St.. Oakland. 
Phone 8929. 
Umpire assays and supervision of sam- 
pling. Working tests of ores, analyses. 
Investigations of metallurgical and 
technical processes. 

Professor L. Falkenau, General Man- 
ager and Consulting Specialist. 

HANKS, Abbot A., 

Chemist and Assurer. 

Established 1866. 

630 Sacramento St., San Francise-. 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision 

of Sampling at Smelters. 
Cable: Hanx. Code: W. U. and Bed McN. 

PEREZ, Richard A., 

Assayer, Chemist and Metallurgist. 

(Established 1895.) 
120 N. Main Street. Los Angeles, Cal. 


W. Harold Tomltnson, 

Swathmore, Pa. 

Petrographic Work. Rock sections made. 

Microscopic examinations of rocks. 

YOUNG, H. W., 

Chemist and Assayer. 

Prompt attention to samples by mail. 
Box 348, Reno, New 

WILKE, R. M., 

Minerals and Rook Specimens Bought 
and Sold. Determinations Made 
Box 312. Palo Alto, California. 

T3E representative engineers of the mining profession 
use these pages to keep their names and correct ad- 
dresses before the public. It is the most effective means 
of obtaining publicity among metal miners and metallurgists 
and a dignified medium for the use of Engineers and 

Put your your name among those of the leaders. 

Januan J I'M ■ 


The Third of the Cyanide Series 

Cyanide Practice 


Edited by 

Formerly with the AMOOfOted (Hid Associated \orth- 

em Blocks Mines, Kalgoorlie, Water* Australia, 
and nun nttiltant editor of the Mimm. sm, 
Si it m it h Press, San Francisco. 

732 pages. 6x9 in. 140 illustrations. Cloth 
$3.00 postpaid 

The leading articles upon current cyanide practice 
which appeared in the and Scikntikic Press 
during the period from July, 1910, to January, 1913, 
have been reprinted In this volume. It contains 205 
articles under 156 titles. 

Read These Reviews 

For the man who desires to keep up on progress 
in cyanidation, this is one of the books which he 
should have. — Salt Lake Mining Review:. 

The names of the contributors alone Is a sufficient 
guarantee that the articles are worthy of preserva- 
tion in a collected form. — Mining and Engineering 

The intelligent metallurgist will find the present 
work informative and stimulative. * * * The work 
is necessary for millmen, teachers, and students. 
Every reader will gain something new from it. — 
Australian Mining Standard. 

On opening the volume one is at once struck with 
the wonderful scope covered by it, and not only Is 
a full descriptive account of the cyanide practice 
in vogue in all the leading mines of the world given, 
but every detail of crushing, milling, roasting, filter- 
pressing, and cyaniding is fully described, together 
with a full description of the plants in use. The 
work is so comprehensive that it is a veritable 
encyclopedia of ore treatment, and a copy should be 
in the hands of everyone connected with mining or 
who takes an interest in that fascinating subject. — 
Kalgoorlie Miner. 

Published and for Sale 
by the 

420 Market Street, San Francisco 



Practically NOISELESS 

Operating with oil fuel is 

recognized as the most 

economical method. 

Braun Bullion Furnace and Vesta Burner. 

Braun Bullion Furnaces are constructed with 
the burner hole so placed that a rotary flame 
entirely encircles the crucible, assuring a uni- 
form heat. 

Our new Catalog No. 50 now ready. 
Tell us your needs — we will do the rest. 

1 JiWlW'IMK^ 



Manufacturers ol Laboratory Labor Saving Machinery 

Specialists In Laboratory Equipment and Testing Apparatus 

Dealers In Chemical Glassware and Chemicals 



January 2, 1!)1" 

United States Smelting, 

Refining and Mining Co. 

55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

\i i i)i i:s >iivim; imi smelting companv 

Custom Lead and Copper Smelters and Custom 

Lead and Zinc Concentrator at Needles. Cal. Ad- 

Needlea, Cal., and :>uS w. P. Storey Building. 

Los Angeles. Cal 

Custom Copper Smelter at Kennett. Cal. Address 

K-nnett, I 

Custom Lead and Copper Smelters at Midvale, Utah. 
Address. Salt Lake City. Utah. 

Custom Cyanide Mill at Gold Roads. Arizona. 


Custom Copper Smelter and Electrolytic Copper 
Refinery at chrome. X. J. Electrolytic Lead Re- 
rtnery at (Irasselli. Ind. Address. 42 Broadway, 
New York City. N. T. 


Mines and Mills at Pachuca and Real del Monte. 
Address. Pachuca. Hidalgo. Mexico. 

For Examination and Purchase of Metal Mines. 
Address. r,5 Congress St., Boston. Mass.; 4 2 Broad- 
way, New York. N. Y.: W. P. Storey Bldg.. Los 
Angeles. Cal.: Newhouse Bldg.. Salt Lake City, 
Utah; Edlflclo La Mutua 411. Mexico. D. F. 

4 2 Broadway. New York City. N. Y. 

Bayers of 


Refiners of 


The Consolidated Mining 

and Smelting Co., of 

Canada, Ltd. 

Smelters and Refiners. Purchasers of All 
Classes of Ores. Producers of Fine Gold 
and Silver, Base Bullion, Copper Matte, 
Pig Lead, Lead Pipe, Bluestone and Elec- 
trolytic Bearing Metal. 

Offices Smelting and Refining Depi, Trail, British Columbia 

The American Metal Company, Ltd. 

Branch Offices; 

St. Louis. Mo. 
1411 Third National Building. 

Ores and Mattes 

Mexican Representatives; Companla de Minerales y Metales, 
Mexico City and Monterrey. 

Denver. Colo. 
825 A. C. Foster Building. 

Copper and Lead Bullion 


Smelters, Renders and Purchasers of 

Gold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion 
and Native Platinum 

Producers of Proof Gold asd Silver for Assayers 



Buyers of 

Gold, Silver and Lead Ores, Concentrates, Cyanide 

Product, etc., Lead Bullion, Dore Bars, Gold Dust 

and Bullion. 


Assaying of hand samples has been discontinued. 

General Offices: 

Merchants Exchange Bdg. San Francisco 

Eighth Floor 

International Smelting Company 

New York Office : 42 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper and Lead Ores 

SMELTING WORKS— International, Utah. 


Raritan Copper Works, Perth Amboy, X. J. 

International Lead Refining Company, East Chicago, Indiana 

621 Kearns Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 


BtiycrS Of Zinc Ores Carbonates, Sulphides and Mixed 

— Ores, Copper Ores, Copper Matte, 

Copper Bullion, Lead Bullion, Lead Ores, Antimony Ores, Iron 

and Manganese Ores. 

Sellers °* Spelter, Antimony, Antimonial Lead, Arsenic, 

Zinc Dust. 

Own Smelting and Refining Works. New York Office, 61 Broadway 


Import Merchants. 






Stocks Carried. 

Buyers of Quicksllyer and Platinum, also Ores of Antimony, 

Bismuth. Molybdenum. Tungsten, Vanadium, Zinc. etc. 



General Af/ents 


Chrome. N. J., and Graselli, Ind. 


Sole Agents for Spelter of American Zinc Lead & Smelting Co. 

Smelters at Caney, Kan., and Dearing. Kan. 

Great Western Smelting & 
Refining Company 

Spear and Folsom Si., San Francisco. 

Babbitt Metal for all kinds of service requirements. 
We buy all classes of scrap metal. 

Jonuarj 2, I'M • 


For all Filtering Requirements 

The Kelly Filter Press 

Especially adapted for drying 

nil dotation concentrates anil 
tor acid leaching. 


207 Fell Bldg.. Salt Lake City, Utah 

K K 1 r\ , i u YORK 

Moyle Rapid -Drop 
Portable Mill 

Built in two -i/*. htt mill.- Imrk 


» Tv i'M nit arir our cir- 


- ul! nromiil. 
All Iron and utcel framu construe 

- If-rontal 1 with automatic 


■ drops per minute. 
Stamp strikes ,000*potmd blow, 
And the price is right. 


224 So. Spring St. Loi Angeles, Cal. 




Fifth and Washington Sis. 
Portland, Ore. 

In Heart of Business 
and Shopping Dis- 
trict. Location and 
environment most 
favorable to Mining 

European Plan. 
Rates: Without bath, 
$1.00 and up; with 
bath, $1.50 and up. 
Moderate Price Res- 
taurant in Connec- 
tion. Automobile Bus 
Meets all Trains. 

I« Q. S WETLAND. President and Manager. 






NEW YORK i: r-~J... (akMiw E*al. U«t™ KWj CHICAGO. ISM f.J». BU, 

Lima Locomotives 

Hlrat-claaa material, careful Inspection and rigid teati niihuid 
the alandard of imr lorotnoUvaa. Workmai 
permftneney u de.irM and we know nur workmen. 


1 t 1 W. Second St. LIMA, O. 

ir. Ii Mini, Ni* "i (irk 



Skips of All Kinds 

AsU (or Catalog. 

The Watt Mining 
Car Wheel Co. 

Barneaville, - - Ohio 
Denver OAce A 

Turn on the Current 
It Starts 

Ho. 25. P 

AS'Miu'k.-on Miiiie'' Pump 

starts Instantly. Is high- 
ly efficient and a money 
saver Bssoon asinatalled- 

it's all a pump should !*■ 
all a pump can be. 

Byron Jackson Iron Works, Inc 

357-361 Market St., San Francisco Cal. 

212 No. Los Angeles St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Works: West Berkeley, Cal. 

The Moore Vacuum 
Filtration Process 

Fully protected by patents 

Will Enable You to Save All Values Reduced to Solution 

and Recover the Solvent at Minimum Cost. 

We are pioneers in the field. We developed the only 

really successful process, and we are still 

The Leaders in Filter Design 

Send your Specifications or Submit 
Your Problem to the 

Moore Filter Company 

115 Broadway. New York City, 1.1. S. A. 

Cable: Bedford McNeill or 

"Morefiltcr" New York .my Standard Code 







for Mines, Smelters, etc. 

Electric Cars 

Switches, Frogs, and Equipment. 



Minerals Separation American Syndicate, Ltd. 

Flotation Concentration of Sulphide Ores by means of 
the Minerals Separation Processes. 

Send inquiries to 

BEER. ^OXDHEIMER i CO.. Sole Agents E. H. NUTTER. Chief Engineer 
4'J Broadway Merchants Exchange Bag. 

New York City San Francisco 





Extensive Alaska and California Experience. 


H. G. PEAKB 604 Million St.. San Francisco. Cal. W. W. JOHNSON 



Mining and Milling Plants 

Long Ltle and other Superior Qualities make 
Redwood the Best Lumber for Tank Purposes. 

811 Kohl Bldg., Sad Francisco 












High Bridge, New Jersey 





Frenier's Spiral Pump 



AIHs-Chalmers Co. Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Chicago. 111. LVnvt-r, Colo. 

Harron. Rickard & McOone. San Francisco, Cal. 

Frank R. Perrot, Perth. W, Australia. 
FRENIER & SON, Rutland. Vt. 


With i ont'ifugal Pumps, whether of the Tur- 
bloe or Volute Typo, the name of Alberger 
is a guarantee of maximum service and min- 
imum operatlngexpense. WrlleJor Bulletins. 


140 Cedar Street, New York 
Atlanta Boston Chicago St. Louis 
Pittsburgh San Francisco New Orleans 

Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 


Works : Marysvllle. Cal. Sales Office : 433 California St., San Francisco. Cal. 


Conveying, Elevating, and Hoisting Machinery. Every engi- 
neer will be glad to read our bulletins on belt and other conveying and 
material handling machinery. Write for copies 

Robins Conveying Belt Co. 

General Offices: 13 Park Row, New York 

Chicago : Old Colony Bflg. Spokane: United Iron Worts 
San Francisco : The Griffin Companr 

^fl\ Rock Breakers 

' j^ 'M Blake Pattern — Dodge Pattern 

Manufactured by 


San Francisco, Cal. 

/ Send for Catalog. 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Rock Drills, Hammer Drills, Core Drills 
Pile Hammers, Atlas Jacks 

232 Broadway, New York 


For all transportation purposes. 
Twenty-five years' practical experience. 

PAINTER TRAMWAY CO., of San Francisco 




Mining, Crushing, and Cement 





Cartful atudr of wlra ropa working corutlllona an, I lung 
>ng material an.!,, • 
n oof halng praparrj to furnlati wlra ropa lor any aar- 
- at will gtva mulmum rraulta. 
I'm heavy duty of all kinda, we rnoinmanj our raj atranj 


(Trad. Uark K.g1.i.,-.l } 

>d« .1 rope ha. arret alrtngth. togtttiar with unuaual 
■iaaa and ftealblllty. It la atrong. eafa and dur .. 
All of our ropea are made from hlghavt quality material of 
«' r k ndr beat adapted to a particular work. 




Naw Yorh Chicago Drnear Sail I. ah a 

San Francisco 


Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

Gull Point, Flo. 
F. E. MARINER. President. 

r/.V-JV.. ' Mlf Mai * ' . > .? iV 1 .7/ 

Putman BootsfeShoes 

Go on like a qlove'»o fit all over. 

Putman Boots are the oldest and best known boots for 

Civil and Mining Engineers. They are sold alt over the 

world and have justly earned the slogan "The World's 

Standard." Made-to-measure, water proofed or not, 

any weight of uppers or soles, '.II heights, a variety 

i styles and prices that you will find satisfactory. 

Made-to-Measure Shoes 

Putman Shoes, have a perfect fit, the best of everything in 
quality, style that is "up-to-the-minute" and that custom- 
made-individuality so much sought in all wearing apparel. 
Lace, Button or Oxford styles. Black and all the popular 
shades of Tan Leathers. Everything from the lightest 
Vici Kid to Heavy English "Hiking" Shoes. 

Our FREE CATALOGUE is sent upon request. It 
is different from any other and will interest you. 
Self measurement blanks and full instructions free 


118 5th St. N. E. Minneapolis, Minn. 




D. D. Demarest Co. 

Pacific Rock i.riiN Galea Vanners 

Part fie Stem Guide*. Complete Stamp Mill** 


The Gear Which Makes the 
Plant Effective 

i Will you 
ill until tin- 

"i" nndon n> do m tbn othti 

Intenduta do (M xood gear* cul to 
nil. and .1 . 1 1 \ . r . . i irhtn pnrai 

I ■"■'!, M lllr 

Pacific Gear & Tool Works 

1035 Folsom Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Pipe threading In out-of-the-way places 

plH threading iiiik I r| '.I 

rJapendjibiUtj mi.l r»ll«l 


Pipe Threading and 

Cutting Machines 

i» came ii iej «,,rk mil niida ■van 

• Illlon mill ALWAYS WORK. am itaa 

Ideal plpa thiwdliig equipment tat 

inn i«-r»toni. 

Ju*t ndiln-ss a rur.l todaf to 

Tbe Merrell Mfg. Co. 

10 Curtla StL, Toledo, Ohio 

ami R-'t CatalOgQQ '-I RDd IsV 

the Mr.Kr.KLL Kr-<- Trial pi-Opoi q 

Machine, csrrird in itock in Ssn Frsocuco, 
Portlsod. Seattle. Denver. 



are adapted tor all 
kinds of work. Made 

In all sizes. For Mines. 
Contractors, Quarries, 
Dredging, Cableways. 
Slate Machinery 


A. I.. YOUNG MACHINERY CO., Mm Frnnclai-o, Cal. 

Western Sales Representative 

New York Engineering Company 

Empire Drills, Hydraulic and Placer Machinery 

Address Inquiries to 

V. A. Stout. Balboa Building, San Francisco 

xr^-xs t will be interested in the latest de- 
* \J\J scriptive circular of our mills and 
crushers. Write for it. 

The Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Company 

216-217 Colorado Bldg. 

Denver, Colorado, U. S. A. 



January 2, 1915 

Taylor Spiral Riveted Pipe 

346 Pound* Pressure 

Incaoro Mines, near LaPaz, Bolivia, S. A. 

"The handling of all this material was particularly severe, 
as It had to be transferred twice at New York, several times 
at the Isthmus of Panama, again at Mollendo, and many 
times more during the Inland journey, ending with a haul 
of 120 miles on the backs of mules. In all, there were more 
than twenty transfers of each shipment, yet the material 
was so well packed, and was itself so substantial (particu- 
larly the Puree* Steel Flnnfcen), that there was no loss by 

"Your pipe and your promptness in shipping, I can only 
say affords a great favor to anyone in a distant country, 
and I cannot recommend It too highly. 
"Very truly yours, 
"(Signed) D. C. BRICKER, Gen. Mgr„ 
.-</ prices •"> n "Incaoro Mines." 


Chicago, 111. 


We are the largest exclusive manufacturers of Concentrating Tables in the world. 

Hundreds of the most successful present table installations were made by us. 

Consult us before placing your order for table equipment. 


Office, Factory and Test Plant, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Denver Office: 1718 California Street 

San Francisco Office: 75 Fremont Street 

Zinc Dust — Sherardizing Zinc 

For Immediate Delivery 

The New Jersey Zinc Company 

55 Wall Street, New York 




I/ 7 " A \TO A C built and installed by our com- 
*■ *.**! ikJiYkJ) pany, does more work on 45 
gallons. of FUEL oil than the old superseded steam 
plant ever did on 280 gallons — on the same schedule 
and same load conditions. C.The DIESEL will do as 
well for you — Better service at less cost. 


ST. LOUIS, 423 Rialto Bdg., San Francisco U. S. A. 

NEW YORK. 30 Church St. MINNEAPOLIS. MINN., 754 Plymouth B.lg. HOUSTON .TEXAS, 703 Carter B.lg. LOS ANGELES. 600 Sao Fernando Brig. 


l"l . 





W* olll nail nllaaal rkirir, o. rrqur.i. oar llaadbook ■■ 
Patrata. Tradrmarka. aatl I oprrlaat.. roatalalaa oirr IO« 
eata at njrrhaalral mot riur mi. 

Among the patents retently obtained through us. the fol 
loving are worthy of special mentmn: 

1.11 (.MS VEHICLE BRAKK Charlaa II. Brown It l» 

tha objaot .■( iiii* niv. mi. .1, i.. provM* ■ braka which i* 

ularly adapted for u*.- on automobllaa and other road 

veblclaa, an. I wbloh i« *•> conatructad tie directly 

on the roadbed t" retard the 'amenta of the vehlcl 

whkh it i* attael 

PUANES Jullua u Ucdvecxk) n i* t bj«i ..f i 

ventlon to proWde -« parachute attachment '<>» aeropl 

is ».. constructed and arranged ai to automatically 
open whan the aeroplani la accidentally tipi>.-.l to an abnoi 
inai angle, an. I which win aerre t.. right the aeroplane and 

prevent Its ralliiiK at a dangerous sp I in event ol 


1.118.891 MTTER-BOX. William E, Hawaii.-. Th 

"f tlu> Invention la t" provide ii simple, reliable, eaallv ad- 

d mlter-box whioli is so ,1 thai the mbldng 

supporting angle-platea will move in unlaon, one with the 

other, to the extent ..r at least ir. on either side ol a atralghl 


1.11M26. — CARBURETER Georgia w Ponarouae. The 

object of the pres.-nt Invention Is to provMe a almple, clieap- 
ly-nianufaeiure.l eaally-operated carbureter which la com- 
pact In eiinstrii.tlen anil automatic In operation. 

(Coplra or »r of the above furalshed for 10 ceata each) 


Owing to purchase of power from Transmission Lines, 

we can offer sum.' special low prices on steam equipment 

now i>.'iiiK discontinued In one of our best equipped Coal 

Mines in the Northwest 

2 — 1'50 K.W. Kldgway ".00-volt D. C. Generators, direct 
connected t«> I9"x20" Rldgwav Engines. 

1 — 30 K.W. Rldeway 1 20 -volt D. C. Generator, direct con- 
neoted to 10".\10" Kidgway Engine. 

1 — tO K.W. Rldgwav 120 -volt D. C. Generator, direct con- 
nected to 12''xl2*' Rldgway Engine. 

1 — 16"x36" Hoist — Can be used . ither as first or second 
motion. 1 — 7"xl0" Hoist. VI" drum. 

B — Return Tubular Boilers. 50 to 100 H.P. 

J — Locomotive Fire Box Boilers. 6(t to 70 H.P. 

1 — 200 cu. ft. Compound Air and Steam Xorwalk Air Com- 

2 — 14"x24"xl0 I 2"xls" Dow Compound Steam Pumps. 700 
gals, each, with Jet Condensers. 

Large assortment Vertical Engines. Horizontal Engines 
and Steam pumps. 

1 — 765-gal. Turbine Pump. 1'80 ft. head. U. C. to SO H.P.. 

2200-volt. 3-phase Motor. Several Triplex Pumps. 

Write for detailed specifications and prices. 



A Semi-Quarterly Journal Devoted to 
Discussions in APPLIED GEOLOGY 


Associate Editors: Messrs. Ashley, Lawson, H. V. 

Winchell, Leith, Kemp, Ransome, F. D. Adams, and 

J. W. Gregory. 
Price: $3.00 a year in the United States, Canada, Cuba, 

and Mexico, or $3.75, including postage, to other 

With new subscription to Mining and Scientific Peess 

to one address in the United States, $4.00. 
Address W. S. BAYLEY, Manager, No. 41 Queen Street, 
Lancaster, Pa., or University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 


■ nd p«i 

i Iniortlon Minimum 

ilttnncea m 

lurnlnu roi 


■ ^ wii'l; m \\ BUKVKYOH wants i 

M . ■ . 1 

MINING l£Na IN i ;i JR. technical iradui 

w»n boi Itl, Mining Pri 

MET \i.i.ri;«;isT with man expert 

chemist, iin«inium ■upei Intend* nt, and lapei Intend! ol wiib 
largo smelting and iwininic com pan lea, doalrea position; tooh- 
nlcal graduate; « I Box IIS, lllnlng Pi 

A SPHCIALI8T in the cyanide treatment >•( gold and 
area wishes t" put hie ■ elloble 

company, which u operating 1 , erecting, or remodi ntlrely 

eatlsf actor) credential! Box 116, Mining Praaa 

METAi.Lriioi.-Ai, ENGINEER aa mine or mill superintend- 
ant; IS yean experience with up-to-date com pan lea In Mexico 
arid United States; specialty, cyanldlng and ■ in; \ l 

Box 112, Mining Preaa, 

SUPERINTENDENT dealrei position; SO years experience In 

gold mines; specialty, • <>iimt ruction of mine and mill tdrui-iure*, 
tramways, etc, B<»\ 816, Mining I 

MINING ENGINEER desires change; technical graduate; IS 
years experience; specialty, difficult ore treat raent, alao con- 
struction; high eat teatlmoniala: iluent Spanish; at preaent man- 
ager of gold property. Uux 104, Mining Preaa. 


Attorney at Law 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for New York. 
805 Pacific Bdg.. Fourth and Market Streets. San Francisco. 



You find it. I will rind the buyer. Send rae samples. 
I will test them and report without cost to you. 

F. M. SMITH, Syndicate Building, Oakland, Cal. 


Published Monthly at 

Mtllfthury limine. London, Enfrlnnd. 
T. A. HICKARD, Editor. EDGAR RICHARD, Bunlneiu* M«r. 

Subscription Rotest 

United Kingdom 12 shillings per annum 

Canada .S3 per annum 

Ail other countries In the Postal Union 16shU)lngsor S4 per annum 

Subscriptions received by MINING PRESS. 

Golden State Limited 

Via Los Angeles 

Chicago. St. Louis, Kansas City 

From San Francisco, Ferry Station 
6:00 P. M. Daily 

Southern Pacific 

The Exposition Line— 1915— First in Safety 


January J. 1!U."> 


Leading Manufacturers and Dealers in Machinery, 
Supplies and Instruments. If you do not find what 
you want here, write us and we will give you the 
names of competent and reliable dealers. 



Arci; If Dt- 1. mult* 

Justrll 4- 


Don Cyanide Machy, Co. .. . s 
Bng. A Mfg, <'o 38 

Air Brake 

AJ Us -Chain ■ i i Mfg. Co *. 

Amalgamated IMati » 

San Francisco Prating Wka.— 

A**ayer*' anil < hfiiiM^' 


See page 22. 

A»*ayern* noil » lieiul*!*' 

Kraun Corporation, The. . . .25 
Braun-Knecht-Hcimann Co. 25 

Denver Fire Clay Co 33 

Mine A.- Smelter Supply Co.. — 

Balance* nn. I Weight* 

Alns worth A Sons, Win . . . .37 
Braun ' lorporal Ion. The . . 26 

- Knecht-Helmann I to 25 

Kir.- Clay Co 33 

Kohlbusch, Herman, Si 
Mlit.- & Smelter Supply Co.. — 
Salt Lake Hardware Co. . . .37 
Thompson Balance Co 37 

iner, Henry 37 

Rail MIIIh 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg Co: . 5 

Chalmers a. Williams 88 

Hard Inge Conical Mill Co. . ,28 
Crayloi Bng A Mfg. Col ;3S 

Bra rims* 

\ I ;....u fried Co 

Back Cover 
btamond Rubber Co., The.. — 

Goodri. >] Co., B l — 

Johns-Manvllle Co.. H. W. ,— 
Ifei se A i to tt fried Co 

Back Cover 
Robins Bell Co. .2S 


Alll.s-ChaliH.-rs Mfg. Co 6 

1 '" 13 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Worthing! on, Henry R — 

Boiler Grapbltr 


kills-Chalmers Mfg. Co B 

Harron, Uf.kai.l & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co ? 

Bendy Iron Works, Joshua. 9 
Power A Mining Machy. Co. — 



Pi -- i:., 23, 25, 35 

38, 40 

Soi fohn — 

BOOtH iiiul SllOe* 

puiinan Boot A Shoe Co.... £9 
Brick. Fire 

Atkins, Kroll A Co 26 

Braun Corporation, The... . ..25 

Braun- ECnecht-Helmarjn Co 125 

Fire Clay Co 33 

Brlqdettlng Mnchlnery 

Braun Corporation, Tin 
Tray lor Bng A Mfg Go ... 

lllls-Chalm- ra Mfg. Co 5 

Broderlck &■ Baecnm Rope 

Co 47 

kaid &. McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

. Sup. Co. ? 

Bendy ' r«n Winks. Joshua. 9 

■ *v Sana Bnpj Ci 


Meese *-- Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Conveying Belt 
Wait Mining Car Wheel Co. 27 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 4 5 

Burner*. Oil 

Braun Corporation, Th< 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 26 

Denver Fire Clay Co 33 

Harron, Rlckard & McCone. 

Back Cover 

Csbleways, su*pcn*ion 

Broderlck & Bascom Rope 
Co 17 

Flory Mfg. Co., s 29 

Leacben & Sons Rope Co.. A.29 

Painter Tramway Co 38 

U. s. Steel Products Co 41 


Chalmers & Williams IB 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

BTendy Iron Works, Joshua. 9 

Traylor Eng & Mfg. Co 38 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 4 5 

Cnrbone. Bort*. and Diamond* 

Atkins. Kroll ft Co 36 


AW s -Chalmers Mfgt Co 5 

Atlas Car A Mfg. Co 28 

H 29 

Harron. Rlckard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co t 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 9 
Min. A Smelter Simply Co.. — 

■ Bng. A Mfg Co 3S 

Watt Mining far Whe» I 


Lunkenheimer Co 

Taylor- Wharton Iron & Steel 


Tuba Construction Co 29 


Harron, Rlckard & McCone. 

Back Cover 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
eying Belt Co. .2S 
Tavlor-Whsrton iron & Steel 



Atkins. Kroll & Co 26 

Braun < torpors lion, Thi 26 

Braun-Knecnt-Helmann Co 26 

Denver Fire Clay Co 33 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. — 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chem- 
ical Co 33 


See page 20. 
Chilean Mill* 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers A Williams 28 

I Colorado Iron "Works Co. . . 4 7 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co 38 

& Mining Machy. Co. — 
Traylor Eng. £ Mfg. Co.... 33 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co Eg 

lers A Williams 2S 

Colorado tron Works Co. ...47 

ranlde Mtachy. Co. .. . S 

Power & Mining Machy. Co.— 

i Eng. A Mfg. Co 33 

Clutche*. Friction 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
ao-Seaver-Margan Co. 45 
Coal Cuttera 

'haimers Mfg. Co 5 

) oil-Rand Co. .. .Bulletin 
McKiernan-Tenry Drill Co.. 28 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 

Sullh an Machinery Co 7 

Coal H hu ill I ii a) Machinery 

Bartlett ft Snow Co., C. 0..41 
Compreanor*, Air 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers & Williams 2S 

Demurest Co., 1» l> 29 

general Electric Co 13 

Harron. Rlckard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Hendv Iron Works, Joshua. 9 
Ingersoll-Raml Co. . . .Bulletin 
Laldlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co. . . — 
McKlernan -Terry Drill Co.. 28 

Nordberg Mfg. Co 27 

Sullivan Machinery Co 7 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Concentrator Belt* 

Diamond Rubber Co.. The.. — 
Goodrich Co.. B. F — 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

rs & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co.... 47 
Delster Concentrator Co.... 30 

Demarest Co., D. D 29 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup, Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 9 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. . — 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 

S'-nn Concentrator Co 12 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 38 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Concrete Mixer* 

Harron, Rlckard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Power A Mining Machy. Co. — 


r Pump <* Con. Co. .28 

Lllls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

on Steam Pump Wks.35 
if Steam Pump Co., 

Fred M 40 

Contract. Drilling 

Longyear Co., E. J 14 

Conveyor*. Belt 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Robins Conveying Beit Co.. 28 

Conveyors, Screw 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Power & Mining Macliv. Co. — 
■ Eng. & Mfg. ©0 • 

Union Iron Works Co — 


We 1 1 man -Sea V" i -Morgan Co. 15 

Braui Corporation, The. . . .24 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 24 

Fire Clay Co 33 

Dixon CruciWe Co., Joseph. 33 
Mine & Smelt, r Supply Co.. — 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Bacon. Earle C 28 

Braun Corporation, The. . . .25 
Braun -Knecht-Helmann Co. 25 

Chalmers & Williams 2S 

Colorado Iron Works Co.... 47 

Denver Fire Clay Co 33 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 

er Co 29 

Harron, Rlckard & McCone 

Back Cove- 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg & 

Sup. Co 2 

Hendy iron Works. Joshua. 9 

Power A Mining Machy. Co. — 

Eng. A Mi"g. Co 3S 


Union Iron Works Co — 

Vulcan Iron Works 28 


Braun Corporation, The. . . .25 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 26 

Denver Fire Clay Co 33 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. . — 
Cyanide Plant* und Machinery 

Allis-1'halnu-rs Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co.... 47 

Demarest Co., i>. d 29 

Dorr. Cyanide Machy. Co.... 8 

Hammond Iron Works 33 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 9 

Kelly Filter Press Co 87 

Meese & Gotjfrled Co 

Back Cover 
Mine & Smelter Supplv Co.. — 

Moors Filter Co .* 27 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co 16 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 38 

Traylor Bng & Mfg. Co 3S 

Union Iron Works Co — 


Colorado Iron Works Co. . . .17 

Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co.... S 


Colorado Iron Works Co. . . .47 
Drafting Material 
Alnsworth & Sons, Wrr 

Buff A Burt' Mfg. Co 37 

Lelte Go., a 37 


Bucyrus Company is 

Marlon Steam Shovel Co.. — 
New York Engineering Co. 
,. . 10. 11 

i nlon Construction Co. . . 28 

Onion Iron Works Co — 

Yuba ' 'onst ruction Co 28 

Dredging: Machinery 

American Locomotive Co... 44 
Bucyrus Company .... 16 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Marion Steam Shovel Co — 

New York Engineering Co. 

10, 11 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. .28 

Seattle Machine Works 41 

Taylor-Wharton Iron & Steel 

Co 38 

Union Construction Co. . . 28 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 4 5 
> uba Construction Co 28 

Drill Maker- and Sharpener* 

In ger soil-Rand Co. . . .Bulletin 
Drilling-, Contract 

Longyear < \,.. E". .1 14 

Drill*. \lr iiihI Steani 

i »e mar eat Co., D. D 29 

Huron, Riekard & McCone. 

Rajeh Covei 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 

11-Rand Co. .. .Bulletin 
McKler nan-Terry Drill Co. .28 
Min.- & Smelter Supply i 
Sullivan Machinery Co.. 7 

PI DOfl Drill Works 42 

Drill*. Core 

D 11-Rand Co Bulletin 

Longyear Co. E. J n 

McKlernan -Terry Drill Co.. 28 

Sullivan Machinery Co 7 

Union Construction Co 28 

Drill*. Electric 

Harron. Rlckard Ar McCone. 

Back Cover 
dl-Rand Co. .. .Bulletin 
Drills, Prospecting 
Harron, Rlckard & McCone 
flack <-.■• 

{Continued on paice 34) 

■■■ '2 1916 


^ V V ^ 

mmJ teJ ^^ 




welt judged at the Paris. Chicago and Saint Louis 
Exiiosltlons to he the best in the world because of 
their high heat conductivity. 

They are manufactured by us. and each is stamped 
"Denver F. C. Co." 

Why don't you judge them for yourself? 

It merely takes a request for shipment. 

The Denver Fire Clay Company 

Denver. Colo. 

Are Made For Operation 
By Any Power. 

Horizontal or Vertical 

Stationary or Portable. 

Write for Catalogue "H" 



Henioa & Hubbeil. Chicago Hendrie fir Bolihoff Mffl. & Supply Co., Denver 

Norman B. Miller Co., Sin Francbco Engliih Tool & Supply Co., Kaniai City, Mo. 
Ralph B. Carter Co.. 152 Chamber. Si.. New York 


Silica-Graphite Paint 

The tough, elastic veneer of 
silica and graphite formed on 
the metal by this paint is a posi- 
tive protection against corrosion 
of mine cars, tipples, head- 
frames, boiler fronts, stacks and 
all metal work. 

.Send for Paint Booklet No. 141. 
Made in JERSEY CITY, N. J., by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. 

Established 1827 


sdjca-obaph" 1 


^*»* brum CWCTW 1 

Send tor Paint Booklet 
No. 29B 




Cyanide and Storage Tanks 

Zinc Boxes — Thickener Tanks 

Complete Oil Refineries 


WARREN, PA., U. S. A. 

d_„.i, ,,„•„.. < IMS Whitehall Bdg.. 17 Matter? PI tee. Sew York lily 
Brant h omau j Gns Kd)r cnshirn, Oklahoma. 

The Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company 

100 William Street, New York 

Works; Perth Amboy. N. J. 


98/99 Per Cent. 

Cyanide of Sodium 

128/130 Per Cent. 



(Prima Dansk Flints — Genuine Danish) 

For deliveries and prices address 

W. R. GRACE & CO., San Francisco, DIRECT Importers 

The Empire Zinc Company 

BuyS ZinC OreS Address our Office 

Or write to «7/\o C DU 

H L.WILLIAMS W.E.HENRY 703 3ymeS tJIdg. 

1019 Ke.rn! Bids. P. O. Box 285 

Salt Uke City. Ul«h Spolune. Wah. 

Denver, Colo. 




January 2, 1915 


fngeraoU-Raiid C Bulletin 

Hi Klerimn-Terry Drill Co.. 28 

Longryear Co.. E. J 14 

New York Engineering Co. 

10, 11 
Sullivan Machinery Co 7 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

General Electric Co 13 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Western Electric Co — 

Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

l.oKliira. Gnu and Gasoline 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 9 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 

Engine*. Oil 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Buseh-Sulzer Bros.-Dlesel 

Engine Co 30 

Snow Steam Pump Works.. — 

Engines, Steam 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendv Iron Works, Joshua. 9 

Nordberg Mfg. Co 27 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 38 

Union Iron Works Co. — 

\Y. llman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 4 5 


Du Pont Powder Co 38 

Fan*. Ventilating 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

general Blectrlc Co 13 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co I 

Sullivan Machinery Co 7 

Filter Presses 

Kellv Filter Press Co 27 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.... 38 


Chalmers & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 47 

General Filtration Co 40 

Moore Filter Co 27 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 38 

Fire Brick 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 26 

Braun Corporation. The.... 25 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 25 
Denver Fire Clay Co 33 

Fittings, Malleable and 
Cast Iron 

National Tube Co 28 


American Spiral Pipe Wks..30 

Lunkenhelmer Co 39 

National Tube Co 28 

Foundry Equipment 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. .. .Bulletin 

Sullivan Machinery Co 7 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.45 
Frogs and Snitches 
Johns-Manvllle Co.. H. W..41 

U. S. Steel Products Co 41 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 27 
Furnaces, Assay 
Braun Corporation, The.... 25 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 25 

Denver Fire Clay Co 33 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. — 
Furnaces, Roasting and 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 47 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Power & Mining Machv. Co. — 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 38 

Wedge Mechanical Furnace 

Co 6 

Gas Producers 

jower & Mining Machy. Co. — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.4r. 


American Spiral Pipe Wks..30 

Diamond Rubber Co.. The.. — 


Johna-Manvllle Co.. H. W..41 
Sn lh-()n Mfg. Co 39 


General Electric Co 13 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Pacific I'.tar & Tool Co.... 29 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

General Electric Co 13 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Western Electric Co — 

Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

Giants, Hydraulic 

See Hydraulic Mining 

Gruphlte Products 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 33 
Heaters, Feed Water 
Alberger Pump & Con. Co.. 28 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Hoists. Air 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co. 2 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. . — 

Hoist*. Electric 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Demarest Co.. D. D 29 

General Electric Co 13 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 9 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co 43 

Nordberg Mfg. Co 27 

Power & Mining Machv. Co. — 

Sullivan Machinery Co 7 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.4 5 
Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

Hoists, Steam 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Demarest Co.. D. D 29 

Flory Mfg. Co., S 29 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 9 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co 43 

Nordberg Mfg. Co 27 

Power & Mining Machv. Co. — 

Sullivan Machinery Co 7 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.45 

Diamond Rubber Co — 

Goodrich Co., B. F — 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. .. .Bulletin 
Johns-Manvllle Co.. H. W..41 
Hydraulic Mining Machinery 
American Spiral Pipe Wks. .30 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 9 

Pelton Water Wheel Co 39 

Union Iron Works Co — 


Lunkenhelmer Co 39 

Iron Cements 

Johns-Manvllle Co.. H. W..41 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co 39 

Jaw Plates 
Taylor-Wharton Iron & Steel 

Co 28 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 47 

Laboratory Supplies 

See Assayers' and Chemists' 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

Geaeral Electric Co 13 

Johns-Manvllle Co.. H. W..41 

Western Electric Co — 

Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

I.nmps. Miners 

Justrlte Mfg. Co 42 

Lead Joint Pipe 

National Tube Co 28 

Locomotives, Electric 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co 28 

General Electric Co 13 

Westing/house »F.lectrlc & 
tits- Co — 

Locomotives, Steam 

.in Locomotive Co... 44 
Lima Locomotive Corp 27 


Dixon Crucllile Co.. Joseph. 33 

Lunkenhelmer Co 39 


Atkins. Kroll & Co 26 

Metnl Buyers and Dealers 

American Metal Co.. Ltd.... 26 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 26 

Beer, Sondhelmer & Co 26 

Consolidated Min. & Smelt- 
ing Co. of Canada. Ltd.. 26 

Empire Zinc Co 3:1 

International Smelting & Re- 
fining Co 26 

Sell.v Smelting & Lead Co. .36 
U. S. Smelting. Refining & 

Mining Co 26 

Vogelsteln & Co.. L 26 

WlUlberg Br. is 26 

Mills, Ball and Pebble 

Al]is-( 'lialni-rs Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co.... 47 
Hardlnge Conical Mill Co... 28 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co .IS 

Mills, Chilean 

AJlls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co.... 47 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co 38 

Power & Mining Machv. Co. — 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 38 

Union Iron Works Co — 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... 5 

General Electric Co 13 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Sup. Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 9 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. . — 

Western Electric Co — 

Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

OH. Wood Creosote 

Pensacola Tar & Turpen- 
tine Co 29 

Oil and Grease Cups 

Lunkenhelmer Co 39 

Oil Well Supplies 
Broderlck & Bascom Rope 

Co 47 

Diamond Rubber Co — 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 9 

National Tube Co 28 

Union Iron Works Co — 

U. S. Steel Products Co 41 

Ore Buyers 

See Metal Buyers and Deal- 
Also see page 22. 


Diamond Rubber Co — 

Johns-Manvllle Co.. H. W. .41 


Blake, Moffit & Towne 29 

Patent Attorneys 

Dewey. Strong & Co 31 


Atkins. Kroll & Co 26 

Grace & Co.. w. R .13 

Perforated Metals 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co.... 45 

Pipe Covering 

Johns-Manvllle Co.. II. W..41 ' 

Pipe. Riveted 

American spiral Pipe Wks. .30 

Sacramento Pipe Wks — 

Pipe, Wood 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co.... 46 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 30 
Pipe, Steel 

National Tube Co 30 

Sacramento pipe Works.... — 
Pipe Threading Machine* 

Merrell Mfg. Co -:i 


Du Pont Powder Co 38 

Producer, Gas 

Power & Mining Machv. Co. — 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.45 
Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 9 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Koions Conveying Belt < ■.. 8! 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co ."> 

Braun Corporation. The....3fl 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 28 

Chalmers & Williams js 

Colorado Iron Works Co ...17 

Denver Fire Clay Co 33 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 
er Co gl 

Hardlnge Conical Mill Co...2S 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 9 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co — 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co... .38 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.45 

Albergnr Pump & I 'on. CO.,28 
Allls-Chalmers .Mik Co.... 5 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks. 

A. S 35 

Deane Steam Pump Co.. 

Demarest Co., D. D. ■'■» 

Demlng Co.. The 3:: 

Frenler & Sons j 

General Electric Co, i:j 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
„ Back Cover 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. 4 

Sup. Co ? 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua! 9 
Jackson Iron Works, Byron 27 

Jeanesvllle Iron Works. 

Krogh Pump Co 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

«.. o „ Back Cover 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co 

Prescott Steam Pump Co.. 

T . fred M .'40 

Union Iron Works Co. . — 

Yuba Construction Co ?y 


Atkins. Kroll & Co t; 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 2". 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. . 

Railway Supplies and Equip- 
American Locomotive Co.. 41 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co 38 

Lima Locomotive Corp. . 27 
U. S. Steel Products Co. ...41 
Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 27 
Rings and Dies 
See Jaw Plates. 
Rolls, Crushing 
Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co.. 

Bacon, Earle C 28 

Chalmers & Williams !"2S 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 47 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. St 

Sup. Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua r. 
Lane Mill & Machy. Co.. 38 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 
Taylor- Wharton Iron & Steel 

„ Co oy 

Traylor Eng. & MfK. Co. . . ,3s 


Johns-Manvllle Co., H. W..41 

Rope, Manila and Jute 

Broderlck & Bascom Rope 

Co .47 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co. A i.':» 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 

I Continued on page :Uii 

January - I'M • 


The Slogan of the Cameron— "Character : The Grandest Thing' 

1000 Gallons Per Minute Against 500 Feet Head 

The Cameron Centrifugal Pump (illustrated) 
is a motor-driven 6" four-stage, with a capac- 
ity of 1000 gallons a minute against 500 feet 
head at 1165 R.P.M., and has proved very effi- 
cient and economical. 

Mining engineers have found the Cameron 
Centrifugal to be the best for the long, steady 
pulls of pumping so prevalent in mine work. 

It is very simple, compact, and strong. The 
casing is horizontally split, so that the work- 
ing parte may be easily reached without dis- 
turbing pipe connections or pump alignment. 
Finest material and workmanship. 

Built in many types and sizes for various 
classes of work. Our Engineering Department 
will gladly figure on your requirements. 

Write for Bulletin No. 151 giving detailed information about our Multistage Centrifugal Pumps. 


11 Broadway, New York Offices the World Over 

Concentrating Ores by 




Second Edition. 261 pages. 60 figures. Cloth, 6x9 in., $3.75 postpaid. 

This is a practical working guide. It contains detailed descriptions and 
working drawings. The history of the experimental work which has led up to 
the present state of the art is summarized, as is also the litigation between 
patentees. The theory of notation is discussed and the methods for testing 
the applicability of the process are stated. Full descriptions are given of the 
many processes that have been introduced or proposed. One chapter discusses 
the economies of flotation, while a complete bibliography makes the volume 
invaluable to those engaged in further experimental work. In short. Mr. 
Hoover has given all that any ordinary engineer will need or care to know- 
about flotation. 


MINING PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco 




Januarv 2, 1915 

Hope. Wirt* 

. an Ste< i & Wire Co. .41 
Broderlck & Bascom Rope 

Co M 

Leschen A Sons Rope Co, A.*B 
lioblns Conveying Belt 

U. 6. Steel P u 


Braun Corpora tlon, The. . . .26 
Bra un-Knecht-Helmann Co. 25 
< Colorado i ror Works Co. . . .41 

i leaver Fire Clay Co 

Mil e & Smelter Supply Co.. — 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. ...88 

Saw Mill Machinery 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua, 'J 
SchoolM and CollcKen 
Heald's School oi' Mines.... 28 
Zander Naillen School, A... 28 

Serve dm 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co. ... 17 
i^iullow-Saylor Wire Co. . . .45 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 38 

Second-! In. ml Machinery 

McMaster. D. J 44 

Hallldle Machy. Co gj 


See Pulleys, Shafting and 

ShellM and Hint* 
See Jaw Plates. 
ShoeH and Died 
Hemly Iron Works. Joshua. B 

Dillon Iron Works Co — ■ 

Shovel*, Electric and Steam 

American Locomotive Ci 

Bucyrus Co., The 15 

Marlon Steam Shovel Co.... — 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 26 

Smeltern and Keflnem 

Beer, Sondhefmer & Co 26 

Consolidated Smelting & Ref. 

Co. of Canada, Ltd 26 

Empire Zinc Co 33 

International Smelting Co. . 26 
Selby Smelting & Lead Co.. 26 


U. S. Smelting. Rellnlng & 

Mitilng Co 26 

'in A CO., L 26 

Smelting; Machinery 

Al lis -Chalmers Mf*. Co 6 

do Iron Works Cu .... 47 
if] Mfg. & 

Supply <*o 2 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 
»r Eng. & Mfg. Co . 

Union iron W'nrks Co — 

Wedge Mechanical Furn 

Co 6 


.i n Steel ft Wire Co. .A 1 

Gary Spring Works :;; 

i'. s. Steel Products Co u 

Slninp MIIIh 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Go 5 

Chalmers & Williams 2s 

Colorado Iron Works Co. .17 

Demarest Co., D. D 29 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendv Iron Works. Joshua. 9 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

E. H 27 

Nordberg Mfg. Co 27 

Power & Mining Machv. Co. — 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 38 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.45 
Stamp Stem Gulden 

Demarest Co.. D. D 29 

Steel, Drill 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Steel, MunicancNe 
Taylor-Wharton Iron & Steel 

Co 28 

Suction DredRCH 

Yuba Construction Co 28 

Tanks, Cyanide 

Hammond Iron Works Co. .38 

National Tube Co 28 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. ...46 
Power & Mining Machy. Co.- — 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 28 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 3S 

TapfH, Meanurlng 

Lufkin Rule Co 37 

Telephone*, Mine 

Western Electric Co — 

Thickener*. Slime 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 17 


1 "on Cyanide Machy. Co. . . . 8 
Traylor Eng. ft Mfg. Co 

Trnnnvayx, Aerial 
Broderick & Bascom Rope 

CO 47 

Leschen ft Sons Rope Co., ,\ gg 

Painter Tramway Co 28 

Roebllng's SoheAto.. John a. 27 
r. s. Steel ProdVbts Co n 


A Ins worth & Sons, Wm ::7 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. . — 

Buff A Buff Mfg. Co 37 

Leltz Co . A 37 

Trim* mis.- ion Maelllnery 

AlUs-Chalmers Mfg. Co :. 

General Electric Co 13 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Hendy iron Works, Joshua . y 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Robins Conveying Belt Co.. 28 
Taylor-Wharton Iron & Steel 

Co 2 8 

Tube 3II11n 

Allts-Chalmers Mfg. Co & 

Chalmers & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co. . . .47 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co,.. .28 
Power & Mining Machv. Co. — 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 88 

Union Iron Works Co — 


National Tube Co 2S 

Turbine*, Hydraulic 

Allis-i'lmlincrs Mtg. Co .". 

i ion Works. Joshua . 9 
Pel ton Water Wheel Co. . . ,39 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 15 

Turbine*, steam 

Alberger Pump & Con. Co. .28 

A Ills-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

: i Electric Co 13 


Lunkenhelmer < >> 39 

National Tube Co 2S 


Lunkenhelmer < '< 39 

National Tube Co 28 

Pelton water Wheel Co 39 

Water Wheel« 

Hendy Iron W ork s, Joshua. 9 

Pelton Water Wheel Co 39 

Chiton iron Works > ',, — 

Well ma n - Sea v e r- Morgan Co.4 '■ 

Waterproof Coat InK 

Johns-ManvlUe Co., n. w . . . n 
Smooth-On Mfg. Co... , 

Weighing Maelilnen 

Merrick Scale Mfg. Co , ,88 
w ei. N ui; Processes 

Ooidschmidt Thermit Co.... — 

Well iiriniuK Machinery and 

Brod i Eck & Bascom Rope 

Co 4 7 

Harron. Rickard &: McCone. 

Back Cover 

Union Iron Wmk.s Co — 

Wheels, car 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 27 

Wire Cloth 

Ludlow -Say lor Wire Co. . . .4.". 
Wire Cablea 

American Steel & Wire Co. .41 
Broderick & Bascom Rope 

Co .47 

Leschen & Suns Rope Co., A. 27 

Painter Tramway Co R 

Roehling's Sons Co.. John A, 27 

l . s. steel Pm, in, -is Co 41 

Wire, I us nl ii ted 

American Steel & Wire Co. .« 

General Electric Co 13 

Goodrich Co., B. F — 

U. S. Steel Products Co 41 

Western Electric Co — 

Zinc Boxen 

Kraun Corporation, The. . . ,fe 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann i 
Chalmers & Williams :js 

Colorado Iron Works Co.... 4 7 
Denver Fire Clay < v>. 
Hammond Iron Works Co 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co..— 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co it; 

Redwood Manufacturers Co 2( 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. c,,..,.;:i 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Zlne DuMt and Shavings 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 16 

Braun Corporation, The. .2" 
Braun-Knecht-Uelmann Co.Sfi 
Denver Fire Clay Co 

x.-w Jersey Zinc < !o . ;-■ 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chem- 
ical Co 

Contemporary with many of the most illustrious masters of Art, 
Literature and Navigation of the middle ages, Agricola was the 
conspicuous authority of his time on Mining and will ever be 
remembered for his great work on the subject. A classic which 
will endure — 


Confident that there are still many who have not seen the First English transla- 
tion, and who would like to know more of this valuable volume, for them we 
have issued a brochure of 32 pages, entitled " The book that made Agricola 
famous." Sufficient of the illustrations are reproduced to give an excellent im- 
pression of how able and advanced the miners of the XVI century were. Sent free. 

MINING PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco 

J. I'M ■ 


Engineers' Instruments and Assayers' Supplies 


will satisfy the most 
exacting demands. 
Their constancy is in 
keeping with the ex- 
treme care required 
for accurate work. 

To avoid inaccurate weight* always use our 
Multiple Rider Attachment. 




That I* what rrall> 
■ (units when you are 

looking tat iha beat. 

I M.l v on |m SKK a 

KELLEI lt\l \M . : 

ir \ ou i "i'. in i. nit. 
the purrhaae or a h*l 
anco, boo a KKI.I 
tint, it win ropaj 

I I U the iH'«t hnlarifeln 
the world. 

"Wrrtt lor raits* (Iwoi.ti 




91 Pases. Illustrated. 6x9 in. Cloth. (1.00 

A valuable book, particularly for beginners, which 
jives the generally accepted methods of determina- 
tions. A single system is carried through the book, 
making it unnecessary for the novice to decide be- 
tween a number of methods. The charges given are 
not advanced as the only ones, but are definite and 

For Sale by 



Cold Medal Award al SI. Unli 

1840 ^ffiSSc? 1984 


Improved No. 3 
Assay Balance 

7K Inch Beam. 
Sensibility Moo Mir. 

Full, Clear sweep across beam, no obstruction*. Fall away beam ami pan arrest*. 

Tbe noil popular and tWcitni Assay Balance. All agafe bearings and edges. 

List Price, $95.00. Price Liart on Application. 

HENRY TROEMNER, Philadelphia. Pa., U. S. A. 



Jamaica Plain Station, - - BOSTON, MASS. 


The "Bufl" is the result of 60 years of instrument study by 
our Mr. Geo. L. Buff— our present manager. SenilloroataloflaB 31 










Fine Balances and Weights 

For every purpose where accuracy is required. 

1(JFft//\f Measuring 

Backed by a record of '2o years 

of dependable service. 


7H EfUFMt/ Pi/l.ECO. 

Tapes and 




• arsons • 


i » U.S.A. ♦ I 

Cary Spring Works 

340-242 W. 29th St. 


of Every Description. 

Tempered and Un tempered. 



January 2. 1915 


That's what our new Catalog No. 7 tells you. 

How the Lane Mill does its work. 

Why the product is superior, the cost of opera- 
tion low, and the extraction high. 

Where they are operated, and what kind of 
work they are doing. 

It also tells the method of operating with 
stamps; how they are sectionalized for mule pack- 
ing; about their adaptability for the treatment of 
different kinds of ores; and gives other informa- 
tion which will interest you. 

Send for this Catalog No. 7. Do it now. 


236-247 Douglas Building. 

Los Angeles, California 




\... r. 


ii u him; 

Blasting Machines 

T^VERY day more blast- 
- L/ ing is being done with 
electrical blasting machines. 


Because several hore holes can be tired at one 
operation. Such action dislodges more material 
than many single shots. 

Less drilling and loading Is necessary when electrical 
blasting replaces single-shot methods. 

Put this new improved, powerful, strongly made No. 
5 Blasting Machine to work. It's a time and money 
saver, and lessens blasting accidents. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 

Established 1802 



Crushing Rolls 

Our crushing rolls are fitted with our 
Automatic Side Adjusting Mechanism, 
which prevents corrugation of the 


Many other features. 

Graytory Crushers 

Our gyratory crushers bj actual 
operation produce more tonnage per 
horse-power than any other machine 
on the market for similar conditions. 

Jaw Crushers 

Our jaw crushers are equipped with 
features which reduce the cost of 
maintenance to a minimum — such as: 

Wilier fooled Ht'iirliiiSN, 
Almolute ArijUHtnient, i:ir. 

ilor Kimlneerlim Department ..111 be pleHMctl at all tlmt-ii to confer Kith pitrtleN conNiderlnK the erection 
planfi* or Hachlnea of nay capacity, or lo meet the iiaiintial conditional 

Send for Catalogue 

it will interest you. 


New York « tfflce: 36 Church St. 

Multl OfltiM- nnd Work*: Allrnlu.vD, Pen nil. 

Western Office: Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Testing for Metallurgical Processes 

216 Pages — Illustrated — Indexed — $2 Postpaid 

THIS book is designed to assist in the selection of the process ot treatment for any 
ore. The author describes the apparatus employed in making laboratory and small-lot 
tests. It is founded upon experimental work at the Michigan College of Mines, and the 
methods recommended have been tested in practice. It is brief and practical, equally val- 
uable to the student and the practicing engineer 


MINING PRESS, 420 Market Street, San Francisco, California 


I'll , 

\1I\I\U I'KI SS 

% ttrll knintit < iilli.iniln tlrrilui* I- ■ •»rrntrd 
h> WmU nuiipllt-il h> I VI i i>m - 1 m n.-l- lurhiitr* 
unit »ho»»n nh»\r, Itrmurkntilr rr-mli-. hnv I'- 
ll.-, ii nttnlnrd ulili Mil- I m-i n Mm Ion. Tbr 
»rn Irr U nrvrir, ti> •Iniullr .-.unlit inn« uqumumI 
:imiI lnlu.r r«tMfM Mk:it. In Mpltr of ihr»r bnnill- 
o»p». uprrnllnK cowtw nrr Ion. Tn«* rrport of 
I he ■ I- ti ii no mi II j lutrrral Inn. 
Would >mi like n «-on> f 

The PellonWaterWheel Company 

89 West St. 
New York. N. Y. 

2229 Harrison SI. 
s.n Francisco. Cal. 


Iron Cements 

Permanently stop all leaks of 
steam — water — fire or oil. 

Easy to Apply. 
Send for free 104 page illus 
trated instruction book. 
It will save you time and 


Jersey City, N. J. 

34 Sacramento Street 
San Francisco. Cal. 


Instruction Book 

2*21 N Jefferson street 
Chicago, III 


Made from the highest grades of steel 
proven by thorough and exacting tests 
to be best adapted for good service. 

The standard rope for mine hoists 
and haulages. 



San Francisco 
Seattle, Wash. 

Los Angeles 
Portland, Ore. 



January 2, 1915 

Prescott Mine Pumps 

Mean satisfaction to the mining man be- 
cause they are the result of thorough knowl- 
edge and long experience in building special 
pumping machinery for mine service — partic- 
ularly deep mine service. 

It requires machinery of absolute reliability 
when emergencies arise in underground 
pumping stations, and PRESCOTT pumps are 
built specially for just such emergencies. 

Your inquiries are solicited. 

v ml us your specifications and ask for 
copy of our CATALOG P2i-Se. 

Fred. M. Prescott Steam Pump Co. 

1 1 5 Broadway, New York Works : Milwaukee, Wis. 

Branch OlllfM in all Principal CiHffl P1M Z 


Until PILTROS was perfected — until this new, white, 
lea filtering medium was developed there were 
always to he taken Into account 

The i*\[MMs«- of iiuiii-rluK replaced; 

The lulior required for replneeiuent ; 

The production Iohm due to Idle equipment. 
FII,TKOS Ls changing all this. FII.TROS plates 

sent equipment as [ .anenl as th< concrete foundations 

under your machinery. 

If that were all it would be enough to recommend 
FII.TROS on the ground of economy. 

Rut that Is not all. The uniform porosity of FII.TKOS. 
Its resistance to ehemlcalg and high heats and Its strength 
lend themselves In the degrree of perfection to an In- 
creased production capacity not to he Ignored hy the 
Mine Manager, who justifies measures by results. 

Write for the FII.TROS booklet. 


Main Office i Cutler Building, rittshurgh, Pa. 

SbIcm Oftlce: Farmem Bank Building. Plttnburt£b, I'u. 

You Will Make No Mistake 

in equipping your Belt, Bucket, or 
Pan Conveyors with the 

Merrick Conveyor Weightometer 

It will automatically record, in any unit desired, 
the actual weight of material transported — with a 


Write today for descriptive catalog 
and further particulars. 




By 0. S. HERZIG 

with a chapter on 


163 Pages 6x9 Illustrated Cloth $2 Postpaid 

This is the first comprehensive treatise on a most 
important part of the mining engineer's work. It 
presents a complete logical and well-rounded discus- 
sion of the principles and practice of sampling and 
valuing mines. Most experienced engineers will be 
glad to have such a volume in their library, and to 
the young engineer, who has not been through the 
mill, it should prove well nigh invaluable. 

Published and For Sale by 


420 Market St., San Francisco 
THE MINING MAGAZINE. Salisbury House. London. E. C. 





American Steel & Wire 

Trenton-Bleichcrt System 

Aerial Tramways 

Mr tirr Ihr Ml* II.. u,.r» In Imrrlrn til 1I1U typf 
»l . H.mi. Bftri tlriull tin* Imtii th«r- 
N|ftl) «»>rk«*il i>m nnil tra inil Into iln-^r .1.11- 

mtwmvHmmm oat) nuiirrui i>r th.- maM approi ed 

II nil » 1 1 I ".1 1111 1 In I k I ml I lie 1 11 ill 11 k 

American Wire Rope 

■M at* r what tue I the ffround, «■ will 

a^ construct a troiawi) win transfer material In 
Hoe ;it minimum expense; ami no gradei Are too 
steep to surmount: no rivers ui valleys too wide t" 
«*ross; and no Krtidln*. bridges, or viaducts of anv kind 
/in* required. Tiirr. In practically no limit to th.- length 
..f these tramways w. hav< one line carrying ore 
i w. my-. .p.- ml left. 

Witt.- f.-r pur complete descriptive i k allowing 

form of application. And we will be glad 
to work upon propositions submitted to us, re- 
turning full and complete specifications and coats 

American Steel & Wire Company 

go, New v«>rk. Cleveland, Pittsburgh. 

Worcester, Denver 

Export Representative: U. SL Steel Products Co., New York 

Pact hY Coast Representative: r. S. Steel Products Co., 

San Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle 

The SAFE Brake Lining 

• 11 tii. I the • tfl. i' irni 

chlnery depond to ct< nl upon the ■ (T- ■ ■ 

of your braki lining or pne that ■llp» 

■ nt. and it' 
and maohln< lult. 


cannot burn or chai Ifade ol pure long Bbn 

and II rep roof binding cemenl moulded Isi enormoui 

pressure, you can throw on the brakes as hard and as 
long as you wish with no danger of the lining catching 
lira it is absolutely proof against any degree of frlc- 
tlonal heat Oil, water, acids or grit win not harm it. 
This lining Is Ideally adapted for- brakes on mining hoists. 
pile drivers, derricks, excavators, dredges, etc Blade for 

servh ther linings win not stand. 

Write our 1 inch for sample and j-m Asbestos 

Brake Blocks Bookh-t." 


Atlanta Denver iphli Philadelphia 

Baltimore Detroit Milwaukee Pittsburgh 

Bostos • ialveston Mlrmeapollfl Portland 

Buffalo Indianapolis Newark St Louti 

Chicago Kansas City N'ewOrleana Pall UnkoCltj 

Cincinnati Loo Vnfcelcs Now York 8*w Pre 

Cleveland Louisville Onuihu Seattle 

1 olumbus Toledo 

The Canadian H. \V. Johns-Manville Co., Ltd. 

Toronto Montreal W nnipee Vancouver 

Placer Dred ges 

We are Builders of Complete Dredging 
Machinery Outfits, for either Placer, River 
or Harbor Dredges, of all Types. We also 
specialize in General Dredge Repairs. 

I.e. UN tlKore with you when you urt> In the niarki't 
for ti Dre.lfce or Genertil IlepnlrM. 




Gardner Crusher and Pulverizer 

For Laboratory Work 

This Crusher is adapted for grinding any 
material, wet or dry, to any desired degree of fine- 
ness, ranging from 2'A" to 20-mesh and under. 

For laboratory work it is especially desirable. 
The hopper can be closed so that nothing will be 
lost and it is built exactly like the larger machine, 
with necessary changes for laboratory use. Small 
power required. Easily cleaned and always re- 
liable. Send for catalogue giving full information. 

c. o. 


Cleveland, Ohio 



January -. 1915 


Carbide Lamp 

For the Metal Mine 



No parts tan be lost or knocked off. Clogging is 
impossible. Ordinary care will keep it clean. It is 
the simplest thing imaginable to adjust the flame 
just right. And no matches are needed — it is self- 

These points are important to you because they 
mean that you can buy a practical, tool-proof lamp 
that will give you in full the savings and efficiencies 
of carbide lighting. Lamps for every mine condition. 

Write for Special Bulletins on 
Metal Mine Lighting. 


546 W. Van Buren St., Chicago, III. 


No. 105 


— Lamps for Every Metal Mine Requirement — 

20 Styles to Select From 

\o. 91 — "llnir Shift." 

4 '-_- hours "ii .in.- charge. No 
matches required. SI 

Mo clogging, 
dies tick attach m« nt. Si .50 

tSOm it:t — •• Vniifomiii Special." 

ni. ir tO NO !U. hul 

stronger, Cuius 5 hours. 
Hade wll h ca ndlesl Ick ai - 

I and steel hook. 

>-■ 00 - ach. 

No. s:t — "Arlxnnn Siieclnl." 

Bui ns 5 hours. Similar 
to No. :>■■'.. Has Fishtail 
burner giving strong, up- 
i tghi Same. Ball and 
swivel 1 1 « » i > k attachment. 

Xo. 105 — "Western Special." 

Burns S hours. Por super- 
Lntendents. engineers, In- 
spectors, etc. Same size as 
No. 83 witii large handle. 
12.00 each. 

\«. 50 — "J umbo." irs. Seamless alu- 

minum. Ma. i.- ! lonal long service 

An unusually enVi.-nt and durable lamp. 

Everlastingly At It 

Working dependably, day in, day out. Rarely 
if ever stopping for repairs. Increasing its 
cutting capacity with age. 

Wnoi i&nrk Srtll 




Vanadium makes the iron finer in grain 
and combines with the tungsten to make it 
much tougher. The result is a metal that 
cannot crystallize under vibration nor crack 
under hard usage. The fine grain assumes 
in use a silver-like surface that will not 
wear appreciably for many years nor cause 

This is one of the vital reasons why 
Wood Rock Drills keep "everlastingly at it" 
and give you the kind of service and results 
you want. Write for Catalog and details of 
our "guaranteed for life" policy. 

Waab Brill 
™ Works = 

30 Dale Ave., Pater son, N.J. 


Hammond Manufacturing Company. Portland. Ore. 

Fairbanks. Morse & Company. Spokmu- ami Srat!h\ Wash. 

■Joshua Hendy Iron Works, 75 Fremont St.. San Francisco. Ciil. 

The Chas. Songster Machinery Co.. 1022 Metropolitan Bldtj.. Vancouver. B. C. 

luntiur.N J. 1915 



More than 37,000 Steam and 
Electric Hoists Built and Used 


Built in Any Siie 

Built up to WOO H.P. 


is built upon perform- 
ance. For more than 
40 years the reputation 
of Lidgerwood Mfg. 
Company for producing 
high class hoists has 
been built up and main- 
tained by the perform- 
ance of the Company's 

Hoists for All Classes 
of Service 









On your next trip consider the advantages offered by this route 






686 Market Street, Palace Hotel, Phone Sutter 1651 Market Street Ferry Depot, Phone Kearny 4980 

1836 Broadway, Oakland, Phone Oakland 132 



January 2, 191-3 

Contractors' Locomotives 

Length of service, proportion of time 
ready fof use, and work performed 
determine the value of a locomotive. 

With these points in mind we have 
designed, and build our small locomo- 
tives to insure reliability and constant 
service. Only tested materials are 
used, and all wearing parts are made to templates and gauges. With this method 
all wearing parts are absolutely interchangeable on locomotives of the same size 
and design, and long delays waiting for duplicate parts are avoided. Duplicate 
parts are kept in stock for immediate shipment. 



McCormick Building, Chicago. Dominion Express Building, Montreal, Canada. 

Carl G. Borchert, Pioneer Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. A. Baldwin & Co., New Orleans, La. 

N. B. Livermore & Co., Los Angeles and San Francisco, California. 

Northwestern Equipment Company, Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Oregon. 



The machines listed below are guaranteed and offered at prices which will interest you 



-ft. Sullivan 2 -stage belt- 1 driven 

i ompressor i NEW) 
— 12"xl6" Giant compressor 
I0"xl2" Ingersol] compressor 

Nagle Corliss compressor 

In Sullivan Hy-Speed drills. 
In. Sullivan Hv-Speed drills 
—2 £ m. Victor drill. 

— Hardsocg Wonder hammei drills; 


mp mill. 850 lb. drop 

— 10 stamp mill, 1000 lb. drop 

— 5 stamp mill, 1000 lb. drop 

— 2 stamp mill. 1000 lb, drop 

—5- ft. Huntington, latest improved 

— 6-ft, Beers mill, almost new 


— No . Austin crusher, cmpl- 

— No Gates crusher, almost new 

— No. -' Dodgi crusher 
— -No :: I lodge crusher 


—15 i M'. Fairbanks-Morse gasoline 

—IE H.P. Union gasoline hoist 

1 — 10"xl4" double cyl.. single drum 

steam hoist 
1 — 8".\S" double cyl.. single drum 

steam hoist 
1 — B"x8" double cyl., single drum 

si-am hoist 


l-»-50 kw. Weslinghouse Generator, - 

phase, 220 volts, with switch - 

boat <\. 
1 — $0 lip. General Electric motor. 3 

phase, i I" volts. 
1 — 10 hp. Westinghouse motor, 3 phase. 

-1 10 vdlts. 
i — 7 Vj lip. Westinghouse motor. 3 

phase. 440 volts. 
i — 5 hp, General Electric motor, 2 

phase, 220 volts. 

3— 6-ft. Johnson concentrators 
2 — No. 4 Wilfley concentrators 


— ."-ft. standard Pelton wheel 
— 36" standard Pelton wheel 
— 36" inclosed case Pelton wheel 
— 36" inclosed ease Oakland whei I 

— 24" inclosed case Oakland w! I 

— 12" inclosed case Pelton wheel 


1 — 6" Cornish pump, complete with 

shaft and gearing 
1 — No. 9 Cameron sinking pump 

1 — No. 7 Cameron sinking pump 
Centrifugal. Power, and Steam Pumps 

in all sizes. 


1 — 60 hp. Union horizontal engine. 
1 — 50 hp 4 cylinder upright engine. 

10 NEW ENGINES from 2 to 18 hp. 


1 — 350 H.P Cross compound Corliss 
1—150 H.P. Atlas Corliss (NEW) 
1—100 H.P. Bates Corliss, complete 


1 — 150 H.P. B. & W. water tube boiler 
1 — 125 H.P. B. & W. water tube boiler 
1 — 60 H.P. fire box boiler 
1 — 35 H.P. flre box boiler 


1— 20"x24™ Hemly clean -up barrel 
2 — Challenge ore feeders 
40 sets new steel shoes and dies 
Pulleys. Shafting, and Belting. 



1112-1120 FOLSOM STREET 

irj -. l'T. 





I |J.|±|±|±I±|±|±I± 



"The Mills of the Gods Grind Slowly" 

but your production operations must proceed swiftly and smoothly it 
they are to proceed profitably. 

Wherefore, there's nothing more important to you than uniform 


^ "Perfect" Double Crimped Wire Colth ' 

delivers a screened product that requires no after treatment, permitting 
the work to go forward without that interruption. 

It's all in the way the wires are woven. 

More valuable screen information is contained in the 
Wire Cloth Book than has ever been gathered 
in any other single volume. Yours for the asking. 

The Ludlow- Say lor Wire Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

T|qt!t ^^l^^^ltltltltltl7ltltltl t!1?R: 


R 1 

iMMlwa»-5emr-Mor(iAW Co. 


Water Buckets 


Prevent Accident in case of 


Self-Filling and 

Self -Discharging Type 

We have designs for all sizes of these 
buckets, also Plain Cages with 1, 2 and 
3 decks. 


Descriptive catalogues on request. 


NEW YORK, Hudson Terminal 
DENVER, 611 Ideal Building 
MEXICO, D. F.. Apartado, 1220 



Januan 1. 1915 

j^ ^^P 


They have no rivets to rust or wear. 
Water preserves them and sulphur, 
mineral water and fumes will not cor- 
rode them. Our tanks have a patented feature which keeps them swelled 
tight. We have three factories close to Redwood or Douglas Fir, and give 
prompt attention to rush orders. <ff Our pipe can be laid in shallower ditches 
and is cheaper than steel. It rehires less labor and experience to lay in 
place than does metal pipe. Its carrying capacity is twenty per cent greater 
than cast iron pipe. 

"Wooden Pip": It* Hani AdvttDtaoea." goes into this subject in a readable way. 
B of the booklet mailed free. 

Pacific Tank and Pipe Co. 

Settling Tanks Complete 


AU\4 Marki-t Street 


•:= "iik street 

108 Equitable Rank Hd*. 




AillsWorlli A: Sons. Win ■'■] 

Alberger Pump * Con. 

AUIs-Chalmers Mfg. Co "> 

A merlcan Locomotive Co. . .44 
American Metal t'o.. Ltd.. .'26 
American Spiral Pipe Wks. 30 
American steel ,v- wire Co. .41 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 26 

Atlns Car <i Mfg. Co 2N 

Barb C us 

Bartl.-tl & Snow Co., C. 0..41 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. — 

Beer, Sondhelmer A Co 26 

make, Mofflt & Tonne. :> 

Braun Corporation, The....:';, 

Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co. 26 

Broderlck & Bascom Rope 
Co 4T 

Bucyrua Company is 

Buff & Buff Mfg. Co 37 

Bust h-Sulzer Bros. -Diesel 
ECnglne Co 30 

Cal. Perforated Screen Co 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks., 
A. S 35 

Cary Spring Works ::7 

Chalmers & Williams 28 

Colorado Iron Works Co. ..47 

Consolidated Mln. & Smelt- 
ing Co. of Canada. Ltd. .26 

Deleter Concentrator Co. .. SO 

Deane Steam Pump Co — 

IVmarest Co.. I >. D 29 

Demlng Co., The 33 

Denver Kir.- clay Co 33 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 
er CO 89 

Dewey, strong A Co 31 

Diamond Rubber Co., The.. — 
i 'i ruclble < 'o„ Joseph 33 


.tni.i, Machy. Co. . . . 8 
l 'i, Ponl Powder Co 38 

Bmplre Zinc Co 

Flory Mfg. Co., S :.".* 

Krenler & Sons 28 

General Electric Co 13 

U Filtration Co., Inc.. 40 
unldt Thermit Co.... — 

Goodrich Co.. The B. F — 

Grace & Co., W. R 33 

Gt. West. Smelting & Ref. 


Hallidie Machy. Co 31 

Hammond Iron Works 33 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co.. 28 
Harron, Rlckard & McCone. 

Back Cover 
Heald's School of Mines...:;:: 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua, y 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. .. .Bulletin 
International Smelting Co.. 26 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron. 27 
Jeanesvllle Iron W*orks.... — 
Johns-Manvllle Co., H. W..41 
Justrlte Mfg. Co 42 

Kelly Filter Press Co 27 

Kohlbusch, Herman, Sr 37 

Krogh Pump Co — 

I-aidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Co... — 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co 38 

Leitz Co., A 37 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A.29 


Lldgerwood Mfg. Co 4:: 

Lima Ldcomotlve Oorp 27 

Longyear Co., E .1 11 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co.. -.43 

Lufkln Hoi.- Co 37 

Lunkenhel r Co 39 

Marion Steam Shovel Co... — 

McKternan-Terry Drill Co.. 28 

McMaater, D. J 44 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 

Merrell Mfg. Co 29 

Merrick Scale Mfg. Co 40 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. — 

Minerals Sep. Am. Syn., Ltd. 28 

Moore Filter Co 27 

Movl. Bng. A; E'llilp. Co., 
K. H 27 

National Tube Co 2S 

New Jersey Zinc Co 30 

New York Engineering Co. 

10, 11 
Nordberg Mfg. Co 27 

Paeilie Gear & Tool Co.... 29 

Pacific Tank & Pip.- Co 46 

Painter Tramway Co. of San 
Francisco . .28 

Pelton Water Wheel Co 39 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine 
Co 29 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. — 

Prescott Steam Pump Co., 
Fred M 40 

Putman Boot A- shoe Co.... 29 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. 28 

Robins Conveying Belt Co. .28 

Koch ling's Sons Co.. John A.39 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chem- 
ical Co 33 

Sacr into Pipe Works.... — 

Salt Lake Hardware Co.... 37 
San Francisco Plating Wks — 

Seattle Machine Works 41 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co.. 26 

Send Concentrator Co 12 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co 39 

Snow Steam Pump Works.. — 
Southern Pacific Co it 

StOUt, V. A 2H 

Sullivan Machinery Co 7 

Taylor-Wharton Iron & steel 

CO 28 

Thompson Balance Co 31 

Traylor Engineering & Mfg. 


Troemner, Henry .... 



Union Construction Co 2S 

Union Iron Works Co — 

li s. Smelting, Refining & 

Mining Co -> 

I'. S. St.-el Products Co 41 

Vander Nalllen School. A... 23 

Vogclsteln & Co.. L 26 

Vulcan Iron Works 28 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 27 
Wedge Mechanical Furnace 

Co 6 

W r ellman-Seaver- Morgan Co.4 5 

Western Electric Co — 

W. •stern Pacific Railway. . .43 

Westlnghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

W 1 1,1 b.rg Bros 2''. 

Wiley & Sons. John — 

Wood Inill Works 42 

Yuba Construct ion Co 28 

I ill.") 

Ml\l\i, I'K! SS 






9*i .-O 



For Separating Sand from Slime, Washing Granular Products, 

Dewatering Concentrates, etc. 

Karh efforts bIwh.vh prodi 

complex means of accomplishing 
results. Simplicity is attained 
nni\ after experience baa taught 
ill. easj waj . The short cut, the 
simple wa.v, often brings with it a 
superiority in results. 

The AU ins classifier is the 
simple way. Look at 1 1 1 * - illus 
tration two bearings a Bimple 
rotarj motion. The illustration 
shows its extreme simplicity 
widespread use demonstrates its 

Colorado Iron Works Company, 

Denver, Colo. 

B. & B. Tramways 
Are More Than 
Just Tramways 

They are a wonderful combination of 
engineering brains and many years of 
invaluable experience. 

They run right because they're built 

The B. & B. Aerial Tramways are con- 
structed tn handle practically every kind 
of material under every possible working 
condition — up and down bills, across val- 
leys and rivers. 

Tin- rougher the country, the more 
economical do they invariably prove, in 
comparison with every kind of surface 
Write us today about the haulage con ditions at your plant. We'll then recom- 
mend the kind of B. & B. Tramway that will prove must economical for you, and 
furnish estimate of cost. This will not cost you a single cent, nojr jopligftte you in 
any way whatever. 

And remember this: B. & B. Tramways positively are not expensive. They cost 
not one cent more than just tramways — the ordinary, every-day kind that are made 
without B. & B. brains and experience. 

The sooner you write and get out Catalog No. ir., the 

can do for 

sooner you'll know what a B. & B. Trswiiway 


New York City 

San Prnnclweo — 72 Fremont St. 

General Offices: 805-809 N. Main St., St. Louis 

Seattle. Wash. 
\f» Orleans, 



anuary 1915 



Full details of 

in catalogue. 

Every part is 

Every part is made 
of very best 



Harron, Rickard & McCone 



Begin the New Year] RIGHT 

Resolve to quit cussing 

or better still, 

Specify M$c(& Machinery 

and remove the cause 

Mnzt $c (Sett ixxtb (Eomjratuj 


Conveying, Elevating, Screening and Mechan- 
ical Power Transmitting Machinery 



Gold Mining and Milling in the Southeastern Stales By W. R. Dodge, page 57 




In. I. 

Flotation Concentration 

The continuance of patent litigation by the pend- 
ing appeal to the Supreme Court has, according to the 
best legal advice, opened way for intervention on 
behalf of the Elmore Patents, which have not yet been 
represented in any proceedings in the United States. 

Users and intending users of Flotation Processes 
employing a small quantity of oil or violent agitation 
can be absolutely protected against litigation and de- 
mands for exorbitant royalties by adopting licenses 
under the Elmore Master Patents. Plants are working 
on a large seale in various parts of the world under 
such licenses. 

These pioneer patents and established users are 
of earlier date than the patents of any competitor. 

Elmore's English, Australian, and German Patents 
have already been pronounced by courts as valid and 
subsisting, and all the prolonged litigation in those 
countries has been initiated by the owners of the 
Elmore Patents. 

The Ore Concentration Company 
(1905) Limited 


MINING PRESS January 9, 1915 




They use a minimum of power. 
They require the least space. 
They are the least expensive to install. 
They are built in enough styles and arrangements 
that your work can be done perfectly and economically. 

The "eftjzgcc*? saves power over fans of the paddle 

wheel type because the design makes it possible for every 
bit of energy consumed to produce the maximum volume 
of air. 

Successful installations of "<$££££** fans are the best 

test. The Miami Copper Co. increased the efficiency of 
their miners about 35% — the same number of men getting 
one-third as much tonnage again as previously — saving 
also enough on compressors to not only run the fan but 
to pay for the fan in a short time. 

If you have bad air in your mine, let us tell you about 

The Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co. 


Jhiuimi'v 9, 1913 



(Grinding Mortars) 

Have found the range of every mining camp on earth. Experience has 
taught'us how to build them and they never fail to reach their target. 

Let us know the nature of your object, whether coarse or fine grind- 
ing, and we will give you the range and adjust your sights. We have had 
thirty years' experience behind the metallurgical gun. Our experience is at 
your disposal without obligation on your part. 




For Ball and Pebble Mills 


Local Sales Agent: 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co. 

Denver, Colo. 

Cable Address: 

Halharding, New York 

London Office: 

Salisbury House 


Established May B4, I860, as The Sclent Me Press; nam? i 
Octobi &r to Mining nml sdeutlnc PrcNM: shoi 

iary 2, 1916, to Mining Press. Controlled by T. A. Rlckartf. 
Published weekly at 120 ttarke! street, San E • The Dewey 

Publishing Co., H. Foster Bain, manager. Entered at the San Pran< 
Post-office as second-class matter. Cable address, ivrtusola. 

Branch Offices — C Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1308-10 Wool- 

worth Bdg.; London. The Mining Magazine, Salisbury Bouse, E. C, I 
10 cents I Annual subscription: United States and 

Mexico, $3; Canada. $4; nthe* countries In postal union, jjjls., or $5. 

Vol. 110 

San Francisco, January 9, 1915 

No. 2 



Notes .":: 

Pyrite Smelting 53 

Banding in Ore Deposits 55 

Adirondack Gold Deposits Again 55 



iui -ruii n a. Qoodell '. 57 

The story of the Industrial V. M. C. A. at Kellogg. 
Idaho. This now occupies a two-story, with 
nient. building, affording reading, recreation, game, 
and lodge rooms, with gymnasium, swimming pool. 
howling alley, and other features. A Horary and 
classes are maintained, and large use is made of the 
chili. II is supiiorted in part by membership fees and 
in part by contributions from the B. H. & S. H. & C. 
Co., and is felt hy the manager. Stanly Kaston, to 
have fully justified the support given it hy the Com- 
pany. Mr. Goodell. who writes the article, is an ex- 
petienced V. M. C. A. worker. 

Gold Mining ami Sinn™ in the Southeastern States. 

h ii if. R. Dodge 59 

The oldest goldfield in the United States is extensive. 
and in the opinion oi Mr. Dodge, a metallurgical 
ineer resident within it. worthy of reinvestigation. 
Placers and win weathered rock, 'eaprolite,' 

iresent, and in them fine gold occurs. The mate- 
rial has been worked by hydraulicking. followed in 
places by stamp-milling and cyanldatlon, concentra- 
tion, or chlorination. 

Mineral Productiok of i hi Dutch East Indies 62 

HuiNiNt Kim: Lake m Cobalt, Ontario. 

By Br n Hughes 63 

Pumping the water out of Kerr lake began August 
-V 1918, and proved much easier than cleaning the 
mud oft the bottom after the water was gone. This 
work is now under way, hydraulic giants mounted 
on a scow, with suitable pumping arrangements, be- 
mployed. Eight acres is yet to be cleared. The 
Ken Lake and Crown Reserve companies will be able, 
when the work is completed, to mine from the sin 
the unexhausted rich upper parts of the veins worked 

The Oeioin op the Dolomites. 

Hi/ Francis M. Tin, Tuyl 64 

Results of studies in Iowa that lead to the belief that 
dolomites are formed from limestone by replacement, 
before the beds emerge from the sea. 

Rhythmii Prectwtatios im Ferrous Ferri-Cyanihe ami 
Ferrous Hydroxide in Jelly. 

By ll. •/. .u. Oreighton 65 

Experiments with silver nitrate solution on gelatin 
show that in colloids, deposition from solution under 
the influence of electric current! is rhythmic and pro- 
ducea structures similar to the banding in veins. See 
also Editorial and Discussion departments. 

Pbospectino Wei Plaoeb Ghoi nd B| Sinn Sinking. 

/>'» Hour,],] steel 66 

Contrary to general opinion, it is possible to sample 
wet placer ground by shafts, if the work be carefully 
done and the methods adapted to ii. Mr. Steel de- 

scribes a caisson sinking method that he has em- 
ployed, giving full details and sketches as well as 
results of a test. An article to cut out and paste in 
your notebook. 

Preservation of Timber in Miniko 

By F. K. I!. Moll 68 

Mr. Moll, who as it happens is now serving in the 
German army, reviews the needs and methods of 
wood preservation as applied to mine timbers. He 
points out that the brush and open tank methods have 
already been proved to be defective, and describes 
the methods of impregnation that have been brought 
to success in Germany and Austria. This article 
was prepared before the war as a result of Mr. Moll's 
studies of American conditions and needs, and is de- 
signed to prevent repetition of old mistakes. 

Improvements at the Trail Smelter, Bbitish Columbia. . 74 
The Consolidated M. & S. Co. spent $4S2,000 in im- 
provements in the year that ended September 30 last. 
The lead and copper plants were extensively over- 
hauled. Two Wedge furnaces and a Cottrell precipi- 
tating plant were added. 

Chemical Problems in Germany 75 

The war has made a shortage of gasoline, rubber. 
nitre, and jute among other important materials. For 
the first, alcohol and benzol are being used. By com- 
bining acetone and benzol products with caoutchouc 
aerated from scrap rubber, a substitute is made, 
hi synthetic rubber is being sought. Substitutes for 
saltpeter for many uses are possible, but the shortage 
is severe. Cellulose is used in place of jute. 


In- i -~iun : 

Shall the Institute Express Opinions? 

Report of Institute committee, n;i</ argument 

by F. Lynwood Garrison 76 

Rhythmic Precipitation and Colloidal Ores. 

By J. F. Kemp 7s 

See article on p. 65 and editorial on 'Banding in 
Ore Deposits.' 

Lead Wool in Cyanidation. By Arthur Feus' 79 

Report on a simple method of getting the lead- 
zinc couple in the precipitation circuit. 
Lake Superior Copper Mining. By Homer A. Guek . . 79 
Notes on a mass of copper now being mined 
which is ■; to 8 in. thick. 40 ft. wide, and ex- 
tends from above the 25th to the 27th level in 
the Triniouutain mine. 
Shoveling Machines at Flat River. 

By Willi,,,,, Whaley 79 

Con, entrates 80 

Review of .Minim.: Special correspondence from Joplin. 
Missouri. New York: Washington, D. C: Boston: 

Toronto. Ontario 81 

The Minim. SUMMARY 84 


Schools and Societies' 87 

The Market Pi-ace: 

Metal Prices 88 

Mineral Produotiok in 1914 89 

IT. S. Geological Survey preliminary estimates for coal, 
lead, copper, portland cement, and the mineral out- 
puts of Utah. Nevada. Montana, and Arizona. 

Quicksilver is 1914. By Clifford Dennis 91 

.I.iim.uv D, 1915 


11 FOSTER MAIN .... Managing i 
THOMAS T READ Nan \^rk Bdltoi 

i: 11 LESLIE U \\ von BBWEWRk Ban Pi 

g u ■ HOPPER, Rouchton, Ktan . a»«i M 
T a RICKARD, London - • BdUorlaJ Contributor 
HOW AltO WALKER, London - - • Corrwpondant 

BPl OIAJ OOK 1 1:1111 Hilts: 

A u Allen. ChmrlM Janin 

1 s. Auailn. Junu r. Kamp. 

10 CutlDL i It. Morloy 

I •■■ Kalb. C W. PurlnnTton 

rlaon. C F. Tolman. Jr. 
Korku v WlnohalL 

rpBMPORARILY, at least, th<- new Arizona law re- 
•*■ quiring ilmt 1 it >t more than 20 per cent nf the labor 
employed by one prison or concern shall be alien, will 
not be enforced, an injunction having been granted by 
the United States courl pending a test of its constitu- 

JOPLIN mini's closed 1914 with prices at $50 to $52 
per ton, as against $37 to $40 the year before. The 
war abroad lias stimulated the American zinc industry, 
and the producers are enjoying another of the periods 
of prosperity that fortunately come between the equally 
characteristic periods of depression in zinc mining. 

GOLD production in the United States in 1914 is csti- 
mated by the Director "t' the Mint, to have amounted 
to 4,490,336 fine ounces, equivalent to $92,823,500, an 
increase of 190.532 ounces, or $3,939,100, over the output 
for 1913. California ranked first with 1,037,537 fine 
ounces; Colorado was second with 961,748; and Alaska 
third with 766.7"44. In silver. Nevada led with 14,814,- 
200 fine ounces, [daho was second with 12,689,500, Utah 
third with 11^397,000, and the total was 67,929,700. The 
ci rresponding figures for 1913 were: Nevada. 16,090,083; 
Idaho. 9,989,193; Utah, 13,084,835; total, 66,801,500. 

ARMOR PLATE manufacture by the government, as 
proposed by Congress, was discussed at some length 
in our editorial columns about a year ago. A special 
committee, consisting of Messrs. B. R. Tillman, and L. 
P. Padgett, respectively chairmen of the Senate and 
House Committees on Naval Affairs, and Rear-Admiral 
.Joseph Straus, has now been appointed to make a thor- 
ough investigation of the feasibility of the project as 
a national investment. As about fifty cities are already 
making an effort to have themselves recognized as the 
most desirable site for the proposed plant, there is a 
probability that other arguments than those founded on 
business principles will be forced upon the attention 
of the committee. 

THE report by a political commission, composed of 
the State Veterinarian, the Secretary of the State 
Board of Health, and the State Horticultural Commis- 
sioner of California, stating that serious damage is done 
to farming lands in the vicinity of the Mammoth smel- 
ter in Shasta county and the Penn smelter in Calaveras 
county, will not carry great weight with technical men. 

though it may be seriously considered in political circles. 
Tins commission did not report upon the Selby smelter, 

though intimating that it. probably, is also a source of 

damage, It. therefore, 'Iocs not come into direct conflict 
with the findings of the Selby Smelter Commission which 

we recently su larizcd. We believe thai the Selby com 

mission got at the real facts. We are sure that Its mem- 
bers investigated 1 1n- question more thoroughly than 

any other commission, and it had the great advantage of 

being composed of technical men selected by agreement 
of both agriculturists and smelters. The state Commis- 
sion illustrates an excellent way 'not to do it.' 

T?XPKKss companies, we are pleased to note, have 
*-* not all ceased to operate as a result of the estab- 
lishment of the Parcel Post. Delighted as we are at the 
success of that, the most recent venture of the United 

States government into business, we have now a special 
cause' for gratitude that the Wells Fargo continues to 
bring down the products of the mountain countries. With 
the assistance of that Company, Mr. Arthur Gibson sent 

Ih litorial staff, from Sonora. a box of apples fully 

equal to any we remember in our early boyhood. No 
country subscriber has yet paid us in the proverbial 
cabbage, but between Parcel Post and Wells Fargo we 
have hopes. 


Early in December. Mr. Robert Sticht gave a talk on 
this subject before the New York section of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining Engineers. His address, a valu- 
able contribution to the literature of the development of 
the art. was notable in many ways, especially for the 
modesty and frankness with which Mr. Sticht described 
his own work. According to his analysis the essential 
factors which led to the success attained in his develop- 
ment of pyrite smelting at Mount Lyell were the fact 
that the ore there was well suited to the process, and the 
high regard in which American engineers are held in 
Tasmania, which led to his being given a free hand to 
carry out his ideas. As Mr. Sticht aptly remarks, it is 
much easier to find a process to suit an ore than it is to 
find an ore to suit a process; nevertheless there can he 
little doubt that the scientific imagination and practi- 
cal ability of Mr. Sticht were larger factors in the suc- 
cess attained than he himself is willing to admit. His 



Januan 9, 1915 

remarks on the occasion referred t" were so full of dry 
humor and keen common .sense that our readers will 
doubtless be grateful for a brief summary of the points 

When Mr. Stiehl went oul to Mount Lyell in 1895 be 
had had some experience with attempts ;ii pyrite smelt- 
ing, for brief periods, in Colorado, and therefore had 
some foreshadowings of what might be done. lie was 
singlehanded and the property Was just beginning to be 
developed, &6 there we're all the usual pioneer difficulties, 
■ pecially in transportation, and it was necessary to 
pioneer in coke-making as well as to develop copper 
smelting. He was fortunate in having only two sub- 
stances to deal with; a pure pyrite free from zinc and 
lead, and a silicons ore containing 70 per cent free 
silica, the .joint alumina content being .satisfactorily low. 
This material all came to tin- furnaces in coarse form, not 
over ten per cenl of it being finer than half inch. The 
furnaces built wen- not large, according to present stand- 
ards. Those now in use arc .">-)■ inches wide and IS feel 

lone:, and the lirs! fumi s were 36 inches by 10% feet. 

The height of the smelting column has been increased 
until it is now 18 feet as a maximum. The early slags 
were very silieious. the charge eonsisting of two parts of 
pyrite to one of silieious ore. Now. from 1.7 to 1.3 pails 
of pyrite are used to one id' silieious ore. The matte first 
made required resmelting. At first a hot blast was used, 
but Mr. Sticht soon perceived that if enough air were 
provided to oxidize the iron it would furnish its own 
heat, and additional blowing capacity was provided. 
The open, coarse charge permitted free passage of the 
air, and by blowing 20,000 cubic feet per minute it was 
not difficult thoroughly to oxidize the iron, with the re- 
sultant production of a good slag, enough heat to keep 
the furnace going, and a matte of the desired grade. 
While it was found entirely possible to run the furnaces 
at Mount Lyell without any coke on the charge, this was 
not the practice, since it imposed a degree of strained 
attention on the metallurgist which is beyond the limits 
of human capacity. In other words, they had at Mount 
Lyell the same experience metallurgists have had else- 
where: namely, that while it is quite possible to smelt 
without coke, it is better economy to use it. According 
to Mr. Sticht, they formerly used 1.1 per cent coke; now 
tiny use 3.5 to even 5 per cent; the silieious material 
which is now being used not containing so much free 
silica as that formerly used. As Mr. Sticht phrased it. 
it is cheaper to burn up coke than to burn out the metal- 
lurgist and his staff. 

The importance of the absence of fine ore on the charge 
was emphasized by the other metallurgists present. Mi- 
ll. A. Prosser related that when the smelter at Mam- 
moth, California, was started, limited crushing facilities 
made it necessary to feed the furnace with lumps a foot 
in diameter, and experience showed that this coarse ma- 
terial was not a detriment, as had been expected. Speak- 
ing of the new smelting plant at Anyox. Mr. George A. 
Guess related that through a failure of the crushing 
plant it was necessary to feed the furnaces with lumps 

as large as a suitcase, no detriment resulting. As the 
charge here contained 20 to 30 per cent of tine or,- it is 
quite possible that, as suggested by .Mr. Prosser, the 
breakdown of the crushing plant was a blessing in dis- 
guise. The early difficulties experienced al Anyox were 
overcome chiefly by making it possible to get more air 
through the furnace: for. as pointed out by Mr. Lewis 
T. Wright iminy years ago. the essential requisite for suc- 
cess in pyrite smelting is to maintain a sufficiently rapid 
rate of smelting. Mr. R. L. Lloyd made ih,' point in the 
discussion that an ore which came to the furnace in 
lumps might still yield 'fines' in smelting, since some 
sulphides decrepitate on heating. Mr. <iuess confirmed 
this, relating an experience in which a consignment of 
sulphide ore completely decrepitated into sand inside the 
furnace, tremendously increasing the resistance to the 

A point which did not chance to attract much atten- 
tion in the discussion, but which is exceedingly impor- 
tant, is that as compared to an ordinary furnace a pyrite 
furnace is like a runaway horse compared to old Dobbin. 
The pyrite furnace must be given its head: it indicates 
the conditions under which it will run, and must be 
allowed to have its own way. If enough iron and sulphur 
are present to yield the heat required and the charge is 
sufficiently porous so enough air can be blown through to 
generate the heat rapidly enough, the pyrite furnace will 
generally run without too much difficulty. The presence 
of alumina in the charge introduces a difficulty, for the 
reaction when it unites with the silica is endothermic. 
Worst of all is the joint presence of alumina and mag 
nesia. since these may unite in the slag to form the spinel 
molecule, which is almost infusible at blast-furnace tem- 
peratures. It is surprising what profound effects appar- 
ently minor differences make in this regard. At one of 
the Russian copper smelters a barren quartz containing 
!>6 per cent SiO., is hauled some miles for use in the fur- 
nace. Several times during the absence of the consult- 
ing engineer. Mr. W. G. Perkins, the local managers have 
tried to economize by using an equally good looking rock. 
containing 89 per cent SiO*, which occurs near the fur- 
nace. Always capacity fell and cok osumption rose. 

and when inquiries came from the London office, the 
superintendent has had to admit that the substitution 
had been made. Perhaps the most striking example of 
the necessity for favorable chemical conditions in the 
charge is the smelter at Copper Cliff. Ontario, where an 
ore which is high enough in sulphur and iron to smelt 
pyritically has defied the persistent efforts of some of the 
best metallurgists of the day to make it run pyritically. 
The situation at this plant is such a puzzling one that we 
shall reserve its detailed discussion for a subsequent 
editorial. For the present we may conclude by empha- 
sizing the chief point made by Mr. Sticht ; namely, that 
the first essential for success in pyrite smelting is to have 
an ore which is suited to the process: and by reiterating 
our own point, that the physical character of this charge 
must, be such as to permit blowing sufficient air through 
it to smelt at the speed which must be maintained. 

i rv 9, 1915 


/; WDlXa l\ OHE M 

Banded structure* so commonl) observed in veins, 
hart alwa) i ' ■ en u 

long .ik'" l'"- piy di •■ isi i the term 'crustiflcation' to tie- 

aoribe such structures, which be rightl) i lidered an 

infallible indication of deposition from solutiou. The 
term reflected tlie general view of geologists, I hen and 
siw-f. thai such structures must necessarily have bean 
produoed bj variations in the composition in the solU" 
nous traversing the fiaann ition having deposited 

a 'crust' of .1 given composition, only to be succeeded 
bj a solution of different composition which deposited a 
■.•rust' of markedly diflferenl character. Titers are Be\ 
i-ral difficulties involved in thia explanation. The transi- 

tion bom 01 rual to another is usually distinct and 

abrupt, but it is hard to imagine how similarl) abrupt 
changes could take place in the composition of the solu- 
tions, for even if one source of supply were Buddenly shut 
off mill another took its place it must be expected thai a 
certain amount of mixing would take place while the 
first solution was being expelled by the second, and there* 
fore a transition layer should occur, More difficult to 
explain is the alternation of hands, for which a rhythmic 
alternation of solutions must be presupposed, an assump- 
tion that severely taxes our credulity. Thus in the veins 
of the Reese River district Of Nevada well developed 
hands of -ruby silver ores occur alternating with hands 
of quartz. It is decidedly hard to comprehend how solu- 
tions carrying the silver minerals in solution can have 
been caused to alternate with solutions carrying only 

The tremendous amount of work which has been done 
on colloids of recent years lias gradually led up to an- 
other and more plausible explanation. The nature of 
this is clearly indicated hy the hrief article by Mr. 
H. J. M. Creighton, published elsewhere in this issue, in 
which is described a simple experiment by which alter- 
nating hands of precipitates are produced in colloidal 
substances by rhythmic precipitation under the influence 
of an electric current. The colloidal character of freshly 
precipitated Si0 2 is well known. Assuming a vein tilled 
with such a colloidal mass, containing small quantities of 
other substances, it is not difficult to imagine that the 
combined effect of the ground-water circulation and ter- 
restrial currents would produce alternating bands of 
precipitated minerals and barren quartz. In addition 
to overcoming the difficulties already mentioned, another 
not referred to at once disappears. According to the 
theory of crustifieation two bands, one on each side of 
the supposedly open fissure, are produced, and the vein 
must necessarily exhibit an even number of bands. But 
this is not always the case, and no very plausible explana- 
tion has been offered. The suggested method renders 
any explanation unnecessary, since the bands would 
then be produced one at a time. If the new theory is a 
valid one, it is no longer necessary to assume the long 
persistence of open fissures to great depth, since a fissure 
might be filled with colloid Si0 5 in a brief space of time. 

while uciit conversion into a banded rein might 

. long pei i' 

Not the I, 

!-■.. rgi nl views ol thi onista' 

■nd 'lateral seen t | filling ol 

might be brought about bj the Forcing in from below, 
pa under considerable pr e ssure, and in a semi con 
Holidated Mate, ol colloid SiO winch may be regarded as 

the final liquidout phase ,,f ti„- conaolidal 

igneous magma Hut handing whenever found, is 

monl*i parallel to the axis of the fissure, and therefore 
must he the result of the action ol a solution, presumably 
the circulating ground-water attempting to cross the 

vein from on,- side to Hie olber. Slid, a theory of hand 
ing is in many ways a suggestive one, and seems well 

worth the attention and iiis.-ussi r geologists. A 

'-' I deal of »ork has already been ,1 along these 

lines. .More than twenty years ago Mr. 0. P. Becker 
suggested that the wall rocks of veins might act as semi- 
permeable membranes Not long after Mr. K. B. Lriese 
gang discovered the effect of placing a drop of silver 
nitrate solution on a layer of gelatin, referred to by Mr. 
Creighton, and out of the suggestive line of thought thus 

evoked has grown the work of such investigations as 
Messrs. Batschek and Simon, anil .Morse and Pierce. 
The matter was disciisscl at some length hy .Mr. lacs.- 
giing in his volume ( leologische Diffusionen' published 
last year, hut it seems to have attracted comparatively 
little attention in this country, much less than its appar- 
ent importance would seem to deserve. 


In his study of the French Revolution. Thomas t'ar- 
lyle frequently repeats the assertion that anything 
which is not founded on truth cannot long prevail. The 
belief is a comforting one, but unfortunately experi- 
ence in the field of mining seems to indicate that this 
rule, as many others, is subject to exceptions. The 
delusions that gold can be profitably extracted from sea 
water, and that it exists in ores in forms in which it 
cannot be detected by ordinary fire assay, have, for ex- 
ample, shown a vitality which is quite out of keeping 
wilh their lack of fundamental truth, and survive re- 
peated demonstrations of their fallacy. A less well 
known but equally hardy belief is that the sand and 
gravel deposits of the Adirondack region of New York 
state are rich in gold and precious metals; one which, 
in spite of repeated demonstrations to the contrary, is 
still able to inspire hopeful investors with dreams of 
fortunes to be won. 

Around the border of the Adirondack region of New 
York state, in Saratoga, Warren, Essex, Herkimer. 
Lewis, and Fulton counties, a vast sand plain occurs. 
About 1880, William T. Bullis. of Glens Falls. New 
York, became convinced that he had discovered gold in 
the sands of that region, and devoted the rest of his 
life to fruitless schemes for recovering, by barrel amal- 
gamation, gold which could not be detected by fire assays. 



January 9, 1915 

About the same time Mr. C. I'. Bellows, a deutal prac- 
titioner of Qloverville, become interested in the sand 
deposits, and has since remained the chief factor in 
maintaining a belief in their value. The discovery of 
the rich gold deposits of the Klondike region save a 
tremendous impetus to faith in the richness of these 
sands, and during 1898 over 4000 claims were filed with 
the proper state authorities. 

Much the most ambitious attempt to recover gold from 
the sand was that by J. K. Sutphen, who, about the 
same time, devised a secret process and built a mill 
for the purpose on the Saeandaga river, near Hadley, 
Saratoga county. After treatment with a mysterious 
chemical mixture, the sand was ground in amalgamat- 
ing barrels and was claimed to yield $7.50 per ton. This 
mill was described in some detail by Mr. J. Nelson 
Xevius in the report of the New York State Museum 
for 1898. Mr. Nevius* samples of the sand heing treated 
by the mill gave no more than a trace of gold. Careful 
tests made on the Adirondack material by such compe- 
tent firms as Ledous & Co. showed conclusively that 
the amounts of gold present do not exceed the traces 
which can be found in many roeks. nor is there any pos- 
sibility of the presence of mysterious substances which 
prevent the recovery of the gold in an ordinary fire 
assay. In September 1910 Mr. D. H. Newland, assistant 
state geologist of New York, published the following 

"Without indulging in criticism of the good faith of 

those who have been at work on the Adir lack sands. 

we are unable to find in the notices of the press or in 
any literature which lias been circulated for the pur- 
pose of informing the public as to their claims, any 
satisfactory explanation of the processes employed for 

l oven- of the gold which would account for the wide 

variance between their reported results and those ob- 
tained by the usual assay methods. We have been in- 
formed recently on creditable authority that in the so- 
called 'Sutphen' process, which was extensively adver- 
tised about l 11 years ago. the methods consisted briefly 

of pulverizing the sand and amalgamating it after treat- 
ment With a hot sodium carbonate solution. It was 
stated that the gold had a silicious coating which neces- 
sitated fine grinding and chemical treatment before 
amalgamation was effective. Even if that were true. 
there is no reason why the gold should not lie set free 
by fire assay. On the other hand, tile claim that the 
gold exists iii volatile state, something entirely new 
to chemical science, seems to he met and controverted 
by the recent assays. The economic record of past en- 
terprise in this field is certainly not reassuring to those 
intent on new ventures. Though it is impossible to 
give an accurate estimate of the outlay of capital rep- 
resented by previous experiments, the total must amount 
to several hundred thousand dollars. An idea of the 
wide interest which the early, enterprises aroused may 
be gained from the official records which show that over 
4000 claims to gold and silver discoveries, mainly with- 
in the Adirondacks, were filed in the year 1898. We 

know of no instance where the public has received any 
financial return for its investment." 

It might In- supposed that the belief in the value of 
the Adirondack sands would have been given its quietus 
by these disclosures, but such was not the case. The 
Wavcrly Redaction Company, which held some 2000 
acres in franklin county, and of which A. E. Copp, of 
Boston, was president, continued its activities in at- 
tempting to recover the "immature' gold of the sand. 
E. ('. Jordan and <i. K. Thurber were authors of 
schemes for this purpose, and shares in the Company 
w.rc being marketed by the Union Securities Company 
of Hartford. Connecticut, until the publicity given it 
by the New York Sun early in 1912 blighted its career. 
A mill built at Lowville. New York, by N. S. Keith, 
of Philadelphia, which was claimed to recover an aver- 
age of over $2 per ton of sand, was subjected to a test 
run by two competent mining engineers. Messrs. John 
T. Roberts, Jr.. and W. 6. Barney, and yielded less 
than •"> cents per ton. In spite of all these fiascos, the 
faith of Mr. Bellows continues unwavering, and he has 

Mid- led iii selling tracts of land to credulous investors 

in many of the eastern states, hut especially to resi- 
dents of Philadelphia. Messrs. E. H. Godshalk and 
Edward W. Pattan, of that city, have each recently 
built mills on the tracts which they have purchased, 
and George P. Brock and C. J. Rothermel have pur- 
chased a 150-acre tract. F. S. Lewis, formerly presi- 
dent of the Lake Superior Corporation, an enterprise 
likely to be long remembered in Philadelphia, has like- 
n isc been active in these ventures, and the claim that 
recent results show that the sands contain $5 per ton 
in gold and platinum rests on the authority of John 
Ogden. who was formerly as assayer of Denver. So 
many Philadelphia people have become involved in these 
Adirondack schemes, in one way or another, that to men- 
lion them all by name would he tedious. 

So long as these people are risking only their own 
money and most of them are making no appeal to the 
public i in ventures which offer no chance for success. 
it might seem that it is no concern of the mining pro- 
fession. Such is not the case, however. Every mining 
fiasco, based on groundless hope and engineered by men 
without mining knowledge and experience, reflects on 
legitimate mining, from which the general public is un- 
able to distinguish it. Each year it becomes more diffi- 
cult to find men willing to risk money in intelligent 
and well directed prospecting, which must precede de- 
velopment work. The East is the great centre for cap- 
ital ; over three-quarters of the income tax receipts 
for the entire United States is from New York and 
Pennsylvania. Mining misadventures such as these, oc- 
curring close at home, inevitably act as a deterrent to 
the furnishing of capital for prospecting and develop- 
ing mines in the western states, where the deposits 
actually exist. It is to the disadvantage of the mining 
profession as a whole that belief persists in such base- 
less schemes, and engineers owe it to themselves to en- 
deavor in every way possible to publish the truth. "'. 1913 


Friemidllniniess v. Fricftnoira aft ftftn© Eunmilker Hill & SdULwauni 

H. JOHK 4. COOOfll 

•Tin on* element tlmi modern business ''111111111 reduce 
in mathematical formulas and stereotyped ralea of effi- 
ciency is the human. It deBm mathematical regulation, 
is always developing an unknown quantity to !»■ reck- 
oned with, and it refuses to '< e out even,' in a >rd 

times of induatrial war in the Coeur d'Alenea After 
the smoke of that conflict cleared, the officers of the 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining ft C ntrating Co. 

Bettled down to Bome hard thinking, and, as we all 
know, a little thinking goes farther than a great deal 


ance with mechanical standards which work so smoothly 
on the inanimate equipment of a big business plant. This 
was demonstrated back in 1903 by the dark and stormy 

•Previous articles in this series are: 'Big Returns on an In- 
vestment.' by Fred H. Rindge, Jr., November V; 'Welfare 
Work Among Mine Workers,' by L. F. S. Holland. November 
14; and Safety Work at Calumet & Hecla. 'Looking Forward,' 
December 19. 

of fighting, hi this case the thinking resulted in full 
recognition of the human element. The men were en- 
couraged to organize a club of their own in the nearest 
town, Kellogg, Idaho. Meantime, R. D. Handy had been 
away at the Company's smelter and became acquainted 
with the work of the Industrial Y. M. C. A. He came 
back with a story of the friendly reception he had met 
from the secretary, and of the good fellowship that bad 



January 9, 1915 


resulted. It struck Stanly Easton, the capable and 
cordial manager al the mines, thai perhaps here was 
the very thing he was looking for. and he promptly 
began an investigation of the Industrial Y. M. C. A. 
The- result »ms that an organizing secretary visited him 
and mi agreement was reached wherein- the Company 
began the erection of a building costing $35,000 to be 

the home Of the Kellogg Industrial Y. M. C. A. The 

building is now finished. Its arrangement and uses are 

indicated by the floor plans illustrated. The activities 
it shelters mean an almost unbelievable amount of good. 

not to the men of the Company alone, hut to the entire 

community. It houses the labor organization, tn the 
basement are double howling alleys, in constant use. 

the women having possession two afternoons a week. 

There is a billiard room of five tables. In the basement 

also, are a large locker room and the swimming pool. 
On the main floor are reading rooms, class rooms, a 
public library, and offices. A well equipped gymnasium 
occupies about half the floor space here. The accom- 
panying illustrations give glimpses of the work. 

The financing of all these activities is an important 
consideration. It is on the basis of mutuality. The 
Company contributes heat, light, and $1500 yearly in 
cash, ami also donates the rent for tin- second story. 
which is occupied by the labor organization. This 
amounts to something over $:'75. and is set aside by the 
secretary of the association for the upkeep of the library 
and the purchase of new hooks. What the men pay is 
in the form of memberships, as in any club. 

Statistics for the year 1913 show that books taken 
from the library in eight months (there are about 7000 
volumes to choose from i amounted to 4118; attendance 
at educational classes was 1598; letters written. 10.460; 
attendance at gymnasium classes. 5044: baths taken. 
:2:!.:!47 ; number of games used. 16.812. Of course, an 
organization of men without baseball is not possible in 
the United States, so the Kellogg Industrial Y. M. C. A. 
has the 'Twilight Baseball League/ consisting of eight 
teams, which played last year to an attendance of 10,125. 

Social events are of frequent occurrence. Among them 
bowling tournaments are popular, usually closing with 
a banquet and the awarding of prizes. Then there is 
the annual 'Open House' pf the association, at which 

ear, as an interested guest of his employees was 
I-'. W. Bradley, of San Francisco. 

'flu- active man in the enterprise is J. E. Sturdevant, 
secretary. His duties are manifold and beyond tlic pos- 
sibility of exact specification. Generally apeaking, they 



a l 






Coa/ *nS 

' mr 

■Sw/mfruny Poof 



embrace the task of being a friend to every man in 
the community. 

It cannot be emphasized too strongly that this centre 
is not for the men of the association alone, but for 
every man. woman, and child in the community. After 
four years' experience with the Industrial Y. M. C. A.. 
Mr. Easton. who has been a thoughtful and active friend 
of the work from the first, says: "The institution has 
made good in every sense of the word, and we feel that 
our support of it has been fully justified by the direct 
and indirect results secured." 

Jannan B, 1915 



Gold! Maimiiing smd MulMirag in ftltae Sonnftlaeaisftemni Sftaftes 

8. W. R. DODGE 

lii ili.- present daj search for new Belda in gold inin 

ing, attention could well be directed in the southern 

Appalachian region in 1 1 > « - states of North Carolina, 
South ' arolina, Georgia, and Alahamn. 

Tins is the oldest gold mining territory bo the United 
states gold having been diaoovered in the earlj pari of 
1800 i onaiderable activity was shown here in the early 
thirties anil forties when i his, region supported a mining 
population of 15,000 to 20,000 with a production of 
|1,000,000 per nimum. There were then United States 
mints ni Dahlonega, G ipa, and New Orleans, Louisi- 
ana^ Later a United States assay office was established 
at Charlotte, North Carolina The California gold ex* 
oite m in 1849 caused the emigration of the major por- 
tion of these miners, who introduced the rocker, long- 
iiiin. riffled sluices, much hydraulic equipment, and prob- 
ably the stamp-mill into that state. These old southern 
miners gave the first impulse to gold mining in Cali- 
fornia. The Civil War caused almost complete cessation 
nt" mining in the South: the production since then has 
been hut a fraction of that previous to the war. 

Gold mining in the South has never enjoyed the sys- 
tematic development or persistent effort which has char- 
acterized other parts of the United. States, the reason 
for this being that when gold was first discovered the 
country was already a closely settled farming community 
and the planters looked askance at mining and were 
much adverse to having their plantations over-run by 
prospectors or torn up by the surface mining of that 
time. Those, then, who did engage in mining devoted a 
part of their efforts to farming and a part to mining on 
their own tracts. This in part is also the condition at 
the present time. 

The Gold-Bearing Areas 

The gold-bearing rocks are largely crystalline schists 
which extend over a wide area from Montgomery. Ala- 
bama, to Washington, D. C. This includes the whole 
western half of North Carolina ; the northwestern half of 
South Carolina; the northern half of Georgia, and a 
triangular district in eastern Alabama containing the 
counties Cleburne. Randolph, Talladega, Clay, Talla- 
poosa. Chambers, Coosa, Elmore, and Chilton, some 3500 
square miles. This area has been divided into belts, the 
most important ones being as follows: the Carolina belt; 
the Georgia belt ; the Alabama belt. The Carolina belt is 
the most extensive. It extends from the south boundary 
line of Virginia in a southwest direction across the cen- 
tral part of North Carolina into the northern part of 
South Carolina, where it sinks below the Coastal Plain, 
making its reappearance in Abbeville county, South 
Carolina, and in Wilkes, McDuffie, and adjacent counties 
in Georgia near Augusta. Its width is from 8 to 50 miles. 
The Georgia belt begins in Rabun and Habersham 

counties, in the northeastern pari of the state, m 
i.ii. K southwest through Dahlonega to the Alabama lim 

near Tallapoosa. Georgia, lis width is from l to ::n 

miles The Alaliama helt may I onsidered KteiJ 

sion of the Georgia helt. 

< in ntm Rocks 

In the Carolina helt. these consist mainly of meta- 
morphosed slates and schists, including devitrified vol- 
eanies (rhyolite. quartz-porphyry, etc. . lis western 

boundary is made up of igneous rocks f granite, diorite, 
etc.). Among the slales forming the eastern boundary 
are the important Monroe slales. These are probably 

sedimentary and are highly silicificd. The} cur in 

.Monroe. Stanly, ami Montgomery counties. The gen- 
eral strike of this formation is N.20 to 55' E. and the pre- 
dominating dip 55 to 85° northwest. The (Jeorgia and 
Alabama belts for the most part consist of micaceous, 
hornblende gneisses, and schists, often garnetiferous. 
The prevailing strike is N.20 to 30°E. and dip 30 to 60° 

Gold Ores 

In the Carolina belt, the gold ores occur as quartz 
fissures and disseminations of fine gold and pyrite ac- 
companied with irregular quartz stringers and lens- 
shaped fillings, usually in the cleavage planes of the 
schists and slates. The quartz fissures are more appar- 
ent in the eruptive rocks, and scarcely discernible in the 
schists and slates. Silver, lead, zinc, and copper also 
occur in this belt. In the Georgia and Alabama belts. 
the gold ores exist in numerous small veins, stringers. 
and lenses of quartz, aggregated in zones or belts which 
taken together form the orebody. This is sometimes 
hundreds of feet in width. Gangue minerals are pyrite. 
rarely chalcopyrite. garnet, monazite, tourmaline, and 
bismuth. Weathering agencies have decomposed and 
softened these rocks from the surface to water-level, 
varying from 50 to 150 ft. in depth. Such orebodies arc 
called 'saprolites. ' The quartz is left unaltered, but is 
broken. The sulphides are oxidized and the gold 
changed to the free state. The mining of these large, 
soft orebodies is rendered simple and profitable. 


This has consisted of both placer and deep vein min- 
ing. Nearly all of the early work was confined to placer 
mining. The placers consist of three kinds: 

1. Beds of streams and ancient river channels: the 
latter being often filled in and obstructed from view. 
Tn some cases these penetrate into the hillsides. The 
'pay' is shallow (1 to 2 ft. thick) and consists of 
rounded pebbles and nuggets. Large nuggets have been 
found in Mecklenburg and Montgomery counties. North 


January 9, 1915 

Carolina: Whin- county, Georgia ; and the Arbacoochee 
district. Alabama. The largest 1 2K lb.) was brand at 
the Reed mine, North Carolina 

2. Placers consisting of vein quartz eroded from 
hill-aides and collected in concentrated form in syn- 
clinal basins and at the mouths of gullies. The nuggets 
in these deposits arc in the form of wire, sheets, ami 
flake gold, and are much smaller than those of the river 
licds. These placers arc small compared to those of Cali- 
fornia and have only been Operated by the crudest 
methods. No records have been kept as to the values 
pei enbic yard. The average values are given as 15c. 
to $1 per yard. Extensive hydraulic plants with giants 
ami gravel elevators have been operated in the neighhor- 

1 1 ol Dahlonega, Georgia, and in the Arbacoochee 

district of Alabama. There is little placer work now 
being done, although it is said there is virgin territory in 
western North Carolina and in the Arbacoochee dis- 
trict. A company with headquarters at Birmingham. 
Alabama, is operating a dredge in the Arbacoochee dis- 
trict, ncai llcflin, Alabama. Details arc lacking. 
Dredges have also operated near Dahlonega. Georgia. 

The Saprolite Ores 

:;. Saprolites. This term has been given to the de- 
cayed outcropping.s of veins and means literally, rotten 
rock. They form the most interesting deposits from the 
point of economic geology. From them the greater part 
of the gold has been won in the past, and on account of 
their wide extent will in the future be mined. 

These saprolites contain narrow quart/ veins from 1 
in. to 2> L . ft. thick and innumerable lenticular quartz 
stringers which are for the most part gold bearing. 
Gangue minerals are garnet, black sand, and unaltered 
pyrite, which is also gold bearing. Where these veins 
and stringers come closely together they may be worked 
as one orcbody. The value of such lodes ranges from 
*:; tu .+(1 per ton and their width is as much as 50 to 
100 ft. as at the Rudisil mine. Mecklenburg county. 

North Carolina. Such deposits are treated as lodes and 
are mined by labor and milled in stamp-mills. Where 
I lie small veins and stringers are more widely separated, 
lower values are the rule and the ore is mined as in 
placers. When these saprolite deposits are upon a hill- 
side or are out by gulches they are favorable for hy- 
draulic mining. 

Dahlonega. Georgia, has been the centre of greatest 
activity in working these deposits and here was origi- 
nated the Dahlonega method of mining and milling. This 
consists of hydraulic mining with 'giants.' the soft de- 
composed material, which is carried by flume (containing 
riffles i to the stamp-mill. Here the pulp is received in 
a large bin behind the stamps. This bin acts as a crude 
•lassifier. It has a discharge opening at one end partly 
closed by slats spaced one-half inch. Here the larger 
pieces of quartz are retained \tihile the mud and finer 
quartz escape to waste. What quartz remains in the bin 
is nulled through the stamps, the pulp passing over 
amalgamating plates. The plant is simple as to first 

est. and the operating expenses very low. but the waste 
of fine gold is excessive from both the bin and the 
stamp-mill. Costs are given as 25c. per ton and the 
saving as 35%. Such plants have been in operation 
also at Auraria. Georgia, and in Stanly county. North 

Other methods of working those saprolites are with 
log-washers. There are two types of these machines, the 

liigh-s] d and the low-speed. The former type consists 

of two units of double log-washers acting in tandem. 
The logs are usually 12 to 18 ft. long and mounted in 
steel troughs with straight sides and a rounded bottom. 
Provision is made for a wooden cover. At the discharge 
end of each machine is a revolving screen or trommel. 
That following the first machine is coarser than the sec- 
ond. The size of the screen openings is optional with 
the operator. The logs revolve at high speed, No. 1 at 
Kid to 150 r.p.m., and the second at 200 r.p.m. The 
soft ores are fed, together with water, to machine No. 1. 
and thorough disintegration is allowed to take place. 
The coarse trommel at the discharge end removes rocks 
and roots, which are delivered to a conveyor and carried 
to waste. The pulp passing to the second washer re- 
ceives more water. The pulp is discharged from this 
machine, and after passing the second screen (about 4 
to 6 mesh I is passed over riffles containing mercury. 
The oversize of the second screen likewise goes to waste. 
Some coarse gold remains in the washer troughs and is 
periodically removed. 

Such a plant treats 10 tons per hour and requires 75 
gal. per minute and 25 hp. to operate. No attempt is 
made here to mill the coarser quartz. 

Another combination of equipment is the slow-speed 
log-washer, a single unit being used. The logs are longer. 
20 ft., and the speed is 15 r.p.m. The washers have a 
square bottom which fills up with coarse quartz. The 
washer disintegrates and removes the clay, delivering 
the washed quartz to a Huntington or Chilean mill. 

Very little work is being done with these saprolite 
deposits at the present time, although they form the 
most valuable in the South. Nearly all the orebodies 
can be mined by a steam-shovel. 

Resilts of Ore Test 

An ore test that I made may be interesting at this 
point. A sample of oxidized saprolite ore was first 
treated in its natural state by cyaniding (all slimed to 
100 mesh, as leaching was not practicable). Another 
portion was washed to eliminate the clay and to recover 
the quartz in a concentrated condition. This washed 
product was treated by cyanide, the same as the original 

Per ton. 

Original ore value $2.20 

Extracted by cyanide (86.4%) 1.90 

Washed ore from original (ratio 5:1) 8.00 

Extracted by cyanide, washed ore (92.5%) 7.40 

*'-_ 4 " equivalent to extraction on original 1.4.8 

Difference $1.90— $1.48 0.42 

Favor cyaniding crude ore direct. 

.Iniiuary !>, 1916 

minim; i-ki ss 

..i lasumed I Hum. I on mining 
i>> labor. nk> tons erode ore This treated by all-aliming 
.yiinuli' prtH'rwi, agitation, filtration, sine dual precipita 
in. ii. etc - Steam-ahovel mining of *> |NI toni erude 
ore This redneed l>y washing u> 100 toni and treated 

in the saint' mill as above 

Per ton ol 

crude ore. 

(1J K%tracted by cyanide $1.90 

Mining and delivery to mill $0.36 

Mining end eranlds 


Profit $0.05 

Uracted by cyanide, washed ore $7.40 or $1.48 

Mining, washing, and delivery to 

mill $0.65 

.Milling and cyanide 1.50 

2.15 or 0.43 

Profit per ton washed ore $5.25 or $1.05 

Difference In favor of washed ore $1.00 

Deep Ykin Minim; \nt> Milling 

The South has no bonanza gold mines as this term 
is understood in the West. The veins, for the most part. 
are small, 2 to 6 ft. being an average width. 

There have been some exceptions, as the Haile mine. 
Lancaster county. South Carolina : large lens-shaped ore- 
bodies 80 ft. thick. Capps mine, Mecklenburg county. 
North Carolina: vein 20 ft. thick, etc. 

The veins usually follow the general strike of the 
country rock in which they occur, except in those cases 
where the veins are split and turned aside by 'horses.' 

The general strike of these veins is northeast. It is 
noteworthy that enrichments occur along the intersec- 
tions of cross veins, having a northwest strike, or in 
some cases east and west. Exceptional values are : Ste- 
phen Wilson mine. Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, 
$345 per ton, vein 2 to 3 ft. wide ; St. Catherine mine. 
Mecklenburg county. North Carolina, $27 to $180 per 
ton, vein 2 to 6 ft. wide. 

The majority of these mines are worked crudely at 
the surface as pits, open cuts, and shallow shafts. As 
long as the ores were free milling the gold was recov- 
ered in rockers, sluices, or small stamp-mills. When 
water-level, harder formation, or the sulphides were en- 
countered, the workings were abandoned and a new pit 
sunk. Thousands of these shallow workings exist along 
these gold belts. 

Few of the mines of the South are equipped with 
modern milling plants, the general practice being stamp- 
milling followed by amalgamation and concentration. 

A few mines in the last decade adopted the Thies 
chlorination process for treatment of concentrates. This 
process consisted in roasting the concentrates in hand- 
rabbled reverberatory furnaces and, after cooling, chlor- 
inating in one-ton barrels by the use of bleaching pow- 
der and sulphuric acid. The gold-bearing solution was 
filtered through a sand filter and precipitation effected 
by means of ferrous sulphate. The cost of treating 12 
to 15 tons per day was about $3 per ton. 

Although amalgamation and eoneentratiou bavi 

lived till other pr N.SI-H, till' SIIMIIk' 1 1 lot I II l"» 

average by amalgamal is abonl 35%, rare!) ■"■ . 

Concentration effects 15 to ■''■>'. more, the !"*> being iu 
line and rustj gold. The nana! hard quarts on 
tain the gold in a very finely divided state 
passing a 30 mesh battery screen, much of this gold is 

alniiist microscopically small and. being Suspended iii 

the pulp, is net amenable i" saving by these mechanical 

Early attempts with the cyanide process were nol 
encouraging. In some cases the leaching process was 

tried, but as no separation of an from the sand was 

made, a very poor extraction resulted. In other cases 
the ores were not crushed tine enough to liberate the 

values. Thus, for one reas »r another, the various 

attempts did not succeed. 

The Iola mine, Montgomery county. North Carolina, 
lias the distinction of being probably the firsl to ereel 
a successful modern cyanide plant, treating both tin- 
soft oxidized ores and the hard compact ores from below 
water-level. This mine is in the Carolina slat* belt, The 
ores are very hard and tough slate with quart/ The 
vein is about 2 to 3 ft. wide, and the sorted ores run 
in the neighborhood of $13 per ton. The production 
is about 65 tons per day, and this is reduced by sort- 
ing to 50 tons. The cyanide mill has every modern 
accessory, consisting of five 1750-lb. stamps. Tin. drop. 
107 drops per minute. Screen aperture is about !■ in. 
and stamp-duty is 10.5 tons. 

The resulting pulp is all-slimed in a. 4 by 20-ft. tube- 
mill with a Dorr duplex classifier in closed circuit. The 
slime is thickened in a Dorr thickener and then agi- 
tated in three Parrall agitators in series. After agita- 
tion, filtration takes place in a Kelly filter. The slime 
cakes are passed through a disintegrator and sluiced 
to the dump. The solutions are precipitated on zinc- 
shavings. The extraction is in the neighborhood of 95$ . 
and the cost of milling and cyaniding is about $1.64 per 
ton. A special feature to be noted is the non-colloidal 
nature of the slime. This ore when ground to 200 mesh 
still retains its crystalline properties, and settles rap- 
idly, thereby requiring a pressure filter rather than a 

The Uwarra Mine axd Mill 

The Uwarra gold mine, Candor, Montgomery county, 
North Carolina, adjoins the Iola property on the north. 
Development of the mine was carried on for about a 
year previous to the erection of the mill. The under- 
ground workings aggregate a mile, and several thou- 
sand tons of ore is blocked out. The ore is similar 
to that of the Iola, and 50 tons is passed through the 
mill, which is thoroughly modern. The ore is hoisted 
from the mine in cars and trammed over a trestle to 
the crusher ore-bin. From this it is fed to a Blake 
crusher and crushed to pass a 1%-in. ring. The crushed 
product is delivered on a belt-conveyor (22 incline) 
which carries it. to the steel cylindrical mill bin. Front 


January 9, 1915 

this the ore is automatically fed to crushing mils and 
crushed to pass l , -in. mesh. This product is delivered 
o a classifier with mill solution. The slime is sep- 
arated and the coarse ground in a 5 by 20-ft tube-mill. 
-linn was thickened and then agitated in mechan- 
ical agitators, afterward being elevated to storage and 
filtered in s pressure filter.* The solution is precipi- 
tated "ii /iin- shavings. 

The Hog Mountain gold mme is situated near Alex- 
ander City. Alabama. Tliis property lias had a long. 
nsfiil record. The ores here are quartz. The sur- 
ires »ere dry crushed by mils to 's-in. mesh, then 
trammed to 125-ton vats and leached with cyanide solu- 
tion. Keeeni i in| irovements I'm- treating the hard re- 
Frai'ton sulphide ores consist of crushing dry with mils. 
tube-milling with cyanide solution, and passing the 
discharge, without classification, over blanket 
tables i" the leaching tanks. A T.v , extraction was 
made on a $5 ore, distributed as follows: Extraction 
in tube-mill. s 'r ; concentrates, 42', ; leached in tanks. 
25' , ; total 75 per cent. 

The concentrates were re-run over blankets, and, as 
shipped, assayed over 100 nz. gold and 15 "/. silver. 
The concentrates also contain several per cent of bis- 
muth. This mill is operated by hydro-electric power. 

and eosts are very low. 

In conclusion, it may he said i he southern gold ores 
are im more difficult to treat than the ores of other 
sections of the United states, nearly all the surface ores 
being amenable to cyanide treatment 

Further, the smith has in its favor an excellent cli- 
withoul the drawbacks of the desert or the frozen 
mountainous districts of the West. 

There is generally an abundance of good water, and 
water-powi r is available, or can be made so. in many 
of the districts. 

l-'in-l. lumber, and all mining supplies can be laid 

at the property at much less ens! than in the 

West. Although common labor is cheap, the bettor 
labor and skilled labor commands about tin- same prices 
as in the West. 

Wiih all these favorable conditions, the South should 

take first rank lor producing an ounce of Sold al less 

cosl than any other section of North America. 

Mnmeir&l Pr©<dkncftibini ©IF ftlhie Buaftdhi 

Waste-roi k gold content was the subject of an im- 
promptu discussion at a meeting of the Chemical, Metal- 
Lurgical and Mining Society of Smith Africa on October 
17. 1914. The arguments wen- interesting, hut the mem- 
bers decided that it was informal, and the discussion, 
therefore, will not be published. 

Gold output of the East Hand Proprietary mines. 

Transvaal, in November, totaled 51,633 oz. from 165,000 

tons of ore, crushed by 820 stamps and 2."> tube-mills. 
The profit was $336,000. 


H'se of the agitators lias been discontinued and other 
changes made in the flow-sheet, as shown by Andrew Walz. 
Mining and Scientific Press. December 12. 1914. 

The principal islands of the group are Banka. liilliton. 
Borneo, Celebes. Java, and Sumatra. The production 

hi' the government tin mines at Banks during last year 

was 34.4S1.1KN |h.. and of the liilliton (private mines 
10,064,816 lb S,,me 4,938,800 lb. of liilliton tin was 

sold at Baiavia during last year. Government tin is 

shipped to the Amsterdam. Holland, market for sale. 

and during 1913, 32,127,525 lb. was exported on gov- 
ernment account. There were no shipments of tin to 
the United States during 1913. 

The Ombilien coal mines (government) in southwest 
Sumatra increased their output from -Ins. 20+ tons in 
1912 to 411.083 tons in 1913. This coal was formerly 
exported to the Straits Settlements and China, but dur- 
ing last year the output was used by the local govern- 
ment. The price of Ombilien coal during the past year 
was about .+6 per ton. 

The Puloe Laut coal mines (southeast Borneo) have 
been purchased by the Netherlands India government 
during the past year for. it is stated, about $1,280,000. 

The Samarinda (East Borneo) coal mines also belong 
to the government, and produce a fair quantity of 
inferior coal, which is used entirely for local pur- 

The general output of the few gold mines in this 
colony during last year was considerably below that 
for the previous year, and the only two mines giving 
any results were the fxed.jang Lehong. Sumatra, produc- 
ing during 1913 $1,050,000 worth of gold, and Simau. 
Sumatra near Redjang Lebong), producing $880,000. 
and the Eetahoen nearby. While the production of the 
Redjang Lebong is decreasing each year, that of Sinian 
shows a slight increase. There are two gold mines in 
the Celebes which, during 1913. produced some gold, 
namely, the Paleleh ami the Totok, with outputs valued 

at $365, and $330,000 respectively. 

The nil industry in Netherlands India ''Borneo and 
Sumatra continues successful, and the output is in- 
creasing each year. The yield for 1913 is reported as 
1,503,660 tons. — Daily Consular Report. 

A complete analysis of coal gas made in Pittsburgh 

is as follows : 

Constituent. Formula. Percent. 

Carbon dioxide CO-. 2.6:1 

Oxygen O, 0.81 

Carbon monoxide CO 13.25 

Hydrogen H, 37.33 

Methane CH, 31.13 

Ethane C.H, 2.1" 

Propane C,H 0.43 

Ethylene C,H 6.05 

Propylene C,H, 0.60 

Butylene C,H, 0.11 

Benzene CH, 1.33 

Nitrogen X- l.'S.: 



.1 1 ' > 1 • 

mini v; I'Ki ss 

IDirainiiMirag Kenr Lak« aft Colbmlftj, Onaftario 


ml in the ■ li.i! ■ . it Ink.' of 
tuul mud so tlnii it could be prospected 
from the surface ceased for the year in the 
■ i week in November. It «ns Imped itt 
tlir beginning of the year thai the bed of the 
lake would be cleared before the frosl stiff- 
ened the mud. but the boulder clay presented 
problems thnt had not been fully considered 
Much preliminary work had to be completed 
before it was possible to start the actual de- 
watering of the lake, but actual pumping i 

men I August 28, 1913. An amendment 

had been inserted in the mining act of On- 
tario which made it possible for companies to 
undertake the draining of the lake in order to 
ore. The owners of the Drummond 
mines made objection and carried their rase 
to the courts. Finally the matter was settled 
by the Kerr Lake Mining company and the 
Crown Reserve Mining company buying what 
is known as the Drummond Fraction, consist- 
ing of seven acres under the lake and some 
littoral. Tor $150,000. 

No further incentive to drain the lake was 
needed than that np to the end of the year 
before thi work actually commenced, the 
Crown Reserve Mining company had won 

17,003,82] OZ. of silver, all from under the 42 
acres which the lake originally covered. A 
considerable portion of the very heavy pro- 
duction of the Kerr Lake Mining company 
also was from below the water line, and the 
Drummond Fraction presented ground well 

worth prospecting. All these mines had 
raised on their veins under the lake as far as 
they could with safety. 

Drainage operations have been carried out 
jointly by the Kerr Lake and the Crown Re- 
serve mining companies. Prom the nature of 
the lake the Kerr Lake has been the first to 
obtain definite results. This Company has 
opened its 10 and 17 vein systems on the sur- 
face as well as numerous stringers, and the 
resulting discoveries have undoubtedly added 
to the life and value of the mine. The whole 
of the Kerr Lake area under the lake will 
probably be cleared of detritus next year. 
The rewards will come more slowly to the 
Crown Reserve, as the acreage to be cleared 
lies right in the bed of the lake. Eight acres 
have yet to be cleared of boulder clay before 

*I am greatly indebted tor most of the details 
contained in this article to H. G. Stewart, superin- 
tendent for the Crown Reserve Min ! ng Company. 




January 9. 1915 

surface prospecting can be efficiently undertaken. The 
dewatering of the lake proved in be a minor problem 
compared with that of taking out the mud, and thai 
again was a much simpler problem than the pumping 
of the clay. During the winter, while the pumps are 
inactive, a certain amount of water naturally funis its 
way back int<> the lake, but last spring it only required 

eight days to pump it dry. so that this docs not play any 
considerable pari in tin- operations. 

Results al Kerr lake arc being carefully watched in 
Other portions of the district, where preparations have 
been made or are contemplated for the draining <>( 
lakes and the recovery of known or probable ore under- 
neath tllcin. 

The area of Kerr lake amounted originally to 42 
acres, of which the Crown Reserve Mining Co. owned 23. 
K.-rr Lake Mining Co. 12. and Drunnnond Mines 7. 
A ditch was dug by the Crown Reserve Mining Co. 
some six years ago from the west end of the lake and 
leading to Glen lake. By this means the lake level was 

reduced by eight feet, clearing sufficient area of the 
Crown Reserve to ered necessary buildings. For the 
recent work a scow was erected, the dimensions of 

which were 40 by 2(1 ft. and the depth 4 ft. It has 

approximately To tons displacement. On this scow was 
erected four single-stage centrifugal pumps which were 

arranged in two units, each unit consisting of a com- 
pound pumping outfit of two pumps direct-connected 

by a flexible coupling to a 250-hp. tor. The suctions 

were 12 in. and discharges 10 in. The runners air of 
the enclosed type and capable of delivering boulders 

up to approximately 4 in. diameter. Each of these 
units was capable of delivering 3000 gal. per minute 
on a maximum head of 185 ft. with an efficiency >>( 

approximately 6.")',. When the pumping operations 

were begun, the four pumps worked in parallel, each 
discharging into a 14-in. pipe and thence, to the 20. in. 
main line. When the level of the lake had been reduced 
by approximately 15 ft., a change from operating the 

pumps in parallel to a series of two units, was made. 
By this means, two units each of a two-stage tandem 

pump were obtained. While the volume of water 

pumped decreased, still the efficiency of the outfit was 

increased to approximately 75%. For priming pur- 
poses, a small air-driven plunger pump was used 0D 
the scow. During the early period of the operations. 
the water for this purpose was secured from the Ken- 
lake, hut as the work proceeded and the water became 
muddy, it was necessary to secure it from the fresh- 
water plant at Giroux lake. Two of tin' flexible joints 

weie used in order to allow for any swings that might 
take (dace. One was placed on the scow and another 
upon a concrete pier OH the shore. It is the intention 

to place another half way between these points, set 

on wheels, which in turn will he on a track so as to 
allow for a maximum horizontal swing which might 
take place owing to the mudslides or other accidents. 
The water from this plant was handled through a 20-in. 
spiral riveted pipe, from which it was conveyed to Giroux 

lake, where it was discharged. Expansion joints were 
also placed in the line at certain points which cadi 
would allow for 16-in. plug. A 12-in. bypass was also 
put in which would allow for draining the line when 

To date, a total amount of 635.000.000 gallons of 
mud and water has been pumped, and the lake lias been 
lowered an average of 65 ft. This is an approximate 
figure, as owing to the depression at the lake bottom, 
if is a difficult matter to get the correct depth. 

At the time that pumping was begun, a fresh-water 
plant at Giroux lake, consisting of two 500-gaI. cen- 
trifugal pumps, direct-connected to 45-hp. motors, was 
.rcctcd to supply fresh water to the various mines 
affected by the drainage operations. 

During the past summer, a pump of 5000-gal. capac- 
ity was installed to furnish necessary water for hydranl- 
icking purposes. This has consisted largely of cutting 
channels in the mud bed to a certain point, and then 
retreating hack to the scow, breaking down the sides 
on the return. This scheme has worked satisfactorily, 
and it is hoped that after another summer's operation 
the mud will he almost removed from the bottom of 
the lake. 

Tin© ©ogiim off the Dolomnihes 


*A careful study of the dolomites of the upper Missis- 
sippi Valley was undertaken for the Iowa Geological 
Survey during the field season of 1912. More recently 
a grant from the Esther Herrman Research Fund of 
the New York Academy of Science has made possible 
much more extensive studies of the dolomitic limestones 
of the Eastern and Central states. The present prelim- 
inary paper is intended merely to set forth some of 
the more important results of these studies. 

Previous theories of the origin of dolomite are briefly 
considered, after which the problem is attacked from 
three standpoints, namely: the experimental evidence; 
the field evidence: and the petrographic evidence. The 
conclusion is reached that the great majority of the 
dolomites, ranging in age from the Cambrian to the 
present, have resulted from the replacement of lime- 
stones before they emerged from the sea. The replace- 
ment need not. he accompanied by shrinkage, as for- 
merly supposed, but may proceed according to the law 
of equal volumes, as enunciated by Lindgren. Further- 
more, certain cases of apparent interstratification of 
limestone and dolomite cited as evidence in favor of the 
primary theory are rather pseudo-interst ratifications, 
which, have resulted from selective dolomitization. Ex- 
amples of limestones mottled with dolomite are inter- 
preted as representing an incipient stage of the process 
of alteration. Organic factors have exerted a selective 
influence in some cases of mottling, but in others the 
phenomenon is purely inorganic. 

•Abstract of a paper read before the Geological Society of 
America, Philadelphia, December 29-31. 

Januan 9, 1915 


mmic Pirccipnftaidoini of Femrmas Fenri-CyaiMdl© smd 
FenrouM Hydlirosddle in Jelly 

B, M. J. m. CmtlOHTON 

•When a drop « • i" silver nitrate solution is placed on a current baving a potential gradient of 0.0093 volt per 

thm layer of gelatin containing potassium dichromate, cm. The progreoa of the hydroxyl ions waa followed bj 

silver chroraate precipitates out in circles which are con- means of phenolphthalein. The ferrous and hydroxide 

eentric to 1 1 1.- drop of bUyst nitrate. This precipitation ions, which were moving in opposite directions, met »i the 

of silver chromate has been investigated daring the past end of 115 days Cram the beginning of the experi nt, 

few years bj Lieaegang and others. 1 Analogous phe- and a dark green layer or disc of ferrous hydroxide was 

nomena have been observed by Lieaegang 1 with hut- precipitated in the jelly at right angles to the axis of the 

curous chromate, lead chromate, and Prussian blue, and tube. At the end of -4 hours, a second disc was observed 

by Morse and Pierce* with lead sulphate, silver carbon- to have formed. This was separated from the ftrsl by 

ate, phosphate, bromide and tbiocyanate, cobalt bydrox- ■'( nun. of jelly, colored pink by the phenolphthalein. 

ide, barium chromate, and mercurous bromide. This Every day or two a new disc formed, each being Bep- 

phenomenon of rhythmical precipitation is explained by arated from the preceding by several millimetres of pink 

Oetwald'a theory of supersaturation.' I have recently jelly. The discs formed in the opposite direction to the 

observed phei lena similar to the foregoing with Turn- How of the electric current. The time at which each disc 

hull's blue and ferrous hydroxide. appeared, and the distance between each and the pre- 

The horizontal part of a glass tube 70 cm. long and ceding one is shown in Table I. The ferrous hydroxide 
2 cm. in diameter the ends of which were bent Up at discs always commenced to form at the bottom of the 
right angles, was filled with a 10',' solution of agar-agar tube and continued to grow toward the top, always 
containing small quantities of potassium ferri-cyanide sloping in the opposite direction to the flow of the elee- 
and sodium chloride. After the jelly had solidified, the trie current. Sometimes a new disc started to form he- 
vertical arms of the tube were rilled with a dilute soln- fore the preceding one was completed. In such cases 
tion of sodium chloride, and an iron electrode, made the old disc ceased growing, 
from a clean wire nail, was placed in the liquid in each Table I 
arm. An electric current having a potential gradient of Turnbull'a Ferrous 
(l.ixib'7!! volt per cm. was then passed through the jelly. , bluediscs. , ,— hydroxide discs. — , 

Within a short time after the current was started, the Timeof Distance Time of Distance 

end Of the jelly near the anode became blue, and for four appearance between appearance between 

, , , , ' , , , , , . Number of discs, consecutive of discs, consecutive 

davs the blue color continued to advance through the . ., _ . ,„ .. „„ .„„„ ... „„ 

ot disc. days. discs, mm. days. discs, mm. 

jelly. During the following 24 hours there was no per- i ... 

ceptible advance of the color, but at the end of this time 2 1 4.0 1 :: 

a very thin dark blue layer or disc was observed to have 3 2 4.0 2 5 

formed in the jelly at right angles to the axis of the tube. * 3 

£ A .1 j | A £k 

This blue disc gradually increased in thickness during ' 

the next few hours until it attained a width of 1 mm. 7 B 4 

This disc, which was more intense in color than the blue s ... 9 K 

jelly behind it. was separated from the latter by 3 mm. 9 • ■ • 11 4 

of practically colorless jelly. At the end of another 24 10 ■■■ 14 

hours a second disc had formed which was separated The cause of the rhythmical precipitation of Turn- 
from the first by 4 mm. of colorless jelly. In this experi- bull's bine and ferrous hydroxide may doubtless be 
ment a new disc appeared every 24 hours, the discs form- ascribed to supersaturation phenomena. As the Fe + + 
ing in the direction of the flow of the electric current, ions are carried into the jelly by the electric current, a 
An experiment similar to the foregoing was carried metastable supersaturated solution with respect to Turn- 
out, except that the jelly contained small quantities of bull's blue first forms. Ultimately precipitation occurs 

sodium chloride and phenolphthalein. The ferrous ions and the Fe('y„ ions in the neighborhood are removed; 

diffused into the jelly under the influence of an electric the Fe + + ions then advance a few millimetres and form 

~~ 71 Z ; ~ ~ ; a new supersaturated solution, when the process is re- 

•Frorn Jour. Amer. Cnem. Society. , „ TT 

,„ „ .. „*.;„, „, , ec „™„ „ ,,, peated. In the case of ferrous hydroxide, the OH- ions 

•R. E. Liesegang, Z. physik. Cliem., 23, 365 (1897); 59, 444 r . , . 

(1907); SS. 1 (1914); Morse and Pierce, Ibid., 45, 589 (1903); f °r ra a supersaturated solution with the Fe + - ions. 

Bechhold, H„ Ibid.. 52, 185 (1905). After precipitation has taken place, the OH~ ions must. 

^Chemische Reaktionen in Gallerten,' Dusseldorf, 1898. advance a few millimetres before a sufficient number of 

■ Loc. cit. Fe + + ions are encountered to form a new supersatu- 

«Lehrb. d. allgem. Chemie,' 2 And, 2. 778. rated solution. 



January !). 1915 

Prospesftiimg Weft Plaseir Girowunidl by SIhi&lfft Siimlkiiffig 


A rather general opinion seems to prevail among 
mining engineers that Bhaft sinking in loose wet ground 
is not a reliable method of prospecting. While this 
opinion may be in general justified, the work described 
below is thought to have given reasonably correct re- 

The ground prospected was a loose creek wash aver- 
aging about 14 ft. deep with water-level at about 8 It. 

■ /* °s* * 




The greatest deptli below water was in a hole 17.8 ft. 
deep with water-level at 6 ft. The crew required for 
this work was three miners and a panner. and the aver- 
age speed of sinking was 4.4 ft. per 9-hr. day, includ- 
ing all lost time. 

Equipment. — The main features of the equipment 

1 . A nest of seven caissons of Vs-in. steel. 4 ft. long. 
and ranging from "» ft. 2 in. to 4 ft. in diameter, slightly 

tapered to allow them to telescope readily. Each cais- 
son had a band of ' j by 2-in. steel on the outside of 
the largcivn- top end. and a band " s by 1' 4 in. on the 
inside of the bottom end. These bands served as stiffen- 
ed and also to prevent the inner caisson from slipping 
entirely past the outer in telescoping. The method of 
using tile caissons is illustrated in Fig. 1. 

2. A windlass, bucket, and rope. 

3. A sheet of heavy canvas covered with sheets of 
16-gage iron for receiving the sample from the bucket. 

4. A measuring box of i,;>-eu. yd. capacity. 

5. A long-torn with accessories. 

6. A 'J'o-in. pump with a 314-in. suction and a 3-in. 
discharge, driven by a 4-hp. gasoline engine. 

ft ^Kw 



»^jS ^^^ 

1 ' 


\ I 

ir IG. _. loading a 4 l L .-lT. caisson. 

7. A 3' ..-in. pump with 3 I . J -in. connections driven 
by a 6-hp. gasoline engine. 

B. A small caisson. IS in. diam. by 24 in. long, for 
taking samples in the bottom of the shaft. 

9. A measuring box of 2-cu. ft. capacity. 

10. A stump puller with cable, sheaye. and hooks 
for pulling the caissons. 

11. Two large canvases, cord, and sealing wax for 
sealing the shaft. 

Sinking. — The ground above water was usually of 
comparatively low grade. In such cases a sample of 
30-iu. diameter was cut from the surface to water-level 
and kept apart until the shaft water should be suffi- 
cient for washing. As soon as this pit became so deep 
that there was danger of caving or it was difficult to 
shovel out, the bottom was covered with sacking and 
the pit was reamed out to the size of the first caisson. 
The caisson was then put in place and sinking was con- 
tinued in the small pit. As soon as the first caisson 
was down, the next smaller was put in place and was 
lowered as sinking progressed. In some cases this sys- 
tem was varied by taking every fourth shovelful for the 
first sample, ami in some instances water was brought 

■ 1915 


h .iii.l the entire content of the 
»lin!' was washed <» excavated. 

At water-level an excavation waa made around the 
the bottom of the caisson and whs filled with 
hay. The caisson vwt.s thru driven down, 
ig a packing of hay aronnd the entire outer cir- 
• :ir.- iraa taken below water-level to keep 
the bottom of the iwiaauii • 
tn thi bottom of the abaft and to 
keep all space behind the oaia- 
irmly packed with hay, In 
tins way n«i oonaiderable motion 
tit' ground was allowed to stun. 
Hint the settling of the gravel on 
the packing served to shut out 
any flow of sjiiuI Cram above ami 
a i.'"'"l deal of water. The bed 
nek waa soft, so that high 
points could be removed, letting 
the caiaBon down around its en- 
tire circumference. 

The efficiency of the packing 
-noun in several instances 
where shafts were sunk adjacent 
to others in which no packing 
hail been used. As they were 
sunk at different times and by 
different engineers, no close 
comparison can be given. It is 
significant, however, that the 
required pump capacity and 
the amount of ground handled 
were noticeably less where the 
packing was used. 

Sampling. — As it was impos- 
sible under the conditions to get 
an accurate measure of the 
space excavated, all figuring on 
samples from below water-level 
was done from measurements of 
the excavated material. 

It was found by measuring 
excavations above water-level, 
and by settling the excavated 
material in a measuring box 
with water so as to fill the voids 
with fine material, that a close 
approximation could be made to 
the original volume. Where 

there was a considerable amount of soil present, there 
was generally a slight shrinkage in settling the excavated 
material. Where the gravel was solid, there was some- 
times as much as 5% swell; but for the loose creek 
gravel the two measurements checked as closely as could 
be expected of two independent measurements. 

At water-level, or as soon as considerable gold was 
found, the entire content of the shaft was saved and 
washed. In addition, whenever there was a marked 
change in value as indicated by panning, or whenever 

ii vw,s s.iii thai sand was rui g under the caiaaon, 

n sniiiii sample from an 18 m • laiaaon ».is taken from 

1,1 ntre of the shaft hk a check against the remainder 

of the shaft area. This sample »us clearly not affected 
by run in. and when- it differed materially from the 
larger sample due allowance waa made. 
A new sample was started: ii when there fl 


FlO. 4. 


change in the formation or in the values as indicated 
by panning; (b) whenever a new caisson was put in, 
changing the diameter of the shaft; (c) whenever there 
was a shift of the crew. 

Measuring Samples. — The plant used for handling 
and washing the samples is illustrated in Pig. 3 and 
Fig. 4. The material from the bucket was dumped on 
a 16-gage iron plate under which was a large canvas 
to prevent loss. From the plate it was shoveled into 
a measuring box of i^-cu. yd. capacit.y. This box was 



January 9, 1915 

made 2.4 ft. wide by 5 ft. long, so that each inch in 
depth represented one cubic foot. Water was poured 
into the bra as the gravel was being shoveled in, and 

the larger rocks were buried in the finer matrial. When 
the bos was full and well settled by puddling with a 
shovel and pounding on the sides of the box. it was 
marked on the log and washing was begun. 

The long-torn driven by a 1%-hp. gasoline engine, as 
shown in Fig. 4. proved a very efficient part of the 
equipment. One man with the occasional help of the 
pump tender bad no trouble in washing the gravel as 
fast as delivered from the shaft and in cleaning up 
after each ' 2 yd. of sample. The riffles used were a 
combination of Hungarian riffle and cocoa matting with 

expanded metal. 

Vol. excavated 

Vol. of hole, material. 

Nature or material. cu. ft. cu. ft. 

1. Medium to coarse gravel 37.2 38.4 

2. Medium gravel 22.4 23.0 

3. Medium gravel 34.0 35.0 

4. Fine gravel and sand 14.7 15.0 

5. Medium gravel, surface to bedrock.. 46.0 45.0 

6. Medium gravel, some sediment 19.6 19.0 

7. Medium gravel 108.0 109.0 

Figuring Values. — In figuring the results, the value 
per cubic yard of each sample was multiplied by the 
depth represented, and the sum of these products was 
divided by the sum of the depths, or the total depth of 
the shaft. A factor for swell was applied to this result. 
giving the average value for the bob-. 

In summing up the possible sources of any consider- 
able error and the ways in which it was attempted to 
guard them, possible BOUTCes of error may l>e noted as: 
(1^ error in measurement of volume; (2) salting of 
sample by fine material washed under the caisson: (3) 
inflow of barren sand and consequent lowering of aver- 
age value; (4 i loss by imperfect cleaning of bedrock: 
5 J loss in tailing; [6) possible Wilful salting. Consid- 
ering these, it may be noted that : 

1. The close agreement of all measurements of loose 
materials with the measurements of their respective pits 
where these eouhl be measured gives confidence. 

2 and 3. The inflow of sand was prevented to a large 
extent by the packing of grass hay. and where it was 
impossible to prevent it a sample unaffected by the run- 
in was obtained with the small caisson. 

4. With the caisson close to bedrock and most of the 
water shut oft', the bedrock was easily cleaned and tested. 

5. Frequent panning and occasional washing of large 
samples of the tailing from the long-torn showed it to 
be B Very efficient gold saver. 

6. Frequent cleaning up and systematic shifting of 
the crew: check samples with the small caisson; and 
continual panning ahead of the shaft make undetected 
salting by any member of the crew, excepting the pan- 
ner. impossible. Careful sealing of the shaft at night 
and separate washing and weighing of the first box of 
dirt m the morning make a good safeguard against 
salting during the night. 



By F. K. R. MOLL 

There are four main fields in which timber is used in 
enormous quantities and where by natural conditions this 
timber is rotting extremely rapidly. Telegraph and tele- 
phone line poles, railway ties, the piles and jetties of 
harbors, and mine timbers last, when untreated so short 
a time, that, if means be not found prolonging the life- 
time by artificial processes, the use of iron and concrete 
soon may be more profitable. In consequence of this 
fact the preservation of timber has become more and 
more common in recent years in the United States. It 
is in mining that up to this time almost nothing has been 
done. Immeasurable quantities of timber and millions 
of dollars are therefore lost every year. 

Prom the year 1905 Kellog in the D. S. Department of 
Agriculture Circ. 49 gives the following figures on the 
amount of timber used in mining, (all data in cubic feet. 
round and sawed timber combined) : 

Cu. ft 

Bituminous coal mines 103,000.000 

Anthracite mines 52,000.000 

Precious metal mines 29.000,000 

Iron mines 15.000.000 

Miscellaneous 2.000.000 

Total 201,000.000 

If the production in the year 1905 be taken at 69,000,- 
i)i)i) tons of anthracite, 287,000,000 tons of bituminous 
coal, and 24,000.000 tons of iron, the amount of timber 
was 0.75 cu. ft. per ton of anthracite. 0.36 cu. ft. per ton 
of bituminous coal, and 0.85 cu. ft. per ton of iron ore. 
In the year 1912 the amount of timber per ton in the 
German mines was 1.0 cu. ft. for anthracite, 0.33 cu. ft. 
for bituminous coal (lignite), and 0.2 to 0.7 cu. ft. for 
iron. There is evidently no great difference. Using 
these units and the production of 1910 the total quantity 
of mine timber will be found to be as below: 

Tons. Cu. ft. Cu. ft. 

Anthracite mines S5.000.000 X 0.75= 64,000.000 

Bituminous mines 370.000,000 X 0.36 = 134.000.000 

Iron mines 24,000.000 X 0.85= 20.000,000 

Other mines 42,000,000 

Total 260.000,000 

This is equivalent to 7.400,000 cu. m. The German 
mines used in the same time about 6,300,000 cu. in. = 
220.000.000 cu. ft. of timber; that is only l.V, Less than 
the American mines. Of the 260,000.000 cu. ft. of mine 
timber, nearly 170.000,000 cu. ft. was hardwood, and 
only 90,000,000 cu. ft. softwood. Among the softwoods 
pine ranks first with 40.000,000 cu. ft.; among the hard 
woods, oak with 40.000.000 cu. ft. On the contrary in 
Germany only 2'; of all mine timber was beech and 1% 
oak, nearly all the remainder was pine. 

The price for mine timber is rising from year t" year 

Januan 9 I'M • 


and ii todaj about *'• 6c per on. h tor round timber jui>I 

per 'ii ii tor sawed timber; an avenge 
wiul. the timber was formerly eul near the mines, today 

exhausted and onl) ■ I growth round 

timber of small dimens ■ is available. Moal of the 

timber, boards, lagging, and planks tnusl be ship- 
ped in from great distances. The United States faces 
now the sjimh- that Europe faced 80 years ago. 

Si ownbbs r.i Adopt Pro 

Compared with the annual out of timber the amount 
<it' mini' timber used in the United States is only 1% ; but 
it should l»- realised, that every year tour times the 
annual growth is cut If only the annual growth were 
rut ami the capital of the forests were kt-pt constant, 
the percentage for the mine timber would be •'!.:!. More 
than "ii>\ of tliis timber is every year lost by decay in 
the mines, while the percentage of timber tor new work 
is ridiculously small. To the trained engineer it is aston- 
ishing and incomprehensible, that in spite of the knowl- 
edge of tliis fact, up to this time almost nothing has 
been ilone for the artificial preservation of mine timber. 
It is true, there is some interest in the question of timber 
treating even among the mining people, but if one asks: 
"Why then do yim not begin with treating?" the answer 
is: "Oh. first we must try this thing, we have read and 
heard this and that, and some processes are offered to us. 
but without our own experience we cannot start with 
timber treating. So we have set some 10 or 20 test props 
and if they prove to be good, we will take up the matter." 

A practical engineer however, never expects to study 
all problems himself and to try out all processes in his 
own plants. He determines first whether others have 
made the tests, and if he finds that they have done so he 
makes use of their results. In treating timber, and espe- 
cially mine timber, so many tests have already been made 
that there is no longer an.v question as to what to do. It 
is possible that the tests now arranged may show that 
Some new invented processes are more favorable than the 
old ones now in use, but I think, up to the time such tests 
are finished, it is safe to use the old processes of which 
the results have long been known. The technical jour- 
nals of Germany, France, and England, where the matter 
of treating mine timber has long been one of great im- 
portance, contain a great number of articles giving the 
results of experience with a great number of timber- 
treating processes. It is true that even in Europe there 
was not much impregnation of mine timber during the 
nineteenth century, but since the year 1900 there has 
been a great change, especially among the German mine- 
owners, and in that country since the year 1905 no less 
than 100 large and small timber treating plants for 
mines have been erected. 

Timber Preservation* Important t<> Mixers 

Artificial preservation of timber is of especial im- 
portance in mines, for nowhere does timber decay as 
quickly, especially in coal mines. The most favorable 

conditions for intensive growth of the wood d< 
ing fungi are the presence of a certain degree of beat 
mi. I dampness. In most of tin- coal mines 1...1I1 the tern 
perature and the dampness nr.- such as to afford optimum 
conditions for the fungi. All other causes of destruction 
of timber are unimportant when compared with the do- 

caj . Wear an. I lire .hum- the loss of about .".' , . Against 

the breakage, the oonaequenoe of crushing, squeezing, or 
swelling ground, ii is possible to protect timber by spe- 
cial methods of constructing the seta. Against the dam- 
ages caused by insects the best proteeliou is to bark the 

timber 11s soon as possible after it has I n eiit. Against 

the decay ll nly remedy is impregnation with liquids 

poisonous for the fungi. 

Artificial preservation of mine timber was first studied 

iii the United states in 1906. At the suggestion of the 
I'. S. Forest Service the Philadelphia & Reading •'. & 
I. Co. carried out a great series of experiments. The 
Company placed about 10(111 sets of round gangway tim- 
ber that had been treated by 15 different methods, so that 
each method was tested by from 20 up to 150 sets. While 
this test marks a great step onward, it is regrettable that 
the number of tests was so small. This is the same mis- 
take that the German mines made 20 years ago. With 
so small a number of sets for each test it is not possible 
to get positive results. The individual conditions of the 
timber, of the place where set and of the men watching 
the tests, may well influence to a high degree the results. 

Unsatisfactory Methods Still Recommended 

When studying the Forest Service Bulletin 107 it is 
interesting for the timber-treating engineer to see that 
processes, the uselessness of which has been realized in 
Germany for years, here get the certificate "not un- 
satisfactory." Processes such as the mere seasoning of 
the timber, charring it, and especially all kinds of paint- 
ings, including the so-called 'brush treatment' with tar, 
creosote, earbolineum, may be mentioned. In Circular 
No. Ill, p. 11, Nelson states the disadvantages of brush 
treatments in the following words: (1) the difficulty of 
completely covering the timber and filling all checks and 
cracks; (2) the very slight penetration secured. The 
subsequent checking or opening of the timber may often 
allow disease to pass through the shallow exterior band 
into the interior wood. "And yet only one passage be- 
fore," he says, "for small individual operators who can- 
not afford the cost of a large plant, brush treatments are 
feasible and economical." Testing this by the long ex- 
perience of European administrations and private con- 
cerns, it seems to be a dangerous error. Again and again 
it was found in tests that were not based only on 2 or 3, 
or even 20, but on thousands of ties, poles, and props, 
that brushing the timber not only is of no advantage, but 
may even be a great disadvantage if the cost is greater 
than the prolongation of life. 

Experience with the open-tank system has been as good 
or even better, as Mr. Belson shows. The prolongation 
of the life of mine timber in the tests was remarkable. 
The question will be. if the economic result, too, will be 



January 9. 1915 

good. That depends on the cosl of the antiseptic. Using 
a solution <» t" chloride of zinc or commercial creosote the 
impregnation was without any doubt to a certain degree 
The investigations of the Pores! Service- did not touch 

the matter of the influen £ the impregnation on the 

health of the workman and miners. Thai is regrettable, 

for in Europe, where now more than 250 mines use 

treated timber, much trouble lias Mean caused by the use 
of inappropriate antiseptics. Especially creosote-, one of 
the mo on means for treating timber, and that 

even in the tests of the Forest Service gave tile best 
technical results, has been almost entirely abandoned in 
the European mines because of its marked influen 


tion of timber was not begun so much in order to pre- 
serve the wood, but to get rid in the cheapest way of a 
by-product which otherwise was difficult to dispose of. 

Prom 1890 to 1900 a number of mines were reported 
to soak their mine timber in hot tar or salt solutions. 
But until 1900 only desultory trials and proposals oc- 
curred without any connection or system. Doubtlessly 
wood has been preserved in mines far more often than 
might be supposed from the scanty literature, but cer- 
tainly the question of preservation was not recognized 
as of general importance in mining before 1900. Then 
the conviction began to gain ground that economical 
reasons demanded preservation of wood for mining pur- 
poses as well as in the case of telegraph and railway 
uses. Establishments were erected 
and investigations on different ques- 
tions connected with preserving 
mine timber came so rapidly that it 
is nearly impossible to quote them 
here chronologically. What preser- 
— vation has become for mining in the 
past 14 years and which experience 
has been obtained in this time may. 
however, be shown. 


the skin and eyes of the miners and the increase in the 

fire risk. 

In the following pages I shall deal more especially 
with the experience of European mines. The 'engineer- 
ing journals of Germany, England, and France contain 
many articles on timber treating in mines, but since more 
Than three-fourths of them arc written by persons in- 
terested in some way in the production and the sale of 
special compositions for impregnation, I prefer to use 
in this paper data collected from the mines through 
direct correspondence or personal inspection. 

History of Process 

Information on preserving mine timber before 1910 is 
rather scanty. The first reference I found ('Franklin's 
Journal,' 1831) relates that in 1831 a French engineer, 
Breant, read a paper on wood preservation and showed 
a collection of impregnated wood before a circle of min- 
ing engineers pointing out the great importance of his 
invention to the mining industry. Real impregnation 
seems first to be executed with creosotnatron. This was 
at a time when, in mining, artificial protection of wood 
was not thought of. This may seem strange at first sight, 
the more so since creosotnatron has been used nowhere 
else. Contrary to the custom at anthracite mines, in 
lignite mines the wood is worked up at the mine to re- 
cover, if possible, paraffin. One by-product, and a very 
troublesome one, is creosotnatron, which is often used 
for fuel, although this use is difficult because of the high 
percentage of caustic soda lye. Nor can this be turned 
to waste in streams. Thus, curiously enough, preserva- 

What Is Mining Timber? 

At first it is necessary to answer 
the question, what is to be under- 
stood under the term 'mining timber'; a question 
which will be ' answered rather differently according 
to who is asked. At a mine using the timber, the 
answer would be: mine timber in the narrow sense 
of the word is all timber serving for construction in 
the mine, chiefly the timber for pillars, props, slabs, 
and the tics for the mine railways. This wood is des- 
tined to keep the rooms of the mine open, to secure 
against roof falls and walls slabbing off, and to help win 
the minerals. Mine timber in the wider sense is all other 
timber employed underground and above ground, as in 
shafts, the sheds over the shafts, storehouses, cooling 
towers, and other buildings. Contrary to the general 
opinion of wood owners, mine timber is far from being 
wood useless for other purposes. In fact, it comprises 
many different sorts and classes. Duration of wood is 
not always the deciding factor. The more intensively a 
mine is working, the shorter the continuation of work at 
one spot will be, and it may occur that a place will be 
abandoned or filled with waste only a few days or a few 
weeks after the starting of the work. This case, however, 
is exceptional and is only mentioned to point to the fact 
that, besides solidity, other properties of wood, such as 
the light weight, cheap price, and above all 'warning 
faculty,' are not to be neglected. In former times all 
over the world oak was considered the best wood for 
mine purposes. Yet with the continual rise in its price, 
it has more and more yielded its place to coniferous wood, 
and in the United States the soft wood now constitutes 
nearly one-third of the mine timber. Surely oak wood 
is durable, yet its price is high and the weight twice that 

jHlllllirt 9, 1915 

minim; I'ki s.s 


of pine. The 'warning faculty 1 of pine, too, ii far better 
than thai of i>nk For these reasons the dm of coniferous 
•rood, and especially pun-, ia increasing from day to day. 
The total value of mine timber amounts to about 
$21 000,000 annually in 1 1 1 . - Dnited Btatee in Germany^ 
120,000,000; Austria. 43,000,000 for 45,000.000 cu 
Hut onlj a ft u yean since the mines have begun to con- 
rider the question of wood preserving, to decrease Borne- 
what the immensely increased demand' In the year 
there were in the mining district of Dortmund, 
Germany, 16 mines which treated wood, ami ii;"> others 
that hail made trials. About 1903 the Sileaian Mine 
Timber Impregnation Co., Ltd. (Wolman system , en- 
tered the Bold, and since thru this Company has erected 
over 30 |>lunts in Silesia alone. It will be helpful to re- 
view some of the experiences of the mines. 




S§y 188 



Tar products, mixtures of carbolineum and chloride of 
zinc, creosote oil and chloride of zinc, carbolineum and 
solutions of 'waste salts,' pure creosote, and many other 
oils won from tar — offered often under most quaint 
names and at prices by far exceeding the real value 
('Carbolineum Avenarius,' 'Barol,' ' Cruscophenol, ' 
'Carburol,' 'Exsiccator') were all tried at various mines. 
Not one of these won favor. The extreme improvement 
claimed for some of these oils rested upon some secret 
addition and the promises of advertisements failed to be 
made good. Salts suspended in the oil (such as chloride 
of zinc and chlorine gas in 'Carbolineum Avenarius,' 
copper salts in Nordlinger's 'Barol') are entirely useless, 
as has been proved beyond question by numerous impar- 
tial investigations. In all cases the price was far too 
high for mine purposes ('Carbolineum Avenarius up to 
32c. per gallon). Many mines, too, are able to produce 
creosote from their own by-products and at a price of 
4 or 6c. per gallon. 

The technical methods advooati d were painting I brush 
system . open tank, ami cylinder treatment. The brush 
system proved to be entirely worthless. Open-tank sys- 
tems, provided that the timber is soaked long enough 
and that the oil is hot, give better results Tanks for this 
process were erected al numerous mines (a great uum- 
them by Cruskopf), bul only one mme is today 
using the process with creosote or cruskopheuol ; all 

others ^;i;i in (iermany i use now salt solutions. 

Impregnation in the cylinder has proved the best 
method, provided that the oil is cheap enough, as when 
obtained as a by-protiucl al the mine. That is the case 
with Lothringen mine (Qehrte, Westphalia), that obtains 

the oil at a cost of :;.-. per gallon. All reports show that 
the brush system is worthless, the 
open-tank system gives hut little 
etl'eet, and only the cylinder process 
gives good results. The chief condi- 
tion, however, is the production of 
the creosote by the mine company it- 

If only prolongation of the dura- 
tion were the point of interest, creo- 
sote might be called a very good anti- 
septic. In the course of time, how- 
ever, so many unpleasant features 
have developed, just as with the simi- 
lar creosotnatron, that a great number 
of mines have abandoned creosote. 
Stens, a Royal mine inspector, as a 
result of his experience as director 
of one of the greatest mines, enumer- 
ates these disadvantages as follows: 
' ' Creosote has a piercing, disagree- 
able smell ; many men decline to work 
where wood preserved with it is em- 
ployed ; furthermore, creosote means 
a considerable augmentation of the 
danger of fire ; where the men are sweating at the 
work, which in mining is the rule, the oil causes very 
disagreeable diseases of the skin." The ingredients, 
evaporating from the oil, affect the eyes. The timber he- 
comes very heavy. An impregnation of only 6 lb. per 
cubic foot means, with pine wood, an increase of weight 
of about 20%. These statements were confirmed by a 
communication from the Belgian anthracite mines at 
Mariemont, which used creosote since the year 1899. In 
spite of the very satisfactory results, considering econ- 
omy, the mine had to stop employing this process on 
account of the effect on the workmen. The same hap- 
pened with the creosotnatron, used for more than 50 
years in German and English mines. Most of these 
mines in the last years changed over to impregnation 
with salt solutions. 

The influence of salt solutions on the duration of wood 
in the mines has been long known. The good preserva- 
tion of wood in copper and iron mines where they were 


January M. 1915 




traversed by the so-called 'cement waters.' that is, solu- 
tions of the vitriols made by a conversion of copper and 
iron pyrite, attracted attention long before a regular 
intended impregnation was thought of. In the Spanish 
copper mine, Rio Tinto. timber has stood since the times 
of the Romans. The first artificial impregnations were 
made with the salt brine and abraum salts of salt mines. 
Aitken in 1893 erected two iron tanks at the Xiddrie 
mine in Scotland to impregnate timber with a concen- 
trated solution of kitchen salt and magnesium-chloride. 
The Eschweiler Mine Union (Germany) has used the 
Burnett process since the year 1890. with chloride of zinc. 
This mine, however, was not entirely content with the 

It may seem strange that the old methods of Boucherie, 
Kyan. and Burnett, well proved since the year 1850 by 
the railway and telegraph administrations, remained 
almost entirely neglected by the mining companies. As 
to chloride of zinc, the reason of this fact may have been 
the low efficiency of this salt. The Boucherie method 
met with Other difficulties, mine timber being delivered M 
the mines (on account of the high freight) dressed and 
well seasoned, while the process is intended for use with 
fresh cut wood. The kyanising firms at that time had no 
plants in the mining districts. Thus it came that in mill- 
iner, impregnation at first went its own way. without con- 
nection and totally neglecting the experiences of other 

.Many mines use salt brine (Mori in Saxony. Hagen- 
beck, Humbold Neugliicker Verein, and Wische in West- 
phalia), others tried the processes of Ilasselman, Viscal. 
Aczol, Wiese, Hottger, and Haskin. Most of these proc- 
esses have completely disappeared and none are now of 
greai interest. There was only one of the new processes 
based on the studies of the Austrian engineer named Mal- 
enkowicz, the Wolman process, that has won a leading 
position in mining. Wolman "s metal-salt mixture proc- 
esses, by skillfully measuring the single ingredients, has 
won position among the best processes for timber treat- 
ing. The base of these mixtures is either the well known 
sodium fluoride or the bichloride of mercury. 

To look closer at the demand!, which can and must 

be met today by any successful method of preserving 

especially mine timber, and to Bee how far the vari- 

ous more importaut methods suit these demands, they 
may be summarized as below : 

1. Preservation is to prolong the duration of wood. 
For this purpose the substances employed must be in- 
jected into the wood in efficient quantity, either taking 
small quantities of highly effective substances or great 
quantities of little effective substances. The quantity of 
feeble salts, however, is limited by the quality of the 
wood. Salts can he injected in liquid form only, and 
pine wood cannot absorb more than 22 lb. of liquid per 
cubic feet. The more the concentration approaches the 
point of saturation of the solution, the more difficult this 
becomes. When using kitchen salt, 6 lb. of salt per cubic 
foot of timber should be used. That would mean a solu- 
tion of at least 27 r /, . According to practice it is far bet- 
ter to work with strong effective salts, of which small 
quantities of 1 lb. at most is sufficient. Such salts are 
sublimate, fluoride of sodium, and fluoride of zinc. 

2. Economy is based upon the efficiency and on price. 
As to the efficiency it is difficult to find a fit scale. Often 
the numbers of cultures of fungi on gelatin and other 
substances are taken as a measure for the efficiency. 
Practice must, however, decide. Every culture works 
with a certain fungus, while in every mine, mixtures of 
most different fungi are found upon the wood. It is 
necessary to render the wood prophylactic, that is. to im- 
pregnate before putting in the timber, and to protect it 
against, the strongest enemy to be expected. The meth- 
ods used by the telegraph administration and proved by 
50 years' experience yield the following succession as 
to duration and economy (based on the prices of todays : 
Kyanizing and creosoting; burnettizing with chloride of 
zinc; boucherie process with sulphate of copper. Wol- 
man's process with sodium fluoride may be ranged near 
the kyanizing process. 

•'!. The antiseptic must not increase the combusti- 
bility of the timber, nor must it have a bad influence on 
the mine workers. The disagreeable effects of creosote 
have already been discussed. A mine director plainly 
saiil shortly: "Luckily these creosoted instruments of 
torture are put in only a few mines." Tt would be 
equally bad to raise the danger of fire in coal mines, 
great enough without that, by employing the oil. Creo- 
sote may therefore be dropped from further discussion. 

r\ !>, I'.U.'i 


i Salt tolutioni ihonld be made to penetrate all 
parts of the wood, which can be impregnated, al leaal 
the whole sap When one cannot work with cylinder, 
tin- timber ihonld be immersed long enough in an open 

tank, When the «'Nni baa been wall seasoned tins »ill 
be mffioient in manj oases, provided thai the solutions 
an effective Using sublimate (Kyan'a process . the 
solution may be used cold. Wolman'a Quoric salt mix- 
tare should be used only hot Ifgreal quantities of tiin 
Ut are t>> !»• preserved) it is al any rate bettor to work 
with a cylinder with vacuum and pressure. The cylin' 
den an constructed of iron or of armed concrete (for 

5 The antiseptic musl not destroy t lit» wood. This 
demand seems absurd, and yet several times methods of 
preservation have been employed tor mine timbers, which 
severely affected the wood. I name as the most impor- 
tant in this respect the creosotnatron, tin' Aczol, the Vis- 
sal, the kullia (sodium sincate), and the Ilasselman 
process. In the trial collar or the Petri dish these proc- 
esses have given excellent results, for the wood was de- 
stroyed U) collulosis, and cellulosis is not attacked by 
fungi. But if the fibres of the wood have lost their eon- 
tact, the timber in the mines is soon destroyed. 

From all the hundreds of salts proposed for preserva- 
tion of mine timbers, only two have proved their fitness 
at all. and this may lie considered the best according to 
the present state of knowledge. These are the sublimate 
(bichloride of mercury) and the sodium fluoride. The 
latter is, on account of various reasons, not profitably 
employed pure, but with other salts. These mixtures 
have been studied for years by Wolman. and their com- 
position has been so perfected that any difficulties aris- 
ing of free acids is prevented. 

Sublimate and Creosote 

Sublimate usually is employed in the open tank 
process. The timber is immersed in big concrete tanks 
for a suitable time, the solution being generally of 
0.%%. The invention of cylinders of armed concrete, 
allowing the impregnation under vacuum and pressure 
.Moll construction), and the mixture of sublimate with 
other salts preventing the corrosion of iron cylinders by 
the solution (Wolman invention), afford great advan- 
tages over the old process as devised by Kyan. 

The method of impregnation in cylinders may be 
briefly described as follows: At first the wood which is 
to be impregnated is sufficiently seasoned. After this 
it is put on small cars and carried to the impregnation 
cylinder. The dimensions of this cylinder, of course, 
are adapted to the wants of the mine as regards the 
length and the thickness of the timber. The cross-sec- 
tion, as a rule, is about 6 or 7 ft., which gives good 
working conditions. The length varies from 20 to 150 
ft. The figure shows an establishment of the Silesian 
Mine Timber Impregnation Co.. Ltd. (Wolman system). 
Note especially the small cylinder above the big one. 
When the lye is forced into the wood this small cylinder 
is filled with the solution and is connected with the im- 

pregnation cylinder Aa tin- lye paasea Into the wood 
the latter is always replaced bj influx of solution and 

ilo surface of the wood doea not bee exposed The 

storage tank of the solution is arranged in the basement 

of the plant, with the dissolution lank above it Tins 

must be of considerable dimenaiona on aooount of the 
great quantities of solution which an- needed. 

After the w I has been lu-ouglit into the cylinder n 

is closed and as high a vacuum as possible is produced, 
which is kept on lor one hour. My this ans tin- w I 

is intensively seasoned. Then the solution is sucked froni 

lli.' Storage tank into the cylinder by means of the si ■ 

Vacuum. As soon as III.' cylinder is tilled, pressure is 
produced by means of an air-pump. The temperature 
of the solution is kept at 60 to 70°C.(180°F.). Fast at 
first, then more and more slowly, the wood absorbs the 
solution. The pressure is regulated according to the sort 
Of wood, being between 4 and 8 atmospheres (60 and 
120 lb. per square inch). After two or three hours the 
process is finished. The door of the cylinder is then 
opened and the wood brought out and seasoned. By 
evaporating the water the salts are fixed to the fiber. 

Some general remarks may be appended as to the costs 
of mine timber treatment. The impregnation surely 
needs not to be as intensive as that necessary for ties, 
mine timber serving in most cases but a few years. But 
as untreated wood seldom lasts longer than one year, even 
a prolongation of 3 to 5-fold of the original duration is 
an extraordinary gain. This prolongation is certainly 
to be obtained with a quantity of 1 lb. of sublimate or 
32 lb. of the sodium fluoride mixture to 25 cu. ft. of 
timber. The pound of sublimate costs today 50c. and the 
pound of the salt mixture 5c. Regarding the costs for 
heating the solution, for amortization and interest, work- 
ing capital, and wages, and all other items, these may 
safely be taken to not exceed 5 to 6c. per cu. ft. of tim- 
ber. These statements show clearly that the preservation 
of mine timber on an economic scale is today possible, 
and that the use of impregnated timber in mining is a 
necessity for personal and national economy and for the 
conservation of the valuable forests, that under the pres- 
ent system soon will be exhausted. 

Gold output of the Crown Mines, Johannesburg, in 
November, totaled $1,238,000 from 199,000 tons of ore. 
The profit was $-180,000. There were 660 stamps drop- 
ping for 27.25 days. During the third quarter of 1914 
the following resulted : ore crushed by 660 stamps and 
24 tube-mills. 613,000 tons ; gold recovered, 183,325 oz. : 
value per ton, $6.34 ; working cost per ton milled, $3.72 ; 
profit, $1,364,000. There were 12,682 natives employed. 

The Frontino & Bolivia property, Bolivia, produced 
$423,000 from 33,876 tons of ore during the year ended 
June 30, 1914. This was a small increase over the pre- 
vious year. The profit was $31,700. Reserves in the 
Silencio mine are 16,800 tons assaying $21 per ton. A 
new pump is being installed on No. 13 level, and sinking 
is to be resumed. 



January 9, 1915 

flmpmv©m©iit§ ait ftSn© Trail 
Smdlfteif, Briftislhi Coliuiinnifeia 

•Tliis plant is operated by the Consolidated Mining 
& Smelting Co. of Canada, and in the year ended Sep- 
tember 30, 1914, it treated 374,771 tons of mixed ores, 
yielding gold, silver, lead, and copper worth $6,000,662. 

Expenditure on equipment at the property during 
the year was $571,207. Of this amount, $482,134 was 
spent in improvements to the smelter. This was mainly 
as follows: Rebuilding the lead plant, including placing 
two Wedge roasters, having a capacity of from 85 to 
95 tons per day each ; conveyors and automatic scales 
for handling ore from storage to the roasters, and for 
handling pre-roasted product from roasters to sintering 


pots; three new lead blastfurnaces and extensions to 
building, with crane for handling receivers and by-prod- 
ucts such as matte; a Cottrell plant for clearing the 
blast-furnace gases of lead fume ; flues connecting the 
blast-furnaces with the Cottrell plant ; and new charge- 
ears and some small equipment for the lead-sampling 

Alterations to the copper plant included rebuilding 
of three of the five blast-furnaces and increasing the 
dimensions of two of them ; building of a new smoke- 
stack; repairs to the flues; and installation of a crane 
in the copper furnace building, and rebuilding of the 
launders leading to the slag dump. 

Improvements in the blower-room were the installation 
of an additional blower having a capacity of 40.000 ft. 
of air per minute; extensive repairs to the blower-room 
on account of the rotting of t+mber foundations, floors, 
and retaining walls, all of which have been replaced 

•Abstract from annual report of general manager, R. H. 

with concrete ; rebuilding of the fire-protection system 
was also in ssary during the year; and small expendi- 
tures wire made on tracks, on tunnels for recovering 
ore from storage, and on extra locomotives for charging 
the furnaces. 

The objects of these alterations and improvements 
were to increase the capacity of the plant, to increase 
recoveries, and to decrease costs of operation. 

The lead plant formerly handled a considerable ton- 
nage of high-grade clean concentrate, comparatively low- 
in sulphur and free from zinc, which was supplied 
mainly from the St. Eugene mine. "With the depletion 
of the St. Eugene mine, it has been necessary to replace 
the tonnage, to a large extent, with ore of lower grade 
and of a much more refractory nature, largely from 
the Sullivan mine; and carrying more sulphur and re- 
quiring more capacity for 
roasting and fumacing in 
order to produce an equal 
tonnage of lead. 

In the roasting plant, par- 
ticularly, the seven Godfrey 
roasters with which the 
smelter was previously 
equipped, had a capacity of 
only 25 tons per day each of 
Sullivan ore ; the two Wedge 
roasters, just installed, have 
k capacity each of from 85 to 
95 tons per day, and are cost- 
ing at present about 50c. per 
ton less to operate, the saving 
being mainly in fuel and 

The installation of convey- 
ors handling the ore to and 
from the roasters will still 
further reduce costs of opera- 
tion of the roasters, by sub- 
stituting mechanical equipment for manual labor. 

The costs of operating the Heberlein sintering plant 
have already been materially reduced by the substitu- 
tion of mechanical appliances for hand labor, which 
alterations w r ere made last year. 

The building of new lead furnaces was made neces- 
sary by the condition of the old ones, which had been 
in operation for a long time, and it was considered 
advisable in rebuilding them to place them farther 
from the copper plant, in order to allow for any neces- 
sary extensions to the copper plant ; also to allow for 
better arrangements for charging and handling the 

The installation of the Cottrell plant was necessary 
on account of large losses in fume from the blast-fur- 
naces. The flues and Cottrell plant are now saving ap- 
proximately eight tons per day of material high in lead, 
a considerable portion of which was previously lost. 

Improvements to the copper plant were made neces- 
sary by the wearing out of jackets on the old furnaces. 

Januan 9. 1915 


In rebuilding, two of then have been inoreteed u 
ban) 300 to (20 inches in length, tad from 4J to 50 
Inches in width el tin- tuyeres. The enlarged furnaces 

■how en inereeee in smelting capacity of from 
i;n t., mi-, over the older ones. This inereeee in oapao- 
ity will reeolt in a propartionete deoreeee in eoel of 
Ubor, end probably in a decrease in ooel of coke per 
ton of ore smelted 

i.ili.v speaking, it is thought that the changes 

made in the smelter daring the past two years will 

result iii sufficient saving in costs of operations and 

ries i" pay tor themselves within the next two to 

three years' operation. 

•As a result of the war, German chemists have been 
confronted with a number of very important technical 
problems. Some of these problems are old ones that 

have l n rendered acute by the war's interference 

with commerce, while others arc newer and are nil the 
more difficult because little attention had been given 
them before the opening of hostilities. The chemists 
are co-operating in a marked manner to furnish sub- 
stitutes for gasoline and rubber. 

As regards the supply of gasoline. Germany has in 
the past depended almost entirely upon foreign mar- 
kets The greatest quantities of this important fuel 
were imported from Russia. Galieia, the Dutch East 
Indies, and especially Rumania. Normal imports at 
this time can be had only from the last-named country. 

It has been necessary, therefore, to turn to substitutes, 
the most important of which are benzol and alcohol. 
Benzol is a by-product of the manufacture of coke, and 
the German production amounts to about 160,000 tons 
per year, of which about 60.000 tons are used for chem- 
ical purposes, especially in the dye and color industries. 
About 100,000 tons is available for fuel purposes. As 
the consumption of gasoline in Germany amounted to 
179.800 tons in 1912, it will be seen that a considerable 
part of the gasoline can be replaced by benzol. 

Benzol possesses valuable qualities as a fuel, contain- 
ing 9560 heat units per kilogram (2.2046 lb.), and being 
only slightly inferior to gasoline in this respect. A 
disadvantage in winter is the high freezing point. Ben- 
zol freezes above zero (32°F.), and then must be raised 
to about 7° (44.6°F.) before it will melt. Efforts are 
being made to overcome this disadvantage by adding 
nitrogen. There is no danger of freezing if alcohol is 
added, and mixtures of benzol and alcohol have proved 
very successful. There is no shortage of alcohol for 
motor purposes. Toward the end of August the avail- 
able supply in Germany amounted to more than 26.000,- 
000 gal. On account of complications arising from the 
war. the average distillation was reduced by 40 per cent. 

The by-products of the distillation of brown-coal tar 

•Report of deputy consul-genera] Daniel J. Waters, Berlin, 
November 21. 

may also be considered as nubatituti The 

number of substituti dl sources would lx 

siderablj inoreaaed it carburetors could be adapted to 
other fuels than the ideal gasoline. As progress is being 
made in this direction tin- shortage of gasoline In 
less important. 
Problems arising from the shortage of rubber are 

much more difficult than those arising from the motor 

fuel situation. This is already shown by the Ln< 
in rubber prices and by the strict military regulation 
of its use. The importation of caoutchouc India rub- 
ber has i ii interrupted, and the synthetic production 

of this valuable material was neglected before the war. 
The necessity For a substitute exists today, and the 
scarcity of natural caoutchouc will focus attention on 

the development of 8 Synthetic process. Several satis 
factory substitutes have been evolved by combining ace- 
tone and benzol products with caoutchouc. A certain 

suppl] of caoutchouc can be maintained by the manu- 
facture of regenerated caoutchouc from scrap rubber. 
This rcgciierated-caoutchouc industry is highly devel- 
oped, and lnrge stores of old rubber exist. 

The problem of providing the industries and agri- 
culture with nitrogens is a serious one. The importa- 
tion of Chile saltpeter has been interrupted., and the 
country is short nearly 800,000 tons of this material as 
measured by the consumption in 1912. It is estimated 
that one-third of this quantity is used in manufactur- 
ing and the remainder in agriculture. It is used in the 
production of nitric acid, which is so important in the 
manufacture of explosives. The existing stores of salt- 
peter have to serve, in the first place, the purposes of 
the army, and a substitute for a half million tons for 
agricultural purposes must be supplied. Sulphate of 
ammonia, a by-product of coal distillation, is the most 
productive source of nitrogen that Germany has. and as 
a fertilizer is a formidable rival of Chile saltpeter. It 
is though that a larger percentage of nitrogen in the 
form of ammonia can be obtained from coal than has 
hitherto been done. The synthetic production of am- 
monia may be of assistance in furnishing a supply of 
combined nitrogen, and, finally, the manufacture of 
cyanamid, a mixture of atmospheric nitrogen and cal- 
cium carbide, will supply the country with an impor- 
tant nitrogenous fertilizer. 

The imports of jute have been cut off by the war. 
This fiber is needed in the manufacture of bags, which 
are, of course, in great demand. Cellulose is used in 
making a substitute for jute, and a kind of paper is 
manufactured out of which bags are made. 'Textilose,' 
a composition of paper fiber and cotton fiber, is being 
considered as a bagging material. American resin in 
large quantities is needed for the tightening of fibers 
in the manufacture of paper. For this purpose there 
is no satisfactory substitute. 

Extraction at the Cam & Motor mill, Rhodesia, is 
improving, and during November, 11,748 tons of ore 
yielded $86,000, with 73% recovery. 



January 9, 1915 


Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are invited to use this department for the discussion of tech- 
nical and o'.her matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor welcomes the expression of views con- 
trary to his own, believing that careful criticism is more valuable than casual compliment. Insertion of any con- 
tribution is determined by its probable interest to the readers of this 4ournal. 

Shall Ab Imsftiitafte Express Opkioias? 

The Hoard of Directors of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers being divided in opinion as to the ad- 
visability of adoption of the proposed amendments to 
the constitution designed to remove the present restric- 
tion on any expressions of opinion by the Institute, ap- 
pointed a special committee to formulate the arguments 
for and against them. The committee consisted of E. 
(iybbon Spilsbury, P. Lynwood Garrison, Sidney J. 
Jennings. James P. Kemp. Albert R. Ledoux, Rossiter 
\V. Raymond. Thomas T. Read, and Horace V. Winchell. 

The report submitted was as follows: 

Arguments in Favor 

1. The Institute with its membership of 5000 is the 
recognized organization of the mining profession, and 
should he able to take action as such. The limitations 
placed on the activities of the Institute by its constitu- 
tion are a denial to its members of liberty of action and 
judgment, and thus in conflict with the essential prin- 
ciples of democracy. 

2. The Institute has Income so strong and so truly 
national in its make-up that whatever necessity once 
existed for guarding against its passing into the control 
of R small coterie which might ust' its influence for im- 
proper ends, has long since passed away. 

3. There is no reason to suppose that the member- 
ship of the Institute will he less competent to deal with 
its problems in future years than at the time the con- 
stitution was drawn up. It is reasonable to assume that 
situations may arise in which the course of action laid 
down in past years will not be the best to follow. 

4. There is no reason to suppose that the Institute 
will at oner abandon its successful policy of 43 years. 
All that is proposed is to permit the Institute to take 
action as a body in the rare instances in which it is 
clearly desirable to do BO. 

5. The Board of Directors must, according to the 
constitution, represent every section of the country. Tt 
is made up of responsible men who give to Institute mat- 
ters such careful consideration that it can be safely as- 
sumed no hasty action on any matter will ever be taken. 

Arguments Ag Unst 

1. The certificate of incorporation states the pur- 
poses of the Institute, namely: "to promote * * * by 
means of meetings for social intercourse and the reading 
and discussion of papers, and to circulate by means of 

publications among its members the information thus 

obtained, and to establish and maintain a place of meet- 
ing * • * and a library of books * * •:" These func- 
tions are specific and were intended to be exclusive. 
Other means, equally praiseworthy, are excluded, if they 
tend, as shown below, to impair the effectiveness of these. 

2. The success of the Institute as a forum of free dis- 
cussion would be impaired by making it a tribunal of 

3. On the important questions likely to arise, the 
members are certain to be divided; and the defeated 
party will become less hearty in its loyalty and co-oper- 

4. The voting membership comprises three nations; 
and is therefore not a suitable body to decide questions 
of policy, etc., affecting one nation only. 

5. Every man who joins the Institute is entitled to 
the assurance that its influence will not be used for or 
against any scheme or proposition affecting his views or 

6. The prohibition which these amendments seek to 
remove was put into the former constitution and re- 
peated in the present constitution as the result of long 
experience. It has worked well for 43 years, and it 
should not be removed without the provision of careful 
safeguards against abuse of power. If there are certain 
acts now forbidden, which would be useful and un- 
objectionable, then the certificate of incorporation and 
the constitution should be amended by specifying such 
acts. Let us put a gate where it is really desirable to 
go through the fence, but not tear down the whole fence. 

Another Argument For 
The Editor: 

Sir — The mining industry of the United States is 
second in importance to that of agriculture, and repre- 
sents from mining and metallurgical establishments an 
annual product that amounts in value to $4,600,000,000. 
There are engaged in this industry 2.300,000 men. and 
there are probably depending upon it for a living, some- 
thing like ten to twelve million people. It is safe to 
assume that a majority of the men who direct and con- 
trol this tremendous industry are members of the A. I. 
M. B. and that the Institute is the only organization of 
which this may be said. 

Pew of its members realize that the Institute is today 
prohibited by a drastic clause in its constitution from 
exerting any influence for the direction, protection, and 
fostering of this vast and fundamental constituent of 
our civilization. Article VIII, Sec. 2, of the constitution 
reads as follows : 

January 9, 1915 


"The Institute -l<n li nol Mm responsibilities for 

aiiv statements of fact or opinion advanced in the papen 
..[• discussions at it^< meetings. Neither the Board uor the 
Institute shall official!) approve or disapprove any tech- 
nical or scientific opinion, or of an) proposed enterprise 
whirii is outside "i" the management of the meetings, dis 

suasions and publications of (he Institute, and the i ■ 

itiK-t of its business affairs by the Board of Directors." 

And Ben, 3: 

"Special committees may from time to time be ap- 
pointed by the Board t" make investigations and prepare 
reports for presentation to the institute, but no action 
shall be taken hinHing the Institute for or againsl the 
conclusions embodied in any such reports." 

It is now proposed to amend these sections by striking 
out part of the inhibiting clauses <>f the two articles, so 
that they »ill read as follows; 

"Sao, 2. The Institute shall not assume responsibili- 
ties for any statements of fact or opinion advanced in 
the papers or discussions at its meetings." 

"Sec. 3. Special committees may From time to time 
be appointed by the Board to make investigations and 
prepare reports for presentation to the Institute." 

Some objections have been raised to this course, chiefly 
on the ground that it places too much responsibility in 
the hands of the Board of Directors. In reply to this 
objection it is submitted that no organization composed 
of a large number of individuals or of diverse interests, 
Can be properly conducted without delegating to the rep- 
resentatives of the members on a hoard of directors, suffi- 
cient power properly to conduct, control, and direct the 
policy of the organization as a whole. 

The question now before the members of the Institute 
is therefore primarily one of policy. Shall it, or shall it 
not, lie the policy of the Institute to protect and foster 
this industry and those engaged in it ? The certificate of 
incorporation of the Institute states: 

"That the purposes for which this corporation is to 
be formed are : To promote the arts and sciences con- 
nected with the economic production of the useful min- 
erals ami metals and the welfare of those employed in 
these industries by means of meetings for social inter- 
course, and the reading and discussion of professional 
papers, and to circulate by means of publications among 
its members the information thus obtained; and to estab- 
lish and maintain a place of meeting for its members 
and a hall for the reading of papers and delivery of 
addresses, and a library of books relating to subjects 
cognate to the sciences and arts of mining and metal- 
lurgy. ' ' 

It is furthermore submitted that although the Insti- 
tute has done a vast amount of good in furthering the 
objects ahove set forth, it has fallen far short of the pos- 
sible usefulness it might have achieved had its policy 
not been hampered and restricted by the constitutional 
provisions it is now proposed to amend. It should be 
pointed out that when the Institute was organized in 
1871, and for perhaps 25 years following that date, the 

desirability, or necessity, for an organisation that had 
the power now sought, was nut s,, evident as al pp 

Within recent years it has become more and more evi 
ili-iii to thus.- most closely in touch with mining matters 
throughout the whole United stairs, thai it these inter 

eats arc to be wisely served and directed it mual !"■ 

dour by some such organization as the A. I M. K . and 
that if tin- Institute fails to realize its responsibility 
and opportunities in this respect, some other organiza- 
tion, perhaps less well qualified, will arise ami do it. 
To In- more specific, it is not intruded that the Institute, 
through committees or otherwise, should ever stoop to 
legislative lobbying in order to achieve its ends, hut it 
should he tree, when occasion offers, to advise, recom- 
mend, and point out. as a body of experts, what are the 
needs of the mining industry, so that efficiency, economy, 
and national well being may lie thereby attained. At 

the present time there is absolutely no other organiza- 
tion which is so well fitted to do this. Responsibilities 

in life must not lie shirked by organizations of individ- 
uals such as the Institute, any more than by individuals 

The responsibilities 'that would he thrown upon the 
Hoard of Directors of the Institute, should these amend- 
ments he adopted, would probably be no greater than 
those now carried by the Board of Directors of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, which has a mem- 
bership of over 7500 and the highest qualifications for 
entrance of any of the great engineering societies. The 
A. S. C. E. has no clause in its constitution prohibiting 
its directors from acting upon public questions, and its 
policy is, and I believe always has been, never to shirk 
responsibilities of this kind. That the men whom its 
members have elected as directors are able, broad 
minded, and of sound judgment, is attested by the re- 
markable growtli of the Society in the past 20 years. Its 
membership has increased in that period from 173:! to 
7635, and its material resources from #60,000 in 18!I4 to 
$650,000 in 1914. Surely the A. I. M. E. is just as 
capable of selecting its directors and has just as many 
able men to draw from. 

Has the Institute grown to manhood, or must it still 
he hampered by the swaddling clothes of infancy and 
irresponsibility? Is it still to be an organization solely 
for the purpose of publishing papers and holding social 
meetings; or a great body of experienced and capable 
mining men, truly representative of a great national in- 
dustry, anxious for its welfare and ever ready when 
called upon to lend a helping and directing hand? If 
it now fail to recognize and accept its responsibilities it 
cannot complain if others less competent undertake to 
do what it neglects, and a great national industry suffer 
m consequence. 

Thoughtful and well informed men must recognize 
that the most important need of the present time is that 
the great industries be wisely guided. Governmental in- 
terference in business is becoming more and more fre- 
quent ; this condition must be accepted as a fact, for it 


January 9, 1915 

caiuiol be successfully opposed. It will be for good or 
ill. accordingly as it is directed, Are the mining en- 
giueere, from timidity or a childish policy, to sit still 
ami let tin- mining industry become a foothall of poli- 
tics, the butt of labor unions, ami continue under the 
spell of an archaic mining law I Engineers surely desire 
neither to engage in politics nor to antagonize labor, but 
this organization, representing the most and best ele- 
ments of a great industry, must be free to speak when 
occasion demands and be in a position to lay before the 
public what is known to be the truth and believed to be 
.1- the interests of all. The importance of this mat- 
ter cannot be overstated, and its consideration may not 
safely be delayed. If the Institute is not to progress and 
ie the responsibilities of a vigorous maturity, and 
no greater than those entrusted to the American Society 
of Civil Engineers, it surely will revert to senility that 
has but one end. 

F. Lynwood Garrison-. 

Philadelphia, October 29. 1914. 


The Editor: 

Sir — The paper by Mr. Creighton and the editorial 
comment elsewhere in this number are timely, and re- 
mind tlic readers of the Mining Press of one of the live 
subjects of thought, today among students of ore de- 
posits. The importance of colloids and their applications 

lain forms of ores seem to have been brought out 
among the first by F. Cornu. who published a paper in 
March 1909, in the Zi it. fiir prak. Geologie, p. 81, with 
the translated title of 'The Significance of Colloidal 
Bodies in the Oxidized Zone of Ore Deposits.' Various 
amorphous minerals were cited in illustration, of which 
limonite is. of course, the most frequently present in the 
iron hat. Mr. Cornu considered that colloids or 'gels' 
' gelatinous bodies! were limited to the oxidized zone, so 
far as his observations extended. The elaboration of 
this subject was taken up at the International Geological 
Congress in August 1913. at Toronto, by Paul Krusch. 
whose paper, delivered and printed in German, has the 
translated title 'Primary and Secondary Ores, Especially 
with Regard to the Colloid (Gel) Ores and those Rich 
in Heavy Metals' (proceedings of the Congress, p. 275: 
translated by Adolph Knopf and printed in the Mining 
iiin! Scientific Press, September 13, 1913). For some 
years before the delivery of this address, Krusch had 

giving attention to the distinctions between pri- 
mary and secondary ores, as one familiar with his writ- 
ings readily observes, and had directed his attention in 
consequence to colloids. He became especially impressed 
with their importance in the hydrated silicates of nickel, 
which constitute one of the sources of this metal. He 
was led to the conclusion that .these ores, of no definite 
crystal form, developed in the alteration of peridotites 
as 'gels.' Further reflection convinced him that other 
primary colloids might be precipitated in veins and 

far below surface conditions, but he realized that acid- 
ity in solutions operates unfavorably to the formation 
of colloidal ores. We have learned, however, from the 
observations of W. II. Emmons and F. F. Grout of the 
University of Minnesota, and of their student E. T. 
Hodge, that descending acid waters soon became alka- 
line, whereas ascending waters, as was long known, are 
almost, if not quite, universally alkaline. To this ex- 
tent ascending waters are not unfavorable to 'gels.' 
Krusch reminds us that gelatinous silica has been main- 
tained for several years at temperatures of 80 to 100° C, 
and that sulphide 'gels' may develop above 100°C, but 
that their tendency is strong to crystallize. We infer, 
however, that colloidal sulphides could separate in up- 
rising alkaline waters at temperatures as high as 100°C. 
We are also impressed with the fact that quartz veins 
might begin as gelatinous silica up to this temperature 
and that they might contain sulphides likewise colloidal. 
but that in time all might become crystalline. The im- 
portance of the experimental work of Messrs. Hatschek 
and Simon.* referred to in the editorial, now appears. 
The wonderful banding of precipitated metalliferous 
compounds in 'gels' of various sorts reminds us of 
agates and to some extent of banding in quartz veins. 
Nevertheless, we are reminded that opaline or even ehal- 
cedonic quartz is rarely seen in mineral veins such as 
we mine, but that crystalline quartz is the form of 
silica with which we specially deal. The banded struc- 
ture of the last is, however, strongly reminiscent of 
some of the beautiful figures given by Messrs. Hatschek 
and Simon in their paper before the Institution of Min- 
ing and Metallurgy. Certain white and amethystine 
quartz veins handed with cloudy black argentite which 
one can observe underground at Pachuca and Guana- 
juato. Mexico, recall to mind most strongly the cases 
of artificial precipitation. 

In the case of other banded veins such as the Frei- 
berg types, with their alternations of sulphides, barite. 
calcite, fluorite, and quartz, or the wonderfully devel- 
oped ones at the Enterprise mine, Rico, Colorado, as 
beautifully figured years ago in the Trans, of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Mining Engineers by T. A. Rickard. 
and in which quartz and rhodochrosite alternate with 
zinc-blende and rich silver minerals, w r e cannot so well 
infer an original colloid condition. We know of no 
colloid forms of some of the components, at least as yet. 

Areeent contribution of Messrs. C. F. Tolman, Jr.. 
and J. D. Clark in Economic Geology for September 
last, describes the precipitation of the chalcocite mole- 
cule in finely divided colloidal form from solutions con- 
taining an excess of hydrogen sulphide, on the escape 
of the gas. The colloidal form, however, quickly passed 
to the crystalline, but the reaction possessed no fea- 
tures incompatible with conditions in uprising waters 
in mineral vein formation. 

We cannot avoid the conclusion that colloids or 'gels' 
may be a form of matter calling for serious attention 

•Inst, of MIn. and Met.. April IS, 1912. 

.laiiu.ii' I. 1915 


in our studies of the formation of minerals, whether 

in tin' VHilose i«r tin- de.| mee 

noer IT. I'M i .1, F, K. 

■ influence of colloids in ore formntion is just be 
ginning in be appreciated, though the hot that silica 
enters solution as a colloid and travels aa such is old 

Lead Wool m Cyantiidlaltiioini 
The Editor! 

Sir .\ Dumber of years ago, while in Mea York 
City, I bad my attention attracted to the lead-wool 
used in calking gas mams, and at once thought of using 
it in conjunction with sine a-- a precipitating agent in 
the cyanide process. Accordingly, 1 took some ten 
pounds of it with in,' t>. Nicaragua ami used tin' lead 
wool as an intermediate stratum in the head compart- 



inent of one of our zinc-boxes. The fibres, being just 
like the zinc shaving but less elastic, lend themselves 
easily to the process. As the precipitate, for the month 
I used this lead-wool zinc-shaving couple, was decidedly 
the higher grade (36.1% bullion against a 25% bullion 
precipitate), I thought it might interest some one else 
to give this material a more thorough test than I could 
give it. I realize there is nothing new in the use of 
lead or its salts, but I have never seen this lead-wool, 
which is analogous to zinc shavings, used, and I wish 
to offer this as a suggestion for some one who has the 
opportunity to make a conclusive test. 

New York, December 12. 1914. Arthur Feust. 

Lak® Superior Copper JMiuniirag 

The Editor : 

Sir — In the article appearing in your issue of Decem- 
ber 5, by Thomas T. Read, he speaks of "large masses 
of copper, one of which weighed 130 tons." In my 
weekly copper letter published recently I referred to one 
mass of copper which will represent a total weight of 
thousands of tons, before it is exhausted. This mass was 
found at the Trimountain mine, one of the Copper Range 
Consolidated group. It has been producing chunks, 
weighing from one ton to one and a half tons, for over 

r, and in. -n me still QOtliug 1 rou. tin- sam, 

an, I likely will be for son,,' tun.- to , ie. Tins mass was 

found 50 ft. above the 25th level ami bus run continn 
oualy, without a break down \o the -Tib level, a distanoe 
m marly 800 ft. i" date, It appears jnal as persistent 
now as ever. It averages a width of hi ft and is about 
6 or 8 in. thick. Technically there might be some idea 

thai this is a tissue.- and mil a mass, but I believe lb.' 

beat aiitii.u-ities are agreed that ii is in reality a mass, as 

it appears in tbe I' wall ami did mil pinch mil al any 

point, Two miners work on it nil tin- time, using a chisel 
propelled by air. Its richness is such that wages are 
paid out of the chipa cul off by the chisel. Both Calu 
met & Hecla ami Abmeek developed somewhat similar 

formations. l-'..r eighl levels. SOU ft. on I he angle, No. 1 1 

shaft of the Calumet cut through this solid slab of cop- 
per. It occurred in the hanging, however, and was not 

tinuous. Abu k's fissure picked up solid slab cop- 
per at the surface and carried it to the sixteenth level. 


Houghton, December 111. 19] I. 

Slhiov elmg MacMiraes aft Flail Rawer 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have noted the on our shoveling ma- 
chines at Flat River, by E. H. Leslie, which appeared in 
your issue of November 21 and am interested in the data 
given regarding the performance of these machines at the 
Federal Lead Co. and the St. Louis Smelting & Refining 
Co.'s properties. 

The statement regarding repair costs on the machine at 
the St. Louis Smelting & Refining Co.'s plant is erroneous 
and does an injustice to the machine. The only repairs 
necessary on this machine while in use at that plant were 
the renewal of one axle and two cast iron truck wheels, 
and repairs on a motor armature, which had been injured 
by exceedingly low voltage. The cost of these repairs 
could not possibly have been over #75, and the other 
charges mentioned in the lump sum of $322.48 include 
the cost of putting the machine under ground, erecting 
it, arranging the tracks and power wires, and later re- 
moving the machine. They are not properly chargeable 
to repairs. 

William Whaley. 

Kuoxville, Tennessee. December 2, 1914. 

[We are, of course, glad to publish Mr. Whaley 's criti- 
cism of the figures presented in Mr. Leslie's article. As 
stated in that article "The repair charges of 0.033c. per 
ton at the St. Louis Smelting & Refining Co.'s property 
will appear high, but it must be said that the loader was 
operating at a shaft three-fourths of a mile from the ma- 
chine shop and was charged with the time of the men 
going and coming as well as when actually working on 
the machine. The loader was new at the time of the test 
and it was thought best not to have the operating men 
look after the repair w-ork." The repair cost as pub- 
lished is that supplied from the Company's record of the 
performance of the machine. — Editor.1 



January !». 1916 


Most of these are in reply to questions received by mail. Our readers are invited to ask questions and give 
information dealing with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

Tungsten is principally Bsed in the manufacture of 

high-grade tool steel and for filaments in electric incan- 
descent lamps. 

A plant using a flotation process, to treat 600 tons 
of ore per week, is to be erected at the Mt. Lyell copper 
mine. Tasmania. This will deal with ore from the Lyell 
Comstock mine for the present. 

Sii.vkk contained in the 135,853,409 11). of copper re- 
covered from Michigan mines in 1913 amounted to 295,- 
173 nz. This was equal to 0.04 ox. per ton of 'rock' 
treated. 7,016,370 tons being stamped. 

Iron to the amount of 0.023';; was found in analyses 
of tomatoes grown in Florida. The soil in which they 
were grown contained 1.06 to 1.3% iron. The acidity 
in this vegetable is supposed to be due to citric acid, ac- 
cording to C. A. Brautlecht and G. Crawford, in the 
Journal of the American Chemical Society. 

FlREPKOOF is a term loosely used in building construc- 
tion, and conveys a false sense of security, because at 
present nothing now known is strictly fireproof, but 
may be as 'fire resistant' as modern ingenuity and mate- 
rials can make it. Gypsum is now used as a fire-resist- 
ant or for steel protection on account of its low con- 
ductivity of heat, low amount of expansion, incombusti- 
bility, lightness, strength, adaptability, water effect, and 
small corrosive effect. 

Gold AND silver extracted by processes in the United 
Stales in 1913 was as follows, according to the U. S. 
Geological Survey : 

Process. Gold, %. Silver. ;. 

Placer mining 24.9 0.2 

Amalgamation 21.5 0.6 

Cyanidatlon 31.2 19.7 

Chlorination 0.3 .... 

Smelting 22.1 79.5 

Total 100.0 100.0 

Power house for the Mt. Margaret hydro-electric 
scheme of the Jit. Lyell company is 110 ft. long, 72 ft. 
wide, and 30 ft. high, of concrete. It contains four 
turbines of 1750-hp. each, driving fonr 1200-kw. gener- 
ators: three turbine-driven exciters of 50 kw. each; a 
10-ton traveling crane; and a complete controlling and 
distributing apparatus mounted on a switchboard of 
white marble. The two transmission lines are five miles 
long. The sub-station is of concrete, and 73 ft. long. 
66 ft. wide, and 27 ft. high. Rainfall at the power-site 
was !I4 in. during the six months ended September 80, 

1!H 4. The blower building for the blast-furnaces and 
converters is of steel, and 100 ft. long, 45 ft. wide, and 
27 ft. high. Four electrically driven turbo-blowers, each 
of 25,000-cu. ft. capacity, and two of 3500-cu. ft. capac- 
ity, were installed in that time. Power was delivered 
at tin end of November. This electric plant is valued 
at $600,000. 

A study of the copper deposits of Ely, Nevada, by 
Alfred Pi. Whitman, resulted in the following conclu- 
sions: (1) that the matrix of the ores is an altered moii- 
zonite-porphyry, and that this rock is the oldest of the 
local monzonitic rocks which have intruded the Devon- 
ian and Carboniferous sediments, as a series of stocks; 

(2) that the chief agency in producing the present state 
of alteration of this rock was descending meteoric water, 
and that the present ores are due essentially to a dif- 
fused secondary deposition of chalcocite by this process; 

(3) that this enrichment occurred above the ground- 
water level; and (4) that it had occurred before the 
eruption of the rhyolite. 

Bab cold imported by England per year amounts to 
as much as £47,000,000 in normal times. Owing to war 
risks, the metal has been held in Australia. Africa, Can- 
ada, India, New Zealand, and other colonies, and the 
Bank of England has made advances on deposits. In 
this connection the following official notification has been 
made regarding Australia: "The government of the 
Commonwealth of Australia having agreed to receive, on 
behalf of the Bank of England, deposits of gold, the 
bank is prepared to purchase, on the basis of $18.66 per 
ounce, such bullion as may be deposited to its order in 
the name of the Commonwealth treasurer. The gold is to 
be deposited with the federal treasury at Melbourne, and 
with the Commonwealth Bank at the capital cities other 
than Melbourne. The Bank of England is also prepared 
to purchase sovereigns ($4.80) of legal tender weight 
deposited as above in the name of the Commonwealth 
treasurer." An advance of a sum representing 97', of 
the value of the gold and of the sovereigns is to be paid 
On account, and the balance adjusted on delivery in Lon- 
don, after deducting the expenses of shipment., etc., tn 
England. The use of the word 'purchase' in regard to 
sovereigns suggests an unusual method of dealing with 
coin legally current throughout the British Empire As. 
however, it is intended 1 1 1 ;i 1 coins of legal current weight 
thus deposited, should change hands on the basis of their 
face value, the arrangement merely affords facilities for 
placing sovereigns to the credit of the Bank of England 
in Australia, subject to reimbursement of the expense 
attaching to transit 'home.' 

Jantian 9, 1915 



JOPLIS, VI 8801 /.'/ 

ItKWl.u • •! mi Pah Vi mi. km. I'll,, li Mil, MiKhii i\ 1816. 

om suii-mi m hid Vim-, 

The vaiiif hi zim .iii.i i. ,i,i ores shipped from the 20 dig 
Dl MIsaonrl-KanaanOhlahoms In 1911 totaled 111,627,337, 
Compared with 114.366.461 In 1913, and 118,043,379 In 1913, 
which was the banner rear. 

The accompanying table BbowB the shipments of zinc and 
Ifail ores from the district for the past year: 

usmiiiv bright. The factor of addi i 

demand for spelter reeultlng from 1 1 1 . Duroi>ean war. Ex 

porta within the paat few months have been n than 66 

times heavier than the] would i»- under normal conditions 
The heavj demand inr export continues, and U is doubtful n 
the combined production ol all the i nltcd States imelters 

can nu'ii this demand, and ai the same time Buppl) tl ver 

growing i lestii demand, which is now much better in view 

■ it the recent eastern railroad rate decision, which will mean 
ed Bteel orders, these, in turn, creal ei mar- 


Glty-Cartervllle, Missouri 

loplln. Missouri 

Ulaml, Oklahoma 

Dnenweg, Ulssourl 

Alba-Neck Clty-Purcell, .Missouri... 

Galena, Kansas 

Oronogo, Missouri 

Granby, Missouri 

Law ton, Kansas 

Spring City-Saglnaw-Spurgeon, Mo. 

Filville-Klondike. Missouri 

Carl .1 unction. Missouri 

I 'art haw. Missouri 

Cave Springs, Missouri 

Aurora. Missouri 

Sarcoxie, Missouri 

Springfield, Missouri 

Wentworth. Missouri 

Quapaw, Oklahoma 

Seneca. Missouri 








i 8,729,060 























157,. Ml 


in;. him 

















































201 .Mh 












144. HI7 










47. 921 






Total shipments 

Average value per ton. 

...481,533,343 $9.34S.7ul 32.562.300 $354,103 S2.9S4.526 $1,924,523 $11,627,327 

Missouri 37S.5U1.105 

Oklahoma 57,350,500 

Kansas 45.6S1.73S 


PBODCCTION iiv Status 

$7,488,631 32,562,300 




%?,:a, KI3 



4,126. 57S 







Total 481,533.343 $9,34S,701 32.562,300 $354,103 S2.9S4.526 $1,924,523 $11,627.: 

While 1914 was a year ot comparative inactivity, the out- 
look for a heavier production and higher prices in 1915 is un- 

ket for zinc. 

While shipments from the districts in the aggregate 

■■-■ i ■ •>_- '.. ■ <■— -jf* .._;Jai»3 

"JSa^fc. m ijg*Si8»s> . 


— -"*'' 'T^saaHna*- .baaaVftJa 

*%^ ^S?E 

w ^^m^ 





January 9, 1915 

than iii the pas) ii-v i|ionanl 

gains, tono o sho\i ft steal development are 

.Miami. Oklahoma, Alba-Neck Clly! Missouri, and Lawton. 

The aew year dawns with ore prices hi a much betti i 
than they were a year ago, the present offerings being $50 to' 
metallic ilnc, or about $i» lift t ■ r than al iius 
time in l :i 1 4 This is from $•"• to $6 higher than they wi 
the beginning of 1912, while the outlook is such thai there is 

reason to preai tl - prices will continue 

throughout ihe year. 


American Interest i\ Mines i\ the Fighting Zone.— Copped 

i\n Ri -iiiikk Nous.— Cut man Potash. 

There has been considerable interest here in the raid made 
on the properties of the Caucasus Copper Co. hy Turkish troops 
last month, not only because J. P. Morgan & Co. has a con- 
siderable Interest in the properly, lull also because K. T. White. 
formerly manager al the Braden and Balaklala mines, was 
wounded by the troops while he and his staff were engaged in 
ipting to defend the property. The mine is only a few- 
miles from the Turkish frontier in Hie MourgOIll valley. 40 
miles from Batuni. The Russian government is reported to be 
taking prompt action toward regaining control of the district. 
hut the latest advices are that it is still in possession of the 
Turks, and both Ihe mine buildings and the town occupied by 
Ihe employees axe reported to have been burned. The many 
friends of Mr. While have made strong efforts (0 learn bis 
whereabouts and the extent of his injuries: a cablegram re- 
ceived recentlj stales thai be has made his way safely to Tillis. 
and has already al si completely recovered from his wound. 

The spirited note sent by ihe Stale Department 10 the 
British government in regard to the seizure and detention of 
American ships carrying cargoes destined to neutral countries 
has been the chief theme of interest during the week. The 
position taken bj our State Department is so sound and 
moderate, in view of the circumstances, thai no offense could 
legitimately be taken by Great Britain. On the other band, it 
Is somewhat doubtful whether that country will take any- 
effective action, and it is quite probable that, as in earlier 
protests, tin re will be a long delay before any reply is made al 
all, and then finally a statement will be made which is gen 
erally reassuring, but does not improve the situation as a mat- 
ter <it tact in any way. Other interests than the copper pro- 
ducers are affected by the policy which Great Britain has been 
pursuing, and the rubber manufacturers are reported to be in 
a bad position. The larger part of the rubber production of 
the world is grown in British colonies, and the rubbi r 
to London to be sold at auction, being shipped thence to the 
United States. Great Britain has put an embargo on the ex- 
port ot raw : uhber. and all the material is accumulating on 
the London docks, while the manufacturers here cannot get 
any except by buying direct from Brazil. The Brazilian pro- 
ducers quite naturally take advantage of the situation to 
charge all they can get. If ihe rubber manufacturers could l>e 
assured that the situation would remain as it is now, they 
would bf likely to go ahead and pay higher prices for their 
raw material, passing the increased cost along to the con- 
sumer, but it is quite possible, of course, that England may 
raise ihe embargo at any time and thus turn a flood of cheap 
rubber loose on the market, thus ruining the men who stocked 
up at tile high prices. 

Returning 10 the Bubji n r, it is interesting to notice 
thai - note was senl to Great Britain another ship- 
ment of copper has been seized, and it is reported that alto- 
gether something like 15, ,000 lb. of metal ha? been detained 

in this way. This is alone enough to unsettle the copper mar- 
ket, as there is no knowing when the question of the disposal 

ol this metal will bi oi what will be done with It, 

in this country during Augti- 
nnd November ol this year averag iO.000.000 lb 

pared wiih 7."..' ,000 lb. average lor the same months last 

year The export figures look fairl) good, considering .be dis- 
turbed conditions, but when it is remembered that nearly one- 
quart ei- of Ihe coppei shipped in those four months is being 
held and will possl Ihe situation is not nearly so 

favorable as might he supposed. 

The German Kail Syndicate has at last arranged m repay 
to p. .tash consumers In ibis country the $1,000,000 refund 
whirh was authorized last June by the Reichstag, being the 
amount paid bj the Americans under protest during 1910 and 
1911 during ihe operation of Ihe German potash law which 
was enacted to do away with all the favorable American con- 
The payment is noi to be made in money, but In potash 
salts, which are to be shipped at a valuation of $4 per ton 
higher than the former contract prices, on the basis that the 
extra cosl ol shipping at this time justifies the advance. Since 
Ihe Syndicate has notified the trade that it is obliged by the 
war to rescind Its regular contracts, it is somewhat puzzling 
ihal ii is able to arrange to pay its indebtedness in potash 
salts. The situation is not likely to cause American consumers 
to feel especially grateful to the Syndicate, and the California 
producers when they get into snide should reap the benefit of 
this natural irritation. 


Put ro Sepabate Railroad and Producing Corporations. 

A bill deemed of importance is one introduced in the House 
of Representatives by Congressman Adamson. chairman of 
the Committee on Interstate Commerce, and prepared by the 
Attorney General. It seeks to divorce railroads from produc- 
ing corporations. .Mining is included in the purview of the 
bill. This bill proposes that from January 1, nil 7, it shall 
be unlawful tor any railroad to transport In commerce any 
articles or commodities thereafter manufactured, mined, or 
produced by such railroad company, or under its authority 
directly or indirectly, or by any person, firm, or corporation 
subject to iis control in any way. the prohibition applying 
irrespective of whether there is any relation, direct or in- 
direct, between the railroad company and the producer of 
any article or commodity at the time of transportation. Lands 
for the foregoing purposes cannot lie owned or controlled in 
any way. Violations will be deemed a misdemeanor and be 
punishable by fines or imprisonment. 


Boston's Interests la Cotton and Copper. — Boston Finances. 
— Burton ami Lawson. — Qii.xi v A. Shaw ami Ai.iiert H. 
Hoi. hex. — Calumet & Cordis. 

The International diplomatic duels ovei cotton and copper 
as contraband of war have been of vital concern to Boston. 
fully as much so as to the South where cotton is grown, 
or to the West where copper is recovered. Boston stock 
market and textile interests have been watching the admin- 
istration closely, and hoping that a way out would he found 
without affecting our neutral attitude. 

There have been comparatively few changes in the bank- 
ing and stock brokerage alignment beginning with the new- 
year in Boston. Boston houses have weathered the storm 
caused by the war abroad as well as any in the country, 
and are ready for greatly Improved business in iiu.'i, 

Richard .1. Burton, a former confidential secretary of Thomas 
W. Lawson. and a few years ago a member of Hie Curb, who 
made some sensational markets tor Champion Copper. Hum- 
bold! Smelter .Mines, and Southwestern Development Co., has 

• I'll . 

MI\I\i. I'KI SS 

i i» again iletlng 

' mid H ( Mi.' 

. i..u which »»» organl 

to ■ Inlng ironnd n< si the Hui 

■ < ■ cii. mi,' hi. i .1- 

.1 sto.U 01 

.in.- from $i to l". Champion la called 
ol the I'm i. Til.- Companj ii 
it l upper Hill. Taoi county, New Mexico 
Burton usta Lawaon metbodi ..i advertising and manlpula- 

i hum Hint Hi.- Thomai w Lawaon i 

entlj Inactive in ■ market way. Ha came Baal irom 

ore ill.' fir, Hon. to vote tor bis relative by 

Samuel W. McCall, anil to settle some litigation, 

mmedlatel] weal back Weal 

Tin- Utah Metals & Tunnel Co., a reorganisation of the 

Utah Metals Co., is going back on Hi.- Boston Curb, and it 

ted thai the atrong Interests behind the issu.- will 

i broad market for ii. Tin' old Company had a capl- 

in oi 17.500.000, which has been reduced to $: 00 

The ..1.1 Utah Metals stock nevi i made a good Bhowing on 
Ding at Its highesl price the first day It appeared 
for trading, around $2.60 per share. From this emineni e II 
led to less than 10c., and a reorganization became nec- 
The new Company is a Maine corporation, and 
. Bsessmenta has accumulated over $100,000 cash in 
ihe treasury for development purposes. The Company is a 
latlon of several mining companies and several tunnels 
in Bingham, Utah, and is known locally as the 'Big Tun- 
nel.' The Company own- the larger part of West moun- 
tain, at the head of Bingham canon, separating it from Mid- 
dle caflon, at the foot of which is the town of Tooele, the 
site ol the International smelter. The Company owns 
ores, half of which is available for development. 
00 acres of proved mineralized ground. It has a tunnel 
completed from Bingham to Tooele, a distance of over two 
miles. Mining, transportation, and supplying water are the 
three principal sources of income. The Clark and Coolidge 
- - and l>. C. Jackling are prominently identified with 
the present Company. The stock, $1 par. has been selling. 
prior to listing, up to $1.2". per share, and higher prices are 
predicted for it. 

Quincy A. Shaw, president of the Calumet & Hecla Mining 
Co.. has been for some time past suffering from mental break- 
down, and grave fears are expressed as to his recovery. His 
deplorable condition is said to be directly traceable to brood- 
ing over the protracted and bitter fight in the Lake district 
with the Western Federation of Miners, in which the miners 
were defeated. The Shaw interests are among the largest 
taxpayers in Boston, and he has one of the largest among 
the famous estates at Pride's Crossing, Massachusetts, a few- 
miles out of Boston. His neighbors are Henry C. Frick. 
W. H. Moore of Wall Street, .John Hays Hammond, and other 

The late Albert F. Holden. mining engineer and financier. 
Connected with Alaska Gold and several Boston mining enter- 
prises, made provision for the disposition of a large part of 
his estate in establishing in Lakeview cemetery, at Cleve- 
land. Ohio, his home, near the Forest Hill estate of John 
D. Rockefeller, a mortuary arboretum, a sort of Westminster 
Abbey, as a place of honor for the burial of the illustrious 
dead. Mr. Holden, some time before his death, enjoined his 
executors against throwing his mining stock holdings upon 
the market in settling his estate, with the result that there 
has been no disturbance in the market values of these stocks 
due to liquidation of his interests. 

One of the active Curb stocks recently has been Calumet & 
Corbin. a Company w-hich has had many disappointments in 
developing a paying proposition. Calumet & Corbin, after 

■1 III IllUki: 

lan.i 1 

"'"' '" relond 

district near Idaho B| 

ind have 

1 whan the Calumel * 1 
icqulred 11 si a«.. the record! 1 

11. t . urnlnss In two years. The former , 
ompany is James Wllopx, an • > 1 • 1 Cornish miner, who 
iperlntendenl ol the Ml 
dated Mining Co., in the Lake district, In order to give his 
attention to the development ol the Company's properties 

111 Corbin, Montana, without result. The Calumel it I 

"iii. is entered Into an agreement with C \ O'Leary, 
or Minneapolis, who agreed to ecure toi them a pi 
and finance im efforts to make good. Mr. O'Leary baa been 
111 Bo ton recent)} In 1 nectlon with the making ..1 ■ mar- 
ks! for tin.- Issue, which bai >een sellln 1 am ■". to 
20 cents, 


NiPissi.Na ami Mi — Dabraoh Options. — Petkrso.n Laki 
Surplus. — Pebblk Supply. — Wades Dispute. -Dominion 

Com. Company. 

Tin- Nlplsslng company has taken up its option on the 
Teck-Hughes property in the Kirkland Lake district, although 
recent developments hardly proved as encouraging as was an- 
ticipated. No. 3 vein on the 185-ft. level, though it produced 
some rich ore, proved considerably shorter than the shoot at 

75 ft. The McKinley-Darragh of Cobalt has given up Its 

option on the Jupiter mine, the stock of which received quite 
an impetus for a while on account of the general Impression 
that the deal would go through. It is understood that the 
McKinley-Darragh interests made a new proposal which was 

not entertained by the Jupiter directors. The quarterly 

statement of the Peterson Lake company shows a surplus of 
$20S,471 on hand. During the quarter, 967 ft. of driving and 
cross-cutting, and 255 ft. of rising was done. 

The board of conciliation appointed by the labor depart- 
ment at Ottawa, to investigate a dispute over wages between 
the owners of the Miller Lake-O'Brien mine, Gowganda, and 
their employees, reports that all danger of a strike has been 

The supply of pebbles for the Cobalt and Porcupine mills 
from France and Denmark having been cut off by the war, a 
shortage was feared, but this has been averted by the arrival 
of a large consignment from Newfoundland. 

The Dominion Coal Co. of Sydney, Nova Scotia, has had a 
poor year on account of the war, although the Canadian mar- 
ket has considerably improved. The total coal shipments of 
the Company by the St. Lawrence route totaled 1,921,491 tons, 
compared with 1,698,131 tons last year, and would have been 
still larger bad trade conditions been favorable. The approxi- 
mate output from the Company's mines in Cape Breton will 
amount to about 4,300,000 tons, against 4,740,000 tons in 1913. 
The Springhill collieries, a sudsidiary, will produce approxi- 
mately 430,000 tons, compared with 381,000 tons last year, so 
that the net decrease in the combined outputs will be about 
390,000 tons. The Company is finding it practically impos- 
sible to compete with American operators for a share in the 
South American trade, in view of the advantage enjoyed by 
the latter in freight rates with the afd of the Panama canal, 
and the markets which might under ordinary conditions be 
found in Norway and Sweden are closed by the war. The 
starting of an additional blast-furnace by the Dominion Steel 
Co. will relieve the coal company of a considerable part of the 
surplus slack which has accumulated, and work is likely to be 
steadier during 1915. 



January 9. 1915 

|0A of the 

ek as tol'i by <"<r special correspondents nn<l reflected by the local prea 



November returns of the mines on Douglas island were as 

Details of work. .Mexican. Treadwell. United. 

Stamps working 120 540 240 

Ore crushed, tons 17.850 69,699 38,514 

Concentrate saved, tons 397 1,693 849 

Gold recovered $39,199 $129,450 $82,681 

Profit 4.D14 1S.091 6,070 


Construction expenditure was $8601, $35,629, and $21,192, 


A nominal output of quicksilver has been reported to the 
U. S. Geological Survey from both Maricopa and Yuma coun- 
ties in 1913 and 1914, in the Mazatzal range and in the Quartz- 
site district, respectively. The production from both localities 
greatly decreased in 1914. 


Damage by floods to the town of Bisbee is estimated at 
rrom $10,000 to $15,000. 

Yavapai County 

The Western Gold & Copper Co. has been incorporated to 
operate its mine at Providence, the post-office being at Huron, 
with W. W. Lewis as superintendent. During the past few 
weeks the Company has spent about $2000 in sampling and 
examining the Great Belcher and nine other claims. The assays 
gave an average of $6.75 per ton for the large deposit, which 
so far is 54 ft. wide. In the four principal claims over 5000 
ft. of work has been done, including two 500-ft. adits, a 700-ft. 
shaft, and other connections. It has been decided to mine the 
deposit by open-cut methods, which will make a low mining 
cost. A 150-ton plant consisting of crushers, rolls, amalga- 
mating plates, concentrators, and a flotation process will be 
erected in the near future to treat the gold-silver-copper ores. 
F. W. McConnell and G. Demaine are associated with the Com- 
pany as mining engineers and assayer, respectively. 

A plant using the Wagner process is under construction at 
some mines near Crown Kin?;, by the Grey Kasle Reduction 
Co. This electric process is to treat gold-silver-lead-zinc ores 
of the Wlldflower and other properties near by. The Hog- 
Back' at Jerome has been sold to F. S. Stephens, of Scotland. 

for $2-..miiii. • A good tonnage of 5 to 40' r copper ore is said 
to exist. 

Calaveras County 
Suits for damages tor alleged injury to cattle and vegetation, 
etc., by smelter fume have been begun in the United Stales 
District Court of San Francisco against the Penn Mining Co.. 
which has a smelter at Campo Seco, by Leroy Southworth. who 
asks for $17. .'.11. and .1. G. and F. W. Foster for $2n.^st. 

Inyo County 
The new hoist, mill, and cyanide plant of the Wilshire 
Bishop Creels company is ready for work, but on account of 
the winter the mine will not be unwatered till February, and 
the plant in April. K. \V. Walter is superintendent. 

Nevada Counts 

(Special Correspondence.) — San Francisco people are exam- 
ining the Orleans mine, and a few men are examining ore- 
shoots in an old rise. The property was formerly operated 
by the Sultana Mines Co., and for years was a large producer. 

Driving on the vein recently cut near the 900-ft. level of 

i in Union Hill mine is under way. The shoot is about two 

feet wide, with some free gold visible. George W. Root and 

associates are planning an early resumption of operations at 
the Kenosha, about four miles below town. It is understood 
the Kenosha Mining Co. will be reorganized, the shaft deep- 
ened, and extensive lateral development carried forward. A 

small force is working at the Gold Mound, from which some 
ore was recently crushed at the Golden Center mill with satis- 
factory results. Ore ranging from $15 to $50 per ton is 

being mined at the Colling property, near Rough and Ready. 
There are three small veins crossing the main orebody. the 

latter assaying $9 per ton. Recent work in the Champion 

mines, in the Nevada City district, has been highly satisfac- 
tory.^ The Phoenix mine has been taken under bond by 

J. A. Largent, and arrangements are being made for exten- 
sive work. Formerly known as the Sneath & Clay, the prop- 
erty produced much rich ore. but has been idle several years. 
It is equipped with an excellent hoisting and pumping plant. 

also a 10-stamp mill. A good deal of new work is going on 

in the Oustomah, now operated by the owners. Mill ore has 
been opened at several points in new territory. Frank Morgan 
is superintendent. 

Grass Valley. January 2. 

The new 20 stamps at the Empire mine are now working. 
They weigh 1370 lb. each, and in place of amalgamating plates 
a new device of Frank Hooper is used, giving good results. 
Owing to San Francisco capital being interested, the Dead- 
man's Flat district is showing greater activity. Work at 

the Golden Center of Grass Valley is giving good results. 

Placer County 

During 1913 there were 253 proofs of assessment work done 
on gold mines filed for record. It is expected that 1914 will 
show a total expenditure of about $30,000, an increase over 

the previous year. It is alleged that the Yukon Gold Co.'s 

dredge on the American river, near Auburn, has been polluting 
the water supply of Fairoaks and Orangevale, and an injunc- 
tion suit to prevent operation of the boat was started. The 
Company does not admit the charge, but will help remedy the 
trouble by assisting to construct a settling basin in the North 




inppl) illtoh. n ued •" 16000, "i which 

in.- Oompan) »ni eontrlbnti • d the ki Doimdo Dredg 

11000, on The VuK *>mpau] 

iimt li is unfair!) attacked, <u> the Mountain Quarries 
Oo and r.i. iii. Oaa * ElecUrti Co, dapo 
sn v-i v ooi n n 

Owners t.i the Bhaata Balmonl near Htrouli »iu res 

».>ik earl) i" February. Tba mini was eloaad oo account o! 
Hi. copper market. The or* oontalni copper, cold, and fllvei 

Sikiikv i '.'i ■ n 
The Alleghany district shows encouragement tor the coming 
year. There has bean plant) of employment tormlnera Deep 
mining is io be ii iViuurc. The Rainbow mine i» being worked 
under lease Quartz and gravel mining la being carried "ii in 
the same adu of the North Fork mine, near Forest, by two 
eompanlee. Hoih are doing well. The Tlghtner continues to 
prodnea rloh ore. while proapeeta at the Plumbago, Eldorado, 
Twenty-one, Sixteen to-Oue, and others are good. 

Toauncm Oouirn 

A drainage adit over 5000 ft. long has been driven Into 
Table mountain near Columbia, and in February miners will 
start to extract the gravel which before could not he reached 
on account of the water. According to A. I.. Horner, general 
manager, a great deal of gold will he recovered and several 
hundred men employed. 

Yni.v County 

The Guggenheim Interests have made a final settlement on 
several claims acquired on the Yuba river. MarysvUle people 
were interested in the deal. 

Gilpin Court* 

Owing to the Frontenac and Aduddell mines, in Russell 
gulch, being closed, the output of this county in 1914 will 
show a considerable decrease. These were large producers. 
A number of other properties which are idle contain profit- 
able ore Efforts are being made to open some of them on 
(juartz hill, where are the Kansas. Burroughs, and Gunnell 
veins. The latter is worked through the Newhouse tunnel. 

ore being Heated at the Argo mill. The Lake mine, owned 

by H. Sayre, is one of the best producers at present. It is 
operated at 1700 ft. through the Big Five tunnel, ore going 
through to Idaho Springs. The November output was about 
{30,000. The Weekly Register-Call estimates the year's pro- 
duction of the county at about $1,000,000. 

Lake County (Leadville) 

The weather at Leadville has been cold, and on one day 
last week the temperature was 1° above zero. On December 
27 the maximum was 38° and minimum 4° above zero. There 
has been fear of a shortage of water for the mines. The 
Iron Mine ditch, which is very low at present, supplies many 
properties. There has not been much snow to augment 
the supply. The Wolftone has connected a pump with the 
Carbonate Hill reservoir of the Leadville Water Co., and 
others will have to do likewise. 

Teller County (Cripple Creek) 

Cripple Creek mines produced $1,165,855 from SI, 250 tons 
of ore in December. The smelters received 5000 tons of 
$55 ore, while the local plants treated material assaying from 
$2.10 to $7 per ton. Dividends paid in 1914 were as follows: 

Golden Cycle $1,005,000 

Portland Gold 360.000 

Vindicator Consolidated 270.000 

Elkton Consolidated 200.000 

Stratton's Independence 100,000 

Mary McKinney 78,567 

EI Paso Consolidated 50.000 

* Development I 

(Strattoo ,,, 

Nea Haven 

'••i'ii ,n 

Bold Kim; |„ 

ited (estimated I 

Strong (aal ited) 

T,,,H| 11,89 

Profile ol leasing companies and li mated) 250,000 


13,1 1 


Cabboi i Com 1 1 

iS|„-,iai Correspondence.)— A 50-ton cyanide plain is being 
erected here h) T. ll. Aldlck. The orebody to i»- treated 
Is of considerable atse, being a low-grade quarts, and when 
blasted 86% crumbles to about S mesh and finer. No mill 
is necessary, and the product cyanides readily, the gold being 
ver) line. Walter K. Posley is superintendent. 

Villa Rica. December 26. 

Shoshone County (Coeub u'Alene) 

In reviewing the mining outlook of the district, The Wal- 
lace Miner states that while 1914 produced no records, it was 
significant of work done which will have a bearing on the 
future. The most important achievements were the new proc- 
esses for recovering more metal in the copper, lead, and zinc 
ores, mainly flotation systems. Also the process being tried 
by the Bunker Hill & Sullivan company to do away with 
smelting the mill products. There were numerous important 
mine developments, and ore reserves show increases. Dull 
times have not been felt so much in the Coeur d'Alene as 
in other parts of the country. 

The predicted probable fight between the Washington Water 
Power Co. and the Montana Power Co. has started. The for- 
mer has filed a complaint against the Montana Power Co., 
the Thompson Falls Power Co., the Federal Mining & Smelt- 
ing Co., and the Tamarack & Custer Consolidated Mining Co., 
alleging conspiracy. The Washington company asks a re- 
straining order forbidding the defendant companies to erect 
transmission lines and selling power, claiming that the two 
power companies have not filed articles of incorporation in 
Idaho nor appointed resident agents. Some interesting points 
will be raised in the suit. Meanwhile the Montana company's 
lines are being extended to the mines. 

The Bunker Hill & Sullivan company paid dividend No. 208 
on January 4, amounting to $81,750. The total to date is 

$15,792,000. Two 6 by 14-ft. Chalmers & Williams patented 

adjustable quick discharge tube-mills are being installed in 
the Hunter mill, and not the Hardinge type as published in 
the Press of December 26. A 5 by 14-ft. C. & W. mill had 
been previously at work in this plant. 


Silverbow County 

Excepting development, mining has been suspended in the 
Original mine of the Anaconda company, and work will be 
resumed in the Badger State mine, which was closed in Au- 
gust. The 1000 tons daily cut off from the former will be 
made up by a similar quantity from the latter. 

Churchill County 
The Nevada Hills mine produced 6313 tons of $6.21 ore in 
November, of which 44.4c. per ton, or $2797, was profit. Assets 





amounl to $25 icluding Bllvei worth $28,739, less $0429 

overdraft al the ban] The annuo.] report will lie disn 
early In Februal 


1 Alines Co. has closed its New 
York transfer I Any future transfers of shares will 
be niadi iiield. On February _7 the twenty- 
first dividend, of 16c per share, will lie distributed. The 

fourth rise above 1017 ft. In th^ Jumbo Extension has cul 
$28 to $1H4 ore at a .height of to tt. it oontalne gold, silver, 

and copper. There is now 9 ft. of ore ill a rise above 1750 

It. in the Atlanta. Three feet of this assays $60 per ton. Inn 
the seni ml average is $23 per ton. 

According to A. A. (odd. the line from Nenzel to the Roches- 
ter .Minis Co.'B mill, a distance of ll miles, is finished, and 
is carrying material to Rochester. The new mill shou'.d ue 
ready by February 15. The ore-shoot In the Codd lease is 
8 ft. wide, i' 10 per ton. Ore reserves are 12,000 tons 

on the dump. 2000 tons in stopes. and 40,000 tons blocked out 

in the old vein. The Big Four is shipping up to 40 tons 

of $25 to $35 ore daily. The Rochester district's output is 

[50 tone per day. The two-stamp mill of the Forvilly- 

Rochester Mines Co. has produced $18,000 to date. The 

Seven Troughs Coalition mine produced the largest amount 
of gold in its history in December. The last bar was worth 
S~ The (J. S. Geological Survey estimates the silver out- 
put ol Rochester in 1913 as 701.407 ounces. 
Lincoln County 

At the Amalgamated Pioche the No. 1 shaft of the Raymond 
and Ely mine has been sunk to 1400 ft., and sou ft. ol 
cutting has heen done. The orebody there is as strong as at 
1200 ft. Stoplng is under way between these levels, the zinc 
ore assaying 40' , zinc. $2.50 gold. 80 oz. silver, and 2.5' , lead. 
Shoots of rich lead-silver ore are also found. According to 
Trippe & Co.. of New York, a mill is to he erected to treat the 

Lvov CcilNTV 

At the Nevada-Douglas mill, concrete and framework of 
the ore-bins is complete. Excavating for the crushers is done. 
Work on the digester is well on. also on the absorption towers. 
Generally good progress is being made, although the weather 
has been cold. 

Nye County 

The r, S. Geological Survey estimates the output of the 
Tonopah district in 1014 as 577,000 tons, yielding 11,757,000 
.». silver, against 11,563,437 in 1913. The gold output was 
$2,660,000 and $2,613,843 respectively. The output of the dis- 
trict in the last week of 1914 was 8960 tons, worth $ls7.i";n 

The report of the Belmont for the quarter ended November 

30. 1914. shows thai ihe revenue was $72s.l7n: net income. 
nd due from smelters, silver stored, loans, and 

cash was $1,333,637. Some encouraging developments were 

made in the Montana last week. The Extension company's 

new 150-hp. Nordberg hoist is ready for work. A Rockwell 

duplex melting furnace is being erected. Shareholders in 

the Mizpah Extension have ratified the lease and option to 
the Tonopah .Mining Company. 

The three main operating companies now at work in the 
Manhattan district are the Big Pine, White Caps, and Con- 
solidated. The White Caps works the 10-stamp mill and 
cyanide plant recently operated by Mushett and Wittenberg 
on Big Pine ores, and treats about 50 tons per day. The 
mill work is under the supervision of .1. P. .Montague, some 

time at Tonopah. The mine is developing well. About 250 

tons of ore is mined daily from the Big Pine, of which 126 

:oes lo the tube-mill. The Manhattan Consolidated 

is to sink Its Thi Associated mill is making 

recovery. The U. S. Geological Survey estimates 

the yield of Manhattan in 1914 to be )"' , less than in 1913. 

Win ii Pi m Cm sty 

111.- Cumberland and Mulligan claims at Osceola i 

subject Of a lawsuit between F. 1). Goody and J. H. Marriott. 

i'h.- latti i owns twelve-fifteenths ami Mr. Goody, ll 

has i ring with him. and may stop a deal with 

iple. An injunction has been granted, ii 


The a more liberal mining law. an. 

to enci oil industry in New Mexico, are til- most 

.in recommendations made by state land commissioner 
R. P. Ervlen. He hopes to see both recommendations carried 
out bj the legislature that convenes January 12. The present 
mining law, lie declares, is too stringent, particularly in rela- 
tion to prospecting. 


In the suit of Mary Belle Whitehill p. the Chino I 

Co. and another for $20,000 damages in connection with an 

accidi nt in a street of Hurley, the plaintiff was awarded $8800.' 

Lincoln COUNTY 

The Alto Light & Power Co.. capital $150,000. has been in- 
corporated at Santa Fe to supply electric power to mining 
properties in this county. The new concern is an auxiliary 
of the Wildcat Leasing Co.. which is operating near White 
Oaks, in the county. Construction of transmission lit: 
started some time ago. and the power-plant is heinu enl 
for greatly increased service. 


Baker County 
Ten ot twenty stamps at the Golden Gate mine near Green- 
horn are ready for work. The mine Is well developed. 
Jackson County 
1 1 is proposed to erect a custom mill in Giants Pass. An 
examination of the district mines is to he made to see how 


much ore is available for supply. E. H. Richard is cb 
of the committee. 


Tile itinerary of the U. S. Bureau of Mines Rescue Car X". :' 
in this state is as follows: .Midvale, December 21 to 3all 

Lake City (University of Utah), January 3 to ll: Arthur. 

i • 1913 

\1I\IV. I-KI--J5S 


'riiv Moscow mine, in the Stat district, shipped 11 

worth 11(00 .■.nil. in December, thi ■ , > »» t an 

in Sovei riie ii.» -imii does »w»j with Ihe i 

ind the mountain, Developments at s "" 
I mill ii i her. 

Sai i Laki Coi v 1 1 
The i tah Coppei Co.'e mine ami mill was stopped from 
ler -7 to the end ol the rear. This ni t" 
il vacation to employees, and make necessary repairs. 

In the CardlO mine, In the south lork ol the Big < 

wood caftan, the rlM Is up 50 n . showing 10 ft. ol ore assay- 
log it.) os, sliver and There has been BBC 

or or* shipped averaging $30 per ton. From 12.691 ions 
of ore. Del earnings "i the Utah-Apex in November were 

117,260. Transactions on the Stock Exchange ol Halt Lake 

City totaled 3,887,020 shares, worth (693,473, In 1914. The 
value in 1913 was $1,234,629. 


a shipment ol mineral specimens from this state has been 

sent to the expositions at San Francisco anil San Diego. The 
assistant mine commissioner, Joseph Daniels, is in charge of 
the collection from the various mines. Spokane is to be the 
headquarters of the Stewart Mining Co. of Idaho, which had 
an office at Butte. M. W. Bacon is general manager. 

The I'nited States Assay Office at Seattle received gold 
valued at $8,770,058 In 1914. Of this. Alaska contributed 
$4271,441; Yukon. $1,018,521; Washington. $27,907; and Ore- 
gon. $111,507. Since its establishment in 1S9S it has received 


Crook Cointv 
The Moorcrofl oilfield. 12 miles north of Mooreroft on the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad, is described in Bul- 
letin 5S1-C of the U. S. Geological Survey, by V. H. Barnett. 
About $200.0UU has been spent on development, with a return 
of about $1000 in oil. It has been thoroughly prospected. 
and the future is not encouraging. 

The possibilities of oil in the Big Muddy dome of these 
counties is also described in the above-mentioned bulletin. 
The Salt Creek field was developed on a dome-shaped struc- 
ture, and prospectors are busy searching for similar formations 
in the state with fair results. The conclusion is that if water 
is found at the top of the Big Muddy dome it will be useless 
to test further, but if dry rock or gas be found, oil may be 
struck lower down in the flank of the fold. 

British Columbia 

The Hedley company's power-plant had a trial run during 
the last week of 1914. It will develop 1800 h'p.. or twice as 
much as the old one, and cost about $200,000. On December 
;;i a quarterly dividend of :!'/ and a bonus of 7'. was paid. 

The new shaft of the Casey-Cobalt mine is nearly finished, 
and a station will be started at 400 ft. during January. Seven 
drills and two stoning machines are working underground. 
The mill is treating S5 tons per day. There are 130 men em- 
ployed in the mine and mill. 

The Hollinger made a profit of $152. K44 during the four 
weeks ended December -. and a total of $1,630,620 for the year. 
There was $1,080,000 paid in dividends. 

R 8 Bortironn rad, H 

«h i.wwmm i has return d 
il s. in\i 1 ,. Vl ., ,.,. London tot Hi xl< o In i 

I'lll UM.IMi Mi C! vmn. »|,„ 

weeks In San Fran.: turned to Toronto 

W. <:. Amu u-iiv manager fot the Or* Cblmnej vim 

Ltd., of Ontario. Is in Nova Bcotls examining a mining |iro|e 
••in tin thai Company, 

W, 0. Bvi v it i is now with the Hardlnge Conical Mill Co, 
neer in the West, and has offices in I 
tei building, Denver, Colon 

v i Shkriuan has resigned as superintendent ol the Inter 
state-Callahan mine in Idaho, and II is stated thai he win 
o Mexli .1 i gage In rnrnli 

Ciiarlks w. Newton, ot Butte, who recently resigned as 
niendent of the BUtte-Ballaklava, has been appi 
.-up. i-lntendent In Mr. Sheridan's place. 

a. il. Boyd is now with the C. H. Shaw Pneumatic Tot 
"i I '.liver. Colorado. Mr. Boyd was formerly with the Den- 
mi Hock Drill Manufacturing Company. 

WALLACE N. Tanner has been promoted to the position of 
chief engineer of the smelter plants at Anaconda and Great 

Falls. For Iwo years Mr. Tanner has been chiel i ngi r . . I 

the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. at Butte. 

E. D. Mkikii. president and chief engineer of the Heine 
Safety Boiler Co.. died December 15. Mr. Meier was a dis- 
tinguished mechanical engineer widely known in the profes- 
sion. He was the founder of the Heine company, and its 
success and growth for many years was practically entirely 
due to his efforts. 

Thomas Cruse, died, aged 7S. on December 20. at Helena. 
He was one time owner of the famous Drumlummon mine at 
Marysville. Ciuse was a prospector, but not the proverbial 
one. for he died rich. In 18S6 he sold the Drumlummon for 
$1,000,000 cash, and a large and profitable stock interest in 
i lie property. He invested in land, livestock, and mines to good 
advantage, and lived a useful and honorable life. In a quiet, 
unassuming way he contributed largely to public benefactions 
and private charities. 

The Seismologicax Sooiety of America bulletin for. Decem- 
ber contains a great deal of interesting matter pertaining to 
earth movements in various parts of the United States and 
the world. 

The Indiana Academy op Science held its thirtieth annual 
meeting at Indianapolis on December 4 and 5. There were 
numerous papers read on bacteriology, botany, zoology, chem- 
istry, engineering, geography, geology, mathematics, meteor- 
ology, physics, and human life. These were restricted to from 
5 to 25 minutes each. 

The Washington State College at Pullman wHl hold its 
annual winter school of mines from January 4 to March 29. 
and six courses will be given. Tuition is free, only a small 
charge being made for materials used. The school will be in 
charge of Francis A. Thompson, head of the department of 
mining engineering. 



January 9. 191g 


Weekly Summary of Prices of Shares and Metals 

I@tl&l Pris©§ 

San Iram-isco, January T. 

A ntlmony 1 •"• — 15 $4 

oppei i :: '- — 13 a 

I'll; lead ' »5 

Quicksilver (Mask i (51.50 

Spelter • — "'* 

Tin 84 '= Id 

y.iiv .i tst, 100-kg. xlnc-ll i cases :» 

(By wire from New York.) 
NEW YORK, January 7. — There have been good domestic and 
export demands for electrolytic copper, and the price advanced 
to 18.26c Lead Is quiet at 3.80c, and spelter strong and ad- 
vancing at 5.50c per pound. 


Below are given the average New York quotations In cents 

i. nee, "t fine silver. 


1 48.50 

Ian 1 Holiday 

2 48.60 

:i Sunday 

i ix.:.-. 

r. < . iv:.- 

e, ix. -.:, 

Average week eliding 

Dec. 2 49 3.1 

9 4».»1 

■• 16 49.83 

■' 23 48.66 

" 30 4 8.65 

.Ian. 6 48.6.. 

Monthly averages. 

1913 1914. 

Jan 63.01 57.58 

Pen 61.25 57.53 

Men 57.87 58.01 

Apr 69.26 58.62 

May 60.21 58.21 

June 59.03 56.43 


Julv '.^ 7" 

Aug 5932 

Sept 80.68 

Oct 60.88 

Nov 58.76 

Dec 57.7:: 



hut there has not 

The past tveek's market has been Bteady, 
demand from India or China. 


The primary market for quicksilver Is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price Is fixed in the 
open market, and, as quoted weekly in this column, is that at 
which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the carload can 
usually obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting but a flask 
or two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. Average 
weekly and monthly quotations, in dollars per flask of 75 lb. 
are given below: 

i tec 

Week ending 

id 52.60 

17 52.50 

Dec. 24 58.00 

31 52 50 

.Ian. 7 51.60 







Monthly averages 



1913. 1914 

July 41.00 37.50 

Aug 40.50 80.00 

Sept 39.70 76.25 

Oct 39.37 53.00 

Nov 39.40 55.00 

Dec 40.00 53.10 

June 41.00 

The average price of quicksilver in 1914 was about $49 per 
llask. irregular business done during August and September 
making a true average difficult to obtain. A resume of the 
situation in 1914 appears on page 90 of this issue. It Is re- 
ported that two lots of 1000 flasks each came from Italy to New 
York since the war started. 


in New York, in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages. 

1913. 1914. 

.Inn 50.15 37 85 

Feb. . . .49.07 89.76 

Mch. .46.95 3s.Hl 

.\pr. ..49.00 36.10 

Slav 49 10 33.29 

June 45.10 30.72 


July 40.70 

\ue 41.75 

Sept 4:.'. 4." 

Oct 40.61 

Nov 39 77 

I lea :: 7 . r. 7 

33 in 

Tin Is quiet at 33 to 34c. per pound. It is reported that a 
fairly large stork Is being held In New York, hut nol lot sale. 
Th- possibility of an embargo on shipments from Bngland and 
in stiaits has been discussed. 



rolytlc in New York, in cents per pound. 

I 'ate. 

Dec. ::l 

Jan. l Holiday 

3 Sunday 

i us; 

.', 13.00 

6 13.25 



Average week ending 




u TS 
. .12.70 


. .12.75 
. . . 12.H2 


Jan 16 54 

Feb 14.93 

Mch 14 7- 

Apr 15.22 

Mav 15.42 

June 14.71 

Copper averaged 13.5c. 


1914. 1913. 1914. 

14.21 July 14.21 13.26 

14.46 Aug 15.42 12.34 

14.11 Sept 16.23 12.02 

14 19 Oct 16.31 11.10 

13.97 Nov 15.08 11.75 

13.60 Dec 14.25 12.75 

per pound in 1914, against 15.5c. in 

1913. Shipments of metal from Michigan In 1914 totaled 53.933 
tons, or 107,866.000 lb. The Anaconda output in December was 
11,800,000 lb., sgainst 12,700,000 lb. in November. The Com- 
pany s total in 1914 was about 230.000,000 lb., compared with 
-'71.ii29.240 lb. In 1913. The Nichols Copper Co., operating a 
large refinery at Laurel Hill. New York, has passed its quar- 
terly- dividend on account of the copper situation. A resume of 
the situation last year appears on page 89 of this issue. 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound or dollars per hundred 
pounds. New York delivery. 

I ::i 3.80 Nov. 

Jan. 1 Holiday Dec. 

2 3.80 

3 Sunday 

I 3.8(1 

5 3.80 


Average week ending 

25 3.90 

2 3.80 

9 3.8U 

16 3.80 

23 3.80 

30 3.811 

6 3.80 





July . 
Aug. . 



Nov. . 


Dec. . 





4 60 



3. 82 




3 6>i 








June 4.33 

Tiie average price of lead in 1914 was 3.9c. compared with 
4.4c. In 1913. A resume of the situation last year appears on 
page S9 of this Issue 


Zin.- is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. St. Louis 

.. in cents per pound. 

Dec. 31 

Jan. 1 Holiday 

3 Sunday 



Average week ending 









.Mont My :i\ erases 






. 6.88 

. 6 1 ■■■ 

. :, :,-.' 

. 5.23 
. 5.00 

191 i 
6.1 1 


l 'is 

1918 19'l 

July 5.11 4.75 

Aug 5.61 1.45 

Sept 6 65 5.16 

Oct 5.22 4 75 

Nov 5.09 5.0J 

Dec 5.07 5.40 

The Joplin market is still strong, and for ore containing 60c; 
metal, the average last week ivas $51.50. the highest paid being 
$54.50 per ton. 


Eastern inquiries for 2H.O00 tons of California magneslte are 
reported this week, and a buyer is in the market for that 

Pig-iron production in 1914 is estimated by 'The American 
Metal Market' at 23,200.000 tons, a decrease of 25?,: steel ingots. 
21,000,000 tons. 30CJ: finished steel. 16.000.000 tons. 30 r ; ; steel 
castings. 600.000 tons. la',, and rolled iron. 1.200.000 tons. :'«', 
Prices at the end of the year were the lowest since 1S9<. being 
$13.0! per ton. 

There is an increased demand for barium and strontium in 
•astern markets. 

.hum, il v '.>. 1915 




Preliminary li ■_: u r. --^ of production for » number of 
tlii Mnt'-s and metals are given below. Additional 
RgnreN will be printed from week t" week as they be- 
ailver, and the Survey estimate will !>«• found following 
bit review, 
market page. 

Anthracite Production 

Sin, .minis of anthracite coal from Pennsylvania, as reported 

tq the Bureau of Anthracite coal statistics, with those of 
December estimated, Indicate that the quantity sent to mar- 
ket during 1914 was about 68,240.000 long tons, against 69,069.- 
618 inns in i<i|::. To the shipments of 1914 should be added 
about 1,000.000 tons, principally of nut and steam sizes, which 
were stocked In the storage yards, so that while the ship- 
ments to market showed a decrease of nearly 1,000,000 tons. 
the production of the mines was about the same as in 1913. 
or approximately 111,700,000 long tons, of which 1,800,000 tons 
was sold locally and 8.650.000 tons used at file mines. The 
condition of the industry was somewhat peculiar. Consum- 
ers throughout the year usually bought for immediate demand, 
and no more than was necessary. Labor conditions in the 
anthracite regions are stated as normal. A few strikes of 
sporadic character occurred, but these have not been of much 
Importance, merely keeping up the interest of the members 
Of the union in the organization. 

U. S. Geological Survey Estimates 
Coai. Production of the United States 

Notwithstanding the slough of despond through which the 
coalmining industry of the United States was compelled to 
work its way during the last nine months of 1914, a decidedly 
hopeful tone prevailed at the end of the year, and the opinion 
generally expressed to Edward W. Parker was that the reced- 
ing time had reached its full ebb, and optimism was apparent 
regarding the coming year. The total coal production of the 
United States in 1914 is estimated at about 510,000,000 short 
ions, a decrease of about 60,000,000 tons compared with the 
record output of 1913. Practically all of this decrease was 
in the output of the bituminous mines. The production of 
Pennsylvania anthracite in 1914 was not materially different 
from that of the preceding year. The principal decreases in 
the production of bituminous coal were in the coking dis- 
tricts. It is estimated that in Pennsylvania alone the pro- 
duction of bituminous coal decreased between 20.000.000 and 
25,000.000 tons, and that the larger part of this decrease was 
in Fayette and Westmoreland counties, which constitute the 
Connellsville and Lower Connellsville coking districts. The 
weekly reports of coke production published in the Connells- 
villi- Courier indicate that the output of coke in the two 
Connellsville districts was less than that of 1913 by about 
6.000.00(1 tons, or 30%, and as each ton of coke represents 
about 1% tons of coal, a decrease of nearly 10,000,000 tons 
in the coal output is indicated in these districts alone. 
Coal in Ohio 

The estimated output of this state last year is 20,000,000 
tons, compared with 36.200.527 tons in 1913. A strike and 
recent legislation worked for this decrease, according to E. 
W. Parker, the Survey's coal statistician. 

Coal in West Virginia 
Conditions in the coal-mining industry of this state may be 
expressed as 'mixed' during the year. Labor troubles, busi- 
ness depression, and other factors resulted in the output being 

■' " tons, again r.n.: The 

coke manufactured was onl] aboul 559! ol the previous year. 

COAJ l\ i in Sm i Hi ll\ Sl \ii - 

The yield ol the as us follows, In tons 

State, t914. 1918, 

Alabama 18,600, 16,000, 17,678,688 

Kentuckj 80,000,000 19,616,800 

Maryland l.200.< 4,779,869 

Tennessee 5,500,000 6,908,784 

Virginia T . r. 1 1 . > 8,888,068 

The business depi i-ssion made itself fell particularly In 

Alabama, because of iis iron Industry. 

COAI. in nil I'm ii i, COAST Sl mis 
Washington is the only one of any importance, the output 
being from 20 to 30% less than it was in 1913, when the 
total was 3,877,891 tons. It Is estimated that the consump- 
tion of California oil for fuel on the Coast Is equivalent to 
aboul 20,000.000 tons of coal, or six times the production of 

Utah's Metal Oi in i 

As a result of the depression in the metal market due to 
the European war, there was a decrease of about $6,900,000 
in the value or the gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc output 
from Utah mines in 1914, according to estimates by V. C. 
Heikes. Mr. Heikes gives for 1914 a value of $38,000,000. There 
was an increase in the quantity of lead produced, but decreases 
in gold, silver, copper, and zinc estimated as spelter. The 
metal output was as follows: 

Production. 1914. 1913. 

Ore mined, tons 9,550,000 10,202,566 

Gold recovered, value $3,300,000 $3,565,229 

Silver, ounces 11,752,000 13,084,835 

Copper, pounds 155.901,000 161,445.962 

Lead, pounds 181,553.000 166,126,790 

Zinc, pounds 14,297,000 18,857,827 

Large Decrease in Metai.s in Nevada 

A decrease in the metal output of Nevada in 1914 of over 
22% compared with 1913 is credited to the influence of the 
European war in lowering the price of the base metals, espe- 
cially copper. The value of the metal output of Nevada in 
1913 was $37,097,000, and the estimate for 1914 is $28,800,000. 
The yields were as follows: 

Metal. 1914. 1913. 

Gold, value $11,320,000 $11,795,130 

Silver, ounces 15,200,000 16,090,083 

Copper, pounds 60,561,000 90,693,751 

Lead, pounds 13,794,000 16,344,023 

Zinc, pounds 13,000,000 14,419,671 

There was a total of about 2,700,000 tons of copper ore 
concentrated and smelted. 

Metal Output of Montana 

The yield of this state in 1914 was seriously affected by 
the conditions of the copper market due to the European war, 
as Montana is primarily a copper producer. The value of 
gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc from Montana mines de- 
creased from nearly $62,000,000 in 1913 to about $48,000,000 
in 1914. The decrease in copper was large, and that in silver 
was notable, but there were considerable increases in gold, 
lead, and zinc. The gold recovered increased to a trifle over 
$4,000,000, or more than for seven years previous. This shows 
an increase of 14% over 1913, due to dredging and produc- 
tion of silicious ores. Silver decreased from 13,819,201 to 



Jannan 9. 1915 

12, ,000 oz.. or 13'.: and co -r from 287.828.699 Bo 238, .- 

in IT'.. Lead increased from L0.93S.827 to 15,0 
Hi.; and zinc from 88.673.082 to 109,000,000 lb., or 23 per cent. 

Arizona Metals in 1914 
value "i the gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc pro- 

al mines In Arizona In 1914 decreased over 16' 

pared with 1913, owing prlnclpall) to the lower price . 

■iint of the European war. The estimated output 
A with $78,876,0*7 in 1913. There was 
little decrease, however. In thi Output of copper, lead, and 
zinc, and considerable Increae aade in gold and silver. 

The mine yield ol sold Increased Horn $4.02:1.911 in 1918 to 
about (4,570,000 In 1914, This increase of nearly 14'. was 
almost .-111 iicl.v in silicions ores of sold and silver mines. A 
record production of silver was made, notwithstanding the 
Bd market price. The output increased from 3,948,091 
oz. in 1913 to about 4,469,000 oz. in 1914. While Arizona si ill 
leads in copper production, the output decreased, on account 
of market conditions, from 407,923,402 lb. in 1913 to about 
,;vv. 000.0011 lb. in 1914. a decrease of nearly 20.ii00.0itn lb., or 
about '>',. The output of lead was practically the same as 
that of 1913, when the mines produced IB. 144. 772 lb. The 
mine production of zinc ore was close to that of 1913, when 
14,726 tons of concentrate and crude ore produced 9,428,067 
Hi of spelter, chietiy from the Golconda and Tennessee mines 
in Mohave county 

Reduced Production 01 Portland Cemest 
According to preliminary returns from all the operating 
mills in tin b'nit-d Slates, except one. it is estimated by 
Ernest F. Bun-hard that the quantity of Portland cement 
manufactured in 1914 was approximately 88,514,000 bbl., com- 
pared with 92,097,131 bbl. in 191:;. a decrease of about :: i 
bid., or nearly 4',. The estimated shipments of Portland 
cement during 1914 totaled 86,716,000 bbl.. compared with 
88,689,377 bbl. in 1913, a decrease of about 1,976,000 bbl., or 
2.2',. On account of, the surplus of production over shipments, 
stocks of cement at the mills apparently increased more than 

14',. or from 11,220^328 bbl. in 1913 to 12. Ms. 1 bid. at the 

close or 1914. It may be necessary to revise downward the 
figures for stocks, as the estimates furnished by some pro- 
ducers undoubtedly include more or less iinground clinker, but 
it is believed that the figures for production and shipments are 
very close 10 those that will be shown later by exact n 
from cement producers. Although only general statements 
as to selling prices are at hand, it is evident that the average 
value per barrel was slightly lower than in 1913, when the 
average was $1,005 per bbl. Slight increases in prices are 
reported from a few plants in the eastern states, but de- 
creases were reported from the majority of plants in all dis- 

PRODUI I ion til COFPEB IN 1914 

The copper production of ibe United States in 1914 will 
show a marked decrease from that of 1913. according to fig- 
ures and estimates collected by B. S. Butler. Reports have 
Deen received from all plants known to produce blister cop- 
per from domestic ores and refined copper. At an average 
price of about 18.5c. per pound, the 1914 output has a value 
ol $152,400,000, compared with $189,795,000 for the 1913 out- 
put. The large decrease in production in 1914 was due to 
curtailment of production during the latter part of the year 
on account of the reduction In tonnage exported to Europe. 

The figures showing smelter production from domestic ores 

■• iit the actual production of most of tin companies for 

11 months and an estimate of the December output. The 

i! a few companies were not available and 

these companies furnished esl tni last two months 

of the year. According to the statistics and estimates received. 

the output of blister and Lake copper was 1,12! I lb. in 

1914, against 1,224,484, in 1912. Thi statistics and estimates 

Indicate that the output of refined copper iron primary 

. domeBtic and foreign, for 1914 was 1.492. Hi 

compared with 1,615,067.000 in 1913. 

According to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
the imports of pigs, Ingots, bars. eic. tor the first 11 months 
of 1914 amounted to 187,433,676 lb., and the coppi 

matte and regulus amounted to 97,348,866 
import of 284,782^542 Hi. This compares with an import for 
the 12 months of 1918 ot 409,560,964 pounds. 

Exports of piss, ingots, liars, plates, sheets, etc., for the 
first 11 months of 1914 amounted to 7Su.04s.777 lb., compared 
with an export for 1913 of 926,441,152 pounds. 

Ai the la-sinning of 1914 there was about 90, ,000 lb. of 

refined copper in stock in the United States. This added to 
the refinery production gives a total available supply ot 

about 1.5S3.I ,0110 Hi. of refined copper. On subtracting the 

export from this, with an estimate for December, it Is 
ent that the supply available for domestic consumption is 
materially below the S12.000.000 lb of 1913, without taking 
account of stocks held at the close of the year. 

The average price of copper for 1914 showed a del 
from that of the preceding year, being about 13.5c. per pound 
compared with 15.5c. in 1913. After the outbreak of the 
European war eoppei sold considerably below the yearly aver- 
age, but toward the close of the year the price showed notable 

The leading states were estimated as follows, in pounds: 

State or territory. 1914. 1913. 

Alaska 2(1,850,000 23.423,000 

Arizona 3S0.OO0.00O 404.01 

California 25,000,000 32,492,000 

Michigan 160,000, 155,700,000 

.Montana 206,000,000 285,700, 

Nevada 60, 1 --5.2,10. 

New .Mexico 60,000,000 50,196, 

Tennessee 18,000,000 19,489,000 

Utah I45.00o.onn us. , 


The year 1914 was marked by an enormous increase in the 
output of domestic lead in the United States, accord 
C. E. Siebenthal, an increase of nearly lOO.OOo tons over the 
production of any preceding year. There was also a heavy 
decrease in the tonnage of lead of foreign origin treated in 
the t'nited States, and for the first time in years a great in- 
crease in the quantity of domestic lead exported to European 
countries. At the same time the average price of lead in the 
I'nited States was the lowest since 1898. 

The estimates have been compiled from reports to the Sur- 
vey by all lead refineries and soft-lead smelters in operation 
during Ibe year. These reports cover actual production for 
the first 10 or 11 months of the year, with an estimate for the 
remainder of the year, and from them the figures of produc- 
tion are made up without change. The statistics of imports, 
exports, and lead remaining in warehouses have -been taken 
from the records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce for 11 months, the figures for December having been 

The production of refined lead, desilverized and soft, from 
domestic and foreign ores in 1914 was approximate!; 537,079 
short rons. worth at the average New York price $41,892 L62, 
compared with 162,460 tons, worth $40,696,480, in 
with 180,894 tons in 1912. The figures tor 1914 do not include 
an estimated output of 12,850 ions of antiiuonial lead, against 
16,665 tons in 1913 and 13,552 tons in 1912. Of the total pro- 
duction, desilverized lead of domestic origin, exclusive of de- 
silverized soft lead, is estimated ai 312,257 tons, against 250,- 
578 ions in 1913 and 221,480 tons in 1912: and desilverl led lead 
Of foreign origin comprised 25.295 tons, compared with 50,582 
a 1913 and Ns,::77 tons in 1912. The production of soft 

I'll ■ 


an domestl 

1 i 

total output 

hi any 

Tlir Import! Ol Nil'! 

valued al $743 I.99S t"n> ..i lead In base 

bullion, valued al $1.0! d 143 lone ol refined lead, 

vain.. I al $9751. I total .'I 26.904 torn 
compared with 57,145 tons, valued al 12,965.817, In 191 
the 1914 imports about 20.000 tons, ..r nearly 7 .v.. came [rom 

.1 79,728 tons In 1912, 
the decrease being due i" domestic strife in thai country. 
Prom German) came 2266 tons, from Oerman Baal 
i:'7s tone, and from Chile about 12."." tons. 

The exports "i lead of foreign origin -nit-ii..! or refined In 
iiu- United States again show s big di ig estimated 

at 21.192 tons, agalnsl 54.323 tons In 1918. 

For the Brsl time In- years there were exports of domestic 
lead t.i Europe, the total for the year being estimated at 62,924 
short ton-. Valued al about 14,804,000, 

The amount of lead available for consumption during 1914 
was 442.744 tons, which, compared with 419,463 tons in 1913, 
m.IH tons in 1912, 385,319 tons In 1911. and 379.196 tons In 
1910, and taking Into account trade conditions during the 
to !><• an excessive figure, making it seem very 
probable that there has been an increase in bad stocks. Of 
the fcrei-n lead remaining in warehouses at the close of .No- 
vember H'14. there was at El Paso 2176 short tons and at New- 
York 4M6 tons, with small quantities at Chicago and St. Louis. 
The average New York price for the year was 3. He. per pound. 
compared with 4.4c. in 1913 and 4.5c. in 19,12. 

Quicksilver in 1914 

By Ci.iihikii G. Dennis 

Pbobuction ami Development 

During the year 1914 the quicksilver production of the 
I'nited States was approximately 20.670 flasks of 75 lb. each, 
valued at $1. "17. 171: an average value per flask, based on 
monthly averages, of $49.21. California produced. 16.571 flasks. 
and Arizona, Nevada, and Texas 3099 flasks. The production 
up to August 1 was at a rate far below that for 1913, in which 
year the lowest production for years was recorded. In August 
the price of the metal reached the highest since the early days 
of quicksilver mining in California, and many operators whose 
plants were closed on account of poor market conditions, 
started up. At the year's end the production is estimated to 
have exceeded that for 1913 by 989 flasks and $343,117 in value. 

The average price, computed from monthly averages, for the 
first seven months, was $38.70 per flask, and for the last five 
months $63. SO per flask. The approximate production and 
monthly averages are given below. 

Month. Flasks. Per flask. 

January 1320 $39.25 

February 1601 39.00 

March 1482 39.00 

April 1683 38.90 

May 1592 39.00 

June 1720 38.60 

July 1506 37.5(1 

August 1467 83.00 

September 1877 76.25 

October 2230 53.00 

November 2103 55.00 

December 2089 55.00 

• in 
llasl ton 



••:■! 1.288 

1904 7'hi 1,204 


II 19,6 1.617 1.276 861 

1901 17.6 12 I"" 712 

1908 16.969 

II 16,817 1.188 Mil 704 

1910 18.536 3,882 ! 763 14,991 

1911 18,860 ... 732 

1912 20,600 1,847 V',:, 1,067,742 

1913 15,398 I. J 1 -:. 

1914 16,671 .... 703 1. "17. 17o 

The price "i the metal was low during tin- Brsl 
>iar. inn the demand was fairly good, in August '■ 
was bid up, presumabl] bj foreign buyers, to 1 

tigmes. One small lot m ju Masks was bough! aud 

Willi cash al the mini- al $110 per Mask. During thi e v.r' 

high prices in the United States, the price quoted at London 

remained tin- sain,-, al I '-'7. Later the London quol 

has been above the American quotations. 

California. — The New Idria, in San Benito county, continues 
to lead California producers, although this mine lias been run- 
ning tar below tile record tor 1913. ICxtensive developments 
are said to be under way that will make available a large 
tonnage of low-grade ore that will be of commercial value when 
these developments are completed. At the Aurora mine, in 
the New Idria district, experiments with a rotary furnace 
have been under way. thus tar without results. The oper- 
ators expect some returns early in 1915. The Oceanic mine. 
in San Luis Obispo county, has experienced a successful year, 
under the management of Murray Innes. The furnace has 
been supplied with ore principally from old stopes. New de- 
velopments in the lower levels are said to have been disap- 
pointing, but lateral work on the. adit level has been must 
encouraging. At the Guadfliipe mine, in Santa Clara county, 
extensive developments have been under way, which are said 
to be most successful. The New Almaden furnaces, under the 
management of W. H. Landers, have operated this year en- 
tirely from old dumps, surface croppings, and from refuse 
about the furnaces. The reorganization of the Quicksilver 
Mining Co., which owns these mines, has been retarded on 
account of the financial conditions,, but it is expected that 
during 1915 a vigorous campaign of development will be put 
under way. At the Helen mine, in Lake county, most of the 
year has been spent doing development work. The S:, Johns 
mine, in Solano county, has been operating in a small way 
since June 1. 

The Cambria Quicksilver Co., while an important producer 
from 1906 to the end of 190S, was then idle until October 1914. 
Since that date, 15 men have been engaged in pi s'pecting 
and development. An orebody has been found, ami if it 
proves sufficiently extensive the 50-ton furnace now on the 
property will be put into operation early this summer. 

Texas. — The Chisos mines, at Terlingua, Brewster County, 
had considerable difficulty in securing labor owing to the near- 
ness to the Mexican border. It has been reported that these 
mines will be equipped with additional furnace ca] i.--ity in 

Arizona. — The Sunflower district reported a new idy of 
ore. also a discovery was reported from Gila county. No 
further activity was reported by the Cinnabar I). 



January 9, 1915 

lal operating the Colonial mine in west central 
Yuma county. 

\ i riula. — The Mercury Mining Co.. at lone. Nye county. 
closed down its furnace early in the year, and development 
was continued under the direction of W. E. Goldswarthy. 
Sufficient ore was opened so that the furnace could be started 
in i lie fall. The Nevada Cinnabar Co. put its 50-ton 
furnace In operation early in the year and has experienced 
a successful year under the management of John Andrews. 
At the Goldbanks property, operating near Winnemucca, a 
shi of IB inclined pipe-retorts was erected. Later this set 
oi retorts was discarded and replaced with a 10-ton, inclined. 
I 'muffle retort. The muffle is arranged so that it may be 
charged and discharged a carload at a time, making the 
treatment continuous. This Company has made and burned 
360,000 common brick and is preparing to erect a furnace 
in the spring. A new furnace was not erected at the Ruby 
mine last year as reported. Treatment of the high-grade ore 
was continued in the pipe-retorts and further development 
carried on. A new furnace is planned for 1915. A 10-pipe 
retort was erected at the Dalbare mine, which is situated at 
the southerly end of the Humboldt mountains. 

mkiai.i.i Improvements 

Ittiirth Furnaces. — Considerable discussion has arisen of 
late, among operators, regarding the hearth type of roasting 
furnace, as to its application to quicksilver ores. There is 
no doubt that these roasters can be adapted to roasting quick- 
silver ores, and the saving and condensation of the fumes 
accomplished successfully. The ore would probably be roasted 
more rapidly than in the Scott type of furnace, and with the 
application of fewer heat units per ton of ore treated. The 
first cost of almost any of the hearth furnaces would be less 
per unit of capacity than the Scott, and it would be better 
adapted to intermittent service. The operating cost of the 
hearth type would probably be higher. Such furnaces would 
require a higher class of labor to operate than the Scott, 
would be liable to cause long delays on account of repair 
parts, and would have a considerably shorter life. 

Whether the fixed charges against a hearth type furnace. 
bi Ing less on account of smaller investment, would offset 
the increase in operating expense, is a question. It is diffi- 
cult to estimate what the maintenance of one of these fur- 
naces would be. Tor the reason that all available costs arc 
based on operating several of the furnaces in one plant, thus 
reducing the maintenance cost to the minimum. The ques- 
tion is. what would the conditions be If one of these furnaces 
were placed away off from the source of supplies, how much 
skilled labor would have to be kept on tap for emergencies, 
and what would the delays caused by lack of parts and time 
securing same, cost? 

The matter of reducing the investment is important, for 
it is evident that the average furnace outlasts the life of 
the average mine, so that a small increase in operating cost 
against decreased investment would ultimately work out in 
favor of the hearth type of furnace. On the other hand, the 
Scott furnace is almost fool proof.' can be counted to deliver 
day in and day out. and the maintenance cost is small. 

Flotation. — Some experiments that I made on flotation as 
applied to cinnabar ores may be mentioned. The mineral 
occurred in a soft decomposed tufa, too soft to run through 
a furnace, and was of such low specific gravity that very 
low capacity could be obtained in any type of furnace. The 
experiments determining the cinnabar floats very readily. An 
extraction of 92', was obtained by running the pulp through 
the machine twice. It is not likely that similar conditions 
exist in many places, therefore it» is not likely that flotation 
will ever take an important part in the metallurgy of quick- 
silver. On the average cinnabar ore. it would be cheaper 
to roast the ore direct. 

.1 Wei Process. — The excessive loss of mercury in high- 
grade' treatment at the Buffalo Mines at Cobalt led to careful 
studies of possible methods of recovery and development of 
a process for wet treatment Details of the process have not 
been made public as yet. but experiments on mercury ore 
are said to indicate the probable availability of the process 
for general purposes. Details are promised later. 

U. S. Geological Survey Quicksilver Estimates 

According to preliminary figures collected from individual 
producers by H. D. McCaskey, the output was 16.568 flasks, 
valued, at the average price at San Francisco of $49 per 
flask, at $811,832. This is a decrease of 3645 flasks and $1339 
in value compared with the previous year. There were 33 
mines worked, against 24 in 1913. California showed a de- 
crease of 4122 flasks. Arizona, Nevada, and Texas yielded 477 
flasks more than in 1913. Exports during the past two years 
were 452 In 1914 and 1140 flasks in 1913; and imports, 9140 
in 1914 and 2290 flasks in 1913. 

Zinc Estimates Not Available 

The U. S. Geological Survey has found it impossible to 
obtain estimates of output and stocks of zinc for 1914 from a 
number of producers. It is not likely that any statistics of 
zinc output will be published until the Survey's annual chapter 
on zinc from Mineral Resources' is made public. 

Mineral Oil ami Gas Not 'Fruits of the Land' 
The statutory right of a possessor in good faith of land to 
reap the benefit of the fruits of the land until it is claimed by 
its owner, does not permit such possessor to extract the min- 
eral oil and gas from the land and retain the proceeds. 

Elder v. Ellerbe (Louisiana), 66 Southern, 337. Novem- 
ber 16, 1914. 

Coal Lease — Lessor Need Not Own Land at Time ok Lease 

In an action by the lessor to recover stipulated royalties 
under a coal lease, the defense made was that the lessor did 
not own the land at the time he leased it. Held, that inas- 
much as the lessee was given possession under his lease, and 
no fraud, accident or mistake in its execution alleged, or 
ejectment of the lessee by the owners of the land or sur- 
render of the lease to the lessor, or covenants against de- 
fective title proved, the recovery of royalties could not be 

Lazarus v. Lehigh Wilkes-Barre Coal So. (Pennsylvania). 
92 Atlantic. 121. July 1, 1914. 

Placer Lease — Construction 
Win re a lease of mining ground required the royalties to 
be paid during the year, the whole amount of the annual rent 
matured at the end of the year, and, if not paid, an action 
would lie, whether the rent was payable in money or In gold 
dust. If the lease did not specify the place of payment, it is 
presumed that they were payable on the premises and omis- 
sion to designate a place of payment is no defense. Where 
such a lease provided for work steadily from the date of the 
lease, weather and season permitting, a custom that, in the 
absence of a contrary provision, the lessee might cease work 
whenever he chose was irrelevant. In case of a breach by non- 
performance of such working conditions, the lessor is neither 
required to enter and work the ground or re-let to another 
as a condition to recovery of damages from defaulting lessee. 
Northern Light Mining Co. v. Blue Goose Mining Co. 
(California), 143 Pacific, 540. August 7. 1914. 

Beginning* of the Tata Iron & Steel Company of India— By C. M. Weld page 97 




* *..mi 



In an 

'NDIA is thought of by most Westerners 
large country densely populated by 
very poor people, among whom are a few 
brilliant philosophers hopelessly wedded to 
abstract studies. It has long been known as 
the 'sink of silver.' Ages of misrule have made 
the native distrustful of any but tangible wealth 
that may be hidden, and the amount of silver 
held in India is enormous and beyond positive 
knowledge. Lately India has been absorbing 
gold. Having taken 20 per cent of the world's 
output in one year, it is clearly a country of 
larger real wealth than generally appreciated. 
Now a new condition has arisen. Under stable 
government the people of India are laying aside their mistrust, and under the 
wise guidance of far seeing leaders, such as Messrs. J. N. Tata and B. J. 
Padshah, India is bringing her money out of hiding and setting it to work. 
This is a phenomenon of more interest to the West than the mere shipment of 
a few thousand tons of pig iron annually. A great modern iron and steel works 
has been put in operation. It was built and is officered by American engi- 
neers, but the workmen, the capital, and the initiative came from India itself. 
It is a genuine expression of the determination of the leaders of India to re- 
establish the ancient industries of their country. How carefully and how 
wisely it was planned is told most interestingly in this number by Mr. Weld. 


aunarv 16, 1S515 

THIS WASTE --**-■ 


It makes the least possible quantity of middlings 
and delivers a classified product of concentrates 
across the entire width of its front end. 

The 'Card' is so well and favorably known, is in 
successful operation in so many mills, on so many 
varieties of ores, in all mining districts of the world, 
that an extended description is unnecessary. 

However, our ''''Card Catalog'' gives dimensions — 

speeds — capacities, etc., as well as description, and 

you should have it in your library. Write for it 
now while you have time. A postcard will bring it. 


.Iiliinnrv 16. 1915 


Start Your Tunnel Right! 

Milllvun Lttawvlchl Water I'rilK 

Sullivan WJ Air Compressor. 

Sullivan "DP-33" "Rotator 

Sullivan Drills and Sullivan 
Air Compressors have been se- 
lected by all the contractors for 
driving the St. Louis Intercepting 
Sewer Tunnel. 

This tunnel is to be 18,000 feet long and 
19.5x19 ft. in section. The excavation has 
been let in three sections, to three inde- 
pendent contractors. 

The tunnel-driving equipment purchased 
by these three firms for this work com- 
prises : — 

6 Sullivan Belt- Driven Two-Stage Air 
Compressors, five having a piston displace- 
ment of 1015 cu. ft. per min. each, and one 
having a piston displacement of 628 cu. ft. 
per min. 

46 Sullivan "FF-12" 2^-in. Liteweight, 
water attachment Rock Drills. 

8 Sullivan "Rotators." 

Why not specify Sullivan Equip- 
ment for your next Shaft or Tunnel? 

Ask for Bulletin 1366 H, Rock Drills. 
Ask for Bulletin 1358 S, Air Compressors 

Sullivan Machinery Company 

122 S. Michigan Ave. 
461 Market Street - 

San Francisco 

Start Your Tunnel Right! 


Kstabllshetl May 84, 1 860. as Th«* SctentJfte Pr««; name changed 
October 20 of the same year to >flnlntc ami Selenttllc Press; shortened 
rv 2, 191 5, to Mining Pre**. Controlled by T. a. EUckard, 

Published weekly at 120 Market street, Pan Francisco, by Th< 
Publishing Co.. H. Poster Bain, manager Rntor^d at the Pan Fran 
Post-offlce as second-class matter. Cable address. Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 300 Fisher Bdg.; New Fork, 1808-10 Wool- 
worth Bdg.; London, The Mining Magazine, Salisbury House, E. C, 
don. Cable address. OligocJase. 

Price. 10 cents the co^. Annual subscription: United States and 
Mexico, $3; Canada. $i; other countries In postal union, 81s. «>r $5. 

Vol. 110 

San Francisco, J \nuary 16, 1915 

No. 3 



Notes 93 

The Engineering Congress and Mining Men 94 

The Rubber Famine 95 

Look i to Forward 9G 

In an interesting address before the American Mining 
Congress. Mr. \V. G. Swart pointed out that prospect- 
ing and development are two different things, and 
that, whatever might be true of the former, the latter 
needed stimulation. In this, mining engineers should 
be leaders. Small companies had already proved thai, 
by conservative action and adoption of the principle 
of distributed risk, a good business could be built up. 

Beginnings or the Tata [bob & Steel Compact o» India. 

By C. M. Welti 97 

India was one of the countries In which iron working 
began, but in recent years it has been an inconsid- 
erable producer. J. N. Tata, a wealthy and patriotic 
Parsee merchant, who established cotton spinning in 
that country', undertook to re-establish the iron and 
steel Industry. Being disappointed in the first de- 
posits brought to his attention, he commissioned Mr. 
Weld, acting under Mr. C. P. Perrin. to study the 
whole field and find the best place in India for estab- 
lishment of works. This was done, and a fine modern 
plant is now delivering high-class product. Mr. Weld 
tells the story of the survey with its disappointments, 
peculiar difficulties, and final triumph. 

Tube-Mux Pebbles — Their Characteristics and Cost. 

By Edwin C. Eckel 103 

In order to compare tube-mill pebbles as to efficiency, 
it is necessary to determine the physical and chem- 
ical properties essential to them. This Mr. Eckel 
does, bringing out especially the importance of their 
specific gravity. He then considers the various mate- 
rials available in the United States and elsewhere. 
and their relative efficiency. Mr. Eckel is an engi- 
neer particularly familiar with the Portland cement 
Industry and speaks from wide observation and study. 

Mixing in British Columbia During 1914. 
By W. M. Brevier 


Contrary to predictions. British Columbia mines did 
fairly well in 1914. The total decrease in output as 
compared with 1913 was 14 to 15<7,, and the total out- 
put worth $26,000,000. The big event of the year was 
the opening of the Anyox smelter of the Granby com- 

Maonesite Deposits and PossranwriEs in c.u.ieornia. 

By Samuel H. Dolbear 105 

Inquiries for magnesite have been pouring upon Cali- 
fornia producers since the war checked imports, and 
inquiries have also poured in on the Press. In re- 

sponse to .c^iuest, Mr. Dolbear has written briefly 
but accurate'/ regarding the trade in general, produc- 
tion and uses, grades, and California sources of mag- 
nesite. The industry is one that warrants further de- 

Stamp-Mill Test. 

By E. B. King 109 

Abstract from The Mining Magazine of a record of 
a test between Nissen and Sandycroft stamps, made 
at TIncroft, Cornwall. 

Tin: Hardening or Metals 112 

Note on an address by Sir Robert Hadfield delivered 
before the Faraday Society. 


I ii -i i ssion: 

Amalgamation in Hardinge Mills. 

By F. /. (lirard. M. W, von Berneu-itz 110 

Mr. Girard raises some questions over contradic- 
tory results at Plymouth and Incaoro. Mr. von 
Bernewitz speaks of experience in Australasia. 

Valuing Placer Ground. By Edmund Bonella Ill 

A further contribution to the discussion running 
in the Press through the past several months. 

Precision of Thought. By J. Nelson Nevius 112 

One man, at least, who agrees with the editor. 

Concentrates 113 

Mining in the Far North. 

The Outlook for Quartz Mining in the Fairbanks Dis- 
trict. By Emit Edward Huria 114 

Lode mining at Fairbanks is still an industry of 
small units, but there are many of them. Mr. 
Hurja gives some account of virtually all. 

Review of Mining: Special correspondence from New 
York: Houghton, Michigan; Washington, D. C; Lead- 
ville, Colorado: Platteville. Wisconsin: Carson City. 
Nevada 116 

The Mining Summary 120 

Personal 1 24 

Mineral Production in 1914: 

Gold and Silver 124 

Iron Ore 124 

The Market Pi \< e 

Metal Prices 125 

Compact Reports: Mt. Elliott Copper Co.. Ltd..; St. John 
del Rey Mining Co.. Ltd.: Champion Reef Gold Mining 
Company of India, Ltd.; The Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Company of Canada. Ltd 126 

Rk< km Publications 127 

New Machines and Devices: 

An Automatic Aerial Tramway for Carrying Ore 128 

Commercial Paragraphs 128 

.Ihihimo 16 1916 




.M.1H..KI11K Bdltor 

■riin.M v.- T RJBAD - - Nov ^ ... k Sdltoi 

K. H i.ksi.u: M \\ von BBRNEWITS, Bm Pi 

o \\ i: HOPPBR, Houghton, Mi. ). . AaaL I: 
[ v RICKABD, London - - Bdltorla.1 Contributor 
KDWARD WALKER London - - - Corraapoi 

BPS01 w OOh limn TOR 

\ w 

i a Aumin. i |-. Ktrnp, 

QelUlo I'm-tiinl. |.-. i| Morlry. 

Courtanay Da Knlb. . mgion. 

v I Harrison. C. F. Tolinun. Jr. 

Horaca V, WlnoholL 

r\B£DOE TAILING from Natoma is being tested al 
*-J the Plymouth nun.' .is ;i subs* 1 (or tube-mill 

YT'MBABGO on the export of ores, concentrate, and 
*-* metala Prom Australia n> the United States has been 
lifted b) tin- Commonwealth government, provided the 
authorities there are satisfied thai these products will 
not be transshipped to any of the countries at war with 

T^UBE-MILL pebbles have received but little system- 

■*■ atic study, though all users know that they vary 
greatly in value. Mr. E. ('. Eckel's discussion will, 
therefore, be received with especial interest. We shall 
follow it with a more elaborate study by Sir. Jay A. 
Carpenter of the pebbles lie has been using at Tonopah. 

QUIT is to be begun at Los Angeles next Monday to 
^ recover for use as a naval reserve, oil lands in the 
Elk Hills region now held by the Southern Pacific and 
claimed to have been acquired as agricultural lands by 
fraud. This is considered to be the strongest of the va- 
rious cases that the "Washington authorities have, and 
much will hinge on the decision. 

AT the meeting of the San Francisco section of the 
-'*■ American Institute of Mining Engineers, held at 
the Engineers Club last Tuesday evening, the proposed 
amendments to the constitution were discussed at length. 
At the close of the meeting a call for expression of 
opinion showed that among those present, some twenty 
members, the sentiment was unanimously in favor of the 

A LIEN labor laws received a setback last week when 
-'*- the United States District Court of Arizona, sitting 
at San Francisco, held the Arizona statute unconstitu- 
tional. It Mas held that if an 80 per cent restriction 
could be enforced, any other percentage up .to the whole 
could be equally well applied. This introduces dis- 
crimination, against which the laws guarantee both citi- 
zens and aliens. The case has been appealed to the 
United States Supreme Court. 

/"\UR attention has been called to an error in the state- 
^-' ment of the outstanding first debenture bonds of 
the Mond Nickel Company, Limited, which amounts to 
£375,000, and not £3,750,000. The mistake was in the 

original cable, The total of the old and new t >•>■■« i iasuea 
is £875,000, ikii a large amount for a company possess 
ing such ezcellenl properties as the Mond company holds. 

particularly when the able management of tl oncern 

is taken into account. 

"C'lHMS in neutral European countries complain that 
in addition to other handicaps they are unable in 
instances to buy American goods because the foreign 
agencies are lodged in London, and for any one of sev- 
eral reasons the British firms handling the business are 
not prepared to sell or ship. Evidently this war will 
lead to readjustments of foreign trade far more numer- 
ous than is even yet realized. Neutrality without com- 
mercial independence is less valuable than it sounds. 

A CYNICAL onlooker replied recently to the question, 
- r *- what, in view of present unfavorable conditions, 
mining engineers would have to do to make a living, by 
remarking that he was afraid they would have to go to 
work. The Mexican troubles, coupled with the European 
war, have hurt mining engineers as much as any class of 
professional men. Mr. "W. G. Swart, in the address of 
which we present an abstract this week, points out one 
way that they may occupy themselves to advantage. 

Tj 1 STIMATES of gold-silver production of the various 
- Li states, as made by the Bureau of the Mint and the 
U. S. Geological Survey, are presented on another page. 
It is comforting to note that there has been a substantial 
increase. The silver output was one of the greatest yet 
realized, despite the disorganization of markets in the 
latter part of the year. Demand from India and China 
was disappointingly small and stocks accumulated, but 
on the whole, the year's results were better than had been 

Ti/IAGNESITE, chromite, manganese, and many other 
-*-"-*- of the minor minerals found upon the Pacific coast 
are now in exceptional demand, owing to disturbance of 
usual trade relations by the war. "We present this week a 
discussion of the California magnesite industry, written 
by Mr. Samuel H. Dolbear, a chemical engineer who has 
gone into the active work of production, and who brings 
out a number of points not generally understood. This 
article will be followed by others of similar character 
giving information greatly in demand at the present 



January 16, 1915 

MINERAL EXHIBITS of the United States and some 
foreign countries will be dismayed in the Palace 
of Mines and Metallurgy of the Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion. Those from Australia and New Zealand "ill only 
he shown in the respective buildings of those countries, 
which are situated in the grounds near the Presidio. 
The war. in which these British possessions are taking 
an active part, has caused a considerable reduction in 

tl xient of the buildings and exhibits as originally 

planned. However, good samples of rocks, ores, metals. 
rare earths, and gems, with mine models and other in- 
teresting features of the industry which has produced 
approximately t810.000.000 in Australia and £125,000,- 
000 in New Zealand, will be on view. 

SOME of the difficulties of mining operations in Euro- 
pean countries, even in districts outside the war 
zone, are reflected in the report of the Chairman of 
the Board of the Tanalyk Corporation, who relates that 
the first mobilization of the Russian army took away 
the manager of the mine and smelter, three mining en- 
gineers, the chief chemist, thirty-five members of the 
office and administrative staff, and nearly one-third of 
the workmen. The second and third calls for men made 
a further reduction in the working force. Fortunately, 
a nine months' supply of ore for the smelter was already 
on the stockpile, and ore reserves had been developed 
much in excess of the daily requirements, so that even 
if the war should last four years, the present smelter 
unit can be kept in operation. The Tanalyk has made 
an excellent showing to date, and it is pleasant to be 
able to record that recent exploration indicates that 
several additional valuable orebodies can be developed. 

COMPLAINT of unfair exactions of ore buyers is as 
old as the trade, and it is not likely that it will alto- 
gether cease so long as ore is sold. It is to be remem- 
bered, however, that similar criticism is leveled at buyers 
of other commodities, and is apt to continue until human 
nature changes materially. One of the most vigorous 
protests we have seen was published recently in The 
Norwood Post, and relates to carnotite buying in Colo- 
rado. Mr. Frank Silvey shows that the producer receives 
but $146 per ton, and must wait five to six months for 
the greater part of that, for ore in which the uranium 
and vanadhim content, is worth $939. Allowing for 
losses and transportation, Mr. Silvey estimates the ore as 
worth $734. Such figures are deceptive, since there is 
no apparent allowance for treatment and since, further- 
more, the market for both uranium and vanadium is ex- 
tremely uncertain. None the less, there is doubtless 
foundation for the charge that in this trade the middle- 
man has. as is the custom of middlemen, exacted large 
profits. In view of the wide difference of opinion that 
exists as to the policy, and the criticism that has come 
from Colorado against the Bureaa of Mines going into 
radium refining, it is interesting to add that both Mr. 
Silvey and The Norwood Pott look upon government pur- 
chase of the ore as the only solution. 

CHINA has liein considerably affected by the war. 
directly and indirectly. The decline in silver and 
the consequent fall in exchange since the start of the 
war would, in normal times, tend to stimulate exports 
and curtail imports: but the demoralization of financial 
and shipping facilities, and the falling off in the Euro- 
pean demand for China's most valuable exports, namely, 
silk, tea. bides, skins, and beans, has, until recently, ac- 
cording to a Commira Report of November 5, resulted 
in an almost complete cessation of shipments to markets 
that formerly absorbed a large portion of the country's 
production. In consequence of the loss or restriction 
of outlets for native articles, the purchasing power of 
the Chinese has been seriously curtailed, while the rapid 
decline in exchange has increased the difficulties of the 
situation. Prior to the war, the value of the Shanghai 
tael was, in United States money, about 65 cents, com- 
pared with 53 cents early in November. During the 
same time the value of the Mexican dollar, which is the 
coin that is actually in use, has declined, in terms of 
tin Is, from 73.3 to 71.85. This is due to the fact that 
the natives are receiving almost no money against export 
cargo that they have to sell, and the country merchants 
are sending down dollars from the interior. The amount 
from any one place is not. large, but the total receipts 
of those added to a stock of dollars at Shanghai that 
was already large has depressed the price. This means 
that up-country buyers have to pay more for any pur- 
chases they may make, and naturally this has a tendency 
to restrict their buying. When these interior points be- 
come over-drained of actual money, the pendulum is 
likely to swing the other way; furthermore, the lower 
the dollar rate goes the more likely is the up-country 
holder of produce to be able to dispose of his stock at 
a price that must find a market for it. 


Mining engineers have been strangely slow about join- 
ing the International Engineering Congress which is to 
be held at San Francisco in 1915. Although the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining Engineers is one of the five so- 
cieties underwriting the project, less than 300 mining 
engineers have, as yet, sent in their applications for mem- 
bership. Despite the fact that many thousand circular 
letters have been sent to mining men. it seems probable 
that, there is some misapprehension as to their relations 
to the Congress. Membership in any or all of the five 
great societies that have organized the latter, does not 
include membership in the Congress itself. On the ad- 
vice of the governing boards of the societies, the Congress 
was organized independently and upon the basis of in- 
dividual memberships. The parent societies have merely 
guaranteed expenses up to certain agreed amounts, to 
which total has been added some $11,000 raised by en- 
gineers on the Pacific coast. It is hoped to pay the 
necessary expenses of organizing and directing the Con- 
gress and of publishing the proceedings, in large part at 

.ii v 16 I'M • 

Ml\l\i. I'Klss 

i nun meraberahip fees, and to return i" the m 
cieticti the money advanced by them. Bach member of 
the < 'ongreas is charged |5, « liich entitles him to partioi 
pation and to receipt of the general or index volume of 

transactions and to any f the other volumes thai he 

maj seled Additional volumes may be purchased at 

priei - fixed i iver the cosl of publication. No engineer 

will receive any volume unless he becomes a member of 
the Congr e ss and pays the necessary fee. 

While the program of the Congress has I d some- 

what disarranged by the war in Europe, it will none the 
lass be comprehensive and fairly complete, In general, 
it is planned thai the series of papers shall, as a whole, 
depict the present state of the art in the various branches 
of engineering. It is expected that the volumes will con- 
stitute a working encyclopedia of present practice and 
a datum plane for all future investigations. The sub- 
jects to be included range from the Panama canal as a 
concrete example of modern engineering, through water- 
ways and irrigation, railways, municipal engineering, 
materials of engineering construction, mechanical engi- 
neering, electrical engineering, mining engineering, 
metallurgy, naval architecture, and marine engineering. 
ti) educational and miscellaneous topics. It was origin- 
ally planned to print 10 volumes, but. owing to the with- 
drawal of papers from Germany, and to a less extent 
from other countries now busy with other matters, the 
number will probably be reduced to eight. The topics 
relating to mining and metallurgy that will be discussed 
are : economic and social influence of mining ; valuation 
of mines and prospects; valuation of oil lands and prop- 
erties: exploration and development; financing mining 
properties; organization of operating staffs; the govern- 
ment and mines; mine inspection; mine taxation; metal- 
lurgy of iron and steel, of copper, of zinc and cadmium ; 
cyanide practice; lead smelting and refining; metallurgy 
of minor metals ; metallography ; electro-metallurgy ; 
utilization of fuels; ore dressing. Each topic has been 
assigned to a prominent engineer, who. in most instances, 
is acting essentially as the chairman or sub-editor for the 
section, assembling data secured through co-operation of 
many fellow workers. Among those who have accepted 
this responsibility are Messrs. W. H. Shockley, W. W. 
Mein. R. V. Morris, M. E. Lombardi, Sidney J. Jennings, 
A. Chester Beatty, D. C. Jackling. H. V. Winchell, J. A. 
Holmes. J. Parke Channing, H. M. Howe, E. P. Mathew- 
son. W. R. Ingalls, C. W. Merrill, H. 0. Hofman. W. W. 
Campbell. E. F. Roeber, C. H. Fulton, and R. H. Rich- 
ards. This by no means exhausts the list, since not only 
are many engineers and metallurgists actively co-operat- 
ing with the men mentioned, but many topics under 
other heads, such as materials of engineering construc- 
tion, are being treated by men equally well known to the 
mining profession, including Messrs. Thomas T. Read, 
E. C. Eckel, C. K. Leith, and others. Both the meetings 
themselves, which will be held September 20 to 25 in- 
clusive, and the printed volumes will be well worth the 
attention of any mining engineer who cares to keep in 
touch with his profession in a broad way. It is important 

thai each should realize thai the papers are now coming 

in and that plans and Contracts for printing must be 

made now, In order to acl intelligently, th'e committee 
in charge must know what measure .,t' support to axpeol 
from the mining engineers as well as from others If 
you have mislaid or lost the application blank already 
Ben) you. send word to the International Engineering 
Congress, 1915 Foxcrofl building, Ban Francisco, and a 
duplicate will be sent The important thing is to acl 


In the discussion of British interference with Ameri 

can trade, the attention of mining men lias been so eon 
centrated upon the acute troubles of the exporters of 
copper and importers of cyanide, that the danger of a 
famine in rubber, among other things, has been largely 
overlooked. The situation was discussed briefly by our 
New York correspondent last week, but its importance 
warrants a few words more. Briefly, the larger portion 
of the rubber now used in the United States normally 
comes from plantations within the British Empire. Much 
of it is handled in London, but some is sold direct. 
England has laid an embargo on all rubber exports and 
has so far refused either to raise it or to state that it 
will be maintained for any definite period. The result is 
that crude rubber has been piling up at London, Singa- 
pore, Colombo, and in Canada, and selling in London at 
51 cents per pound, while in New York it commands 87 
to 91. Furthermore, a considerable part of the accumu- 
lated stock had been bought and paid for by American 
manufacturers in the normal course of trade, who now 
find themselves unable to bring in their own rubber. 
The estimated consumption in the United States for 
1915 is 65,000 tons. There is available in this country 
and Brazil but 35,000 tons. A shortage is inevitable, but 
even if manufacturers accept the situation and plan to 
pass on the increase to the consumer, they must face risk 
of the embargo being raised and the market flooded after 
they have stocked up and before they are able to sell 
their manufactured products. Vigorous protests have 
been made at Washington, but, so far, without satisfac- 
tory results. There is a suspicion, how well founded we 
are unable to say, that the British government desires to 
exact as compensation for permitting export to the 
United States, a quid pro quo, which Washington is un- 
able or unwilling to give. Mr. B. G. Work, of the Good- 
rich Rubber Company, has gone to London on behalf of 
an American committee to consult direct with British 
rubber handlers in an effort to find a modus operandi. 
It is sincerely to be hoped that an amicable adjustment 
may be promptly found, since one of the alternatives 
suggested is an act forbidding any importations of rub- 
ber or rubber goods from the British Empire so that the 
uncertainties hanging over the manufacturers may be re- 
moved. The mining industry uses large quantities of 
rubber, and the interest of mining men in this situation 
is therefore far from being academic. 



January 16, 1915 


In the course of an interesting address on 'The First 
Move,' delivered before the recenl meeting of the A.mer- 
Mining Congress, Mr. W. (i. Swart made some 
pertinent constructive suggestions. After pointing out 
that there was a general impression that the lucky pros- 
pector finds a mine ready made, he showed thai whal 

was usually found was a 'prOSJ t.' that is. simply the 

surface indication of possible ore beneath. It generally 
takes both time and money in liberal amount to ascer- 
tain whether this is of possible value, and this is'develop- 
ment' ft is the part of mining which involves the great- 
est risk and offers the greatesl reward. It is distinct 
from prospecting, though that fact is not generally un- 
derstood by the public. ". Mining." Mr. Swart said, "is 
more apt to suffer from lack of development than from 
lack of prospecting." Continuing, he said: 

In spite of all unfriendly criticism of pretensions 1.. 
see underground, use of yellow leggings, or partiality 
toward offices in the high buildings, the fact remains 
that nearly .■very successful mining operation of conse- 
quence, old or new. is today in the hands of experienced 

technically trained men. These arc the men who select. 

who reject, who discriminate, who decide on the place, 
time, direction, and amount of expenditure, and who 
plan and execute tin- work. No man does these things 
for any considerable time successfully without becom- 
ing a business man of high order. Leadership is his 
by every right. 

In one of the classes recently graduated l'l i a cer- 
tain mining school were four young men who resolved 
to pool their efforts and go to mining directly, instead 
of accepting salaried positions as assayers or surveyors. 
At (he end of five years they are in far better financial 
Condition than the average of their classmates, they 
have had more real experience, and they understand 
what accepting responsibility means; but above all. they 
stand absolutely at the head of mining affairs in their 
community aid are reaching out steadily for larger 
things. They have made good, and in making good they 
have secured an unhesitating local following in every, 
mining enterprise they will take over. This is the kind 
of leadership I have in mind. No irresponsible promoter 
can capture that community. The one necessary thing 
is to guide and systematize local activity, and it can 
be done properly only by the trained men. They must 
first show confidence in themselves, then build up the 
confidence of the community in their ability, integrity, 
and unselfishness, and the rest is easy. 

A company of ten engineers was recently organized 
in Colorado with modest capital, and this company is 
already successfully operating selected properties. When 
these men began systematically to put faith behind their 
works and money behind their judgment, they took the 

tiist necessary step. They have already secui-ed the 
confidence and following of the communities in which 
they operate. No one believes that ten experienced men 
can be seriously misled, or that they will ever adopt 
anything but a policy of absolute fairness and integrity. 
Everyone believed they would win, and they have. 

While this is not the place for details, it may be well 
to point ouf briefly several interesting features of this 
first move: (1) The proposal is not that the movement 
be restricted to mining engineers and operators — sim- 
ply that it must be organized and directed by them. 

(2) The movement probably cannot succe 1 without 

tie- confide! ami co-operation of the business and pro- 
fessional men of the respective communities. Mining 
has usually been only a side issue, an incident, a 
speculation, if you like, with most such men. Investing 
without proper guidance, their activity has been spas- 
modic and unsatisfactory. (3) The movement must not 
only be started, but be made systematic and continu- 
ous, otherwise it has no real future. (4) The organiz- 
ers must be prepared to maJre sacrifices of time and 
energy, to say nothing of money, and to sink any petty 
professional jealousies; but at the same time the idea 
must not lie allowed to creep in for one moment that 
it is in any sense a philanthropic move. There can be 
just one underlying aim. and that is to make mining 
pay. (5) Xo such organization can hope to succeed 
permanently which does not propose to be fair and more 
than fair to its non-technical associates and stockhold- 
ers. The plan rests solely on confidence in the ability 
and fairness of technical men. It is useless to start on 
any other basis. (6) It is not expected nor necessary 
Ihat every engineer and operator take an active part 
in such an organization ; some are overburdened now; 
siinr are honorably bound to organizations already ex- 
isting: smiie are more efficient working alone; but there 
is plenty of available material in every mining district. 
'7) It is a 'get together' plan with indirect as well as 
direct benefits. (8) It requires no large amount of 
capital. It is better to start modestly and well within 
the means of the primary associates. It is particularly 
necessary to assume no financial responsibilities beyond 
the actual i apitaJ in sight. Success in even the smallest 
way brings possibilities of grow-th far faster than they 
can be properly cared for. A good set of brakes is more 
essential than the high gear. (9) The mining men will 
have to start this themselves. No one is going to do 
it for them. No one ought to do it for them. 

This paper is not an inquiry into what is wrong with 
mining. It suggests that if something is wrong with 
mining, here is one constructive remedy. This is a 
workable plan, details of which will vary with location 
and conditions. It is already in successful operation, 
but it is possible only to a body of trained men. Un- 
doubtedly there are other good methods, hut, as I see 
the situation, the underlying idea must be the same in 
all: the qualified mining men ought to be in better con- 
trol of the industry than they are ; and they can be, but 
the first move is theirs. v 16, 1915 


BcgimiiMinigs ©IF ftlhi® T&fta. imoira <& Sft<e®l Commpauray of lirodlia. 

«> C. /»f. WfLO 

Reeentl) from time to time the trade journals have 
discussed a threatened invasion of oar Pacific ooaal bj 
Indian pig iron; as a matter of fact, one small ship- 
menl has actually reached Beattle. Large amounts oi 
this same inn have of late yean been shipped to .111111111 
and to other markets in the Par Bast Whether or not 
the markets of our Par Weal will likewise be invaded 
is an open question, and one not within the scope of 
this paper to discuss. This pig iron comes from the 
works of the Tata Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., situated in 
a, British India, 155 miles west of Calcutta. The 
works include by-product coke ovens, blast-furnaces, 
steel furnaces, and rolling mills, with all accessories. 
A number of descriptions have been published in the 

trade journals and need not lie supplemented here. 
{Iron Age, -July 12, 1906; September 28, 1911; April 
11, 1912; January 13, 1913. Iron Trade Review, Sep- 
tember 23. 1909; July 23, 1914. An assembled view of 
the plant as it was in 1911, when practically completed. 
is shown on pages 98 and 99. 

It was my good fortune to be 
intimately connected with the 
early history of this project, 
and it is thought that the fol- 
lowing notes, dealing with its 
beginnings and the manner of 
its gradual development, will 
be of interest. I propose to tell 
the story from a human and 
personal point of view rather 
than from a technical one. 

This project was by no means 
the first attempt to make iron 
in India. The existence of iron 
ore in that country has been 
recognized for many centuries, 
and in times past a flourishing 
native smelting industry ex- 
isted. It is said that the fa- 
mous Damascus swords were 
manufactured from bars of 
Indian 'wootz' or steel, made 
in the Deccan (Hyderabad) 
and transported by caravan 
across Persia. The forged iron 
column discovered in recent 
years at Delhi is another monu- 
ment to the skill of these an- 
cient ironmasters. Even today. 
a few hundred tons of iron 
annually is produced in nearly 
as many little mud blast- 
furnaces, blown with goat- 
skin bellows, scattered about 

parts "i India, more particularly in the jungles 
of the Central Provinces, Bj way "t contrast with the 
Tata works, one of these native furnaces is shown ou 
page 101. A brief description of a village of native 
smelters was published by some years ago. [Iron 

.l.|.. September 13, 11)06.) 

The earliest attempt to make iron in India by Euro 

pean methods was due tO -losiah Heath of the .Madia- 

civil service, who constructed small charcoal works a1 
PortO .Novo in the South Areot district of .Madras Pre 
idency, in 1830. This industry was continued by the 
Porto Novo Steel & Iron Co., and later by the East 
India Iron Co., other works being erected at Beypur 
on the Malabar coast and in the Coimbatore district. 
All came to an end about 1867 after an intermittent 
and unprofitable existence. Further unsuccessful at- 
tempts along similar lines were made in Chota Nagpur 
and in Kumaun. 
In 1874 a small blast-furnace was built at Barakar, 

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January It!. 1915 

p-v |i||||jm 


iii the Raniganj coalfield, to run on coke fuel and iron 
ores from nearby ironstone shales. This furnace ran 
intermittently, at one time under the direction of Ritter 
von Schwartz, until 1890, when it was scrapped. At 
that time it had produced about 43,000 tons of pig iron, 
at a financial loss. 

First Successful Iron Making 

The next year marked the beginning of the only sue- 
cessful iron venture in India up to the time of the Tata 
project. A new and larger furnace was built at Barakar 
nn tlu- site of the first furnace, and was run on the same 
raw materials. A second stack was added in 1899. In 
1903, the Barakar Iron & Steel Co. had produced 
about 250,000 tons of pig and castings and bad made 
money. Shortly after, a heavy loss was Buffered through 
an ill considered attempt to make steel ; this was soon 
abandoned, and the Company has since recuperated its 
losses and has added to its blast-furnace plant. Hema- 
tite ores from Singh bhum are now drawn upon in con- 
junction with the leaner high phosphorous local ores; 
flux comes from Sutna. 500 miles distant, and coke is 
obtained from the neighboring coalfields. 

The Tata project first began to take definite shape in 
1902. although it had been brewing for some time be- 
fore. Other projects were broached at about the same 
time. In 1899. an elaborate report by Major R. H. 
Mahon, R. A.. Upon the Manufacture of Iron and Steel 
in India,' was published by government, wherein a plant 
to produce from 300,000 to 400,000 tons annually and 
to I.,- placed near Calcutta was recommended; ore was 
to lie drawn principally from Madras, coke from Bengal 
coalfields, and flux from Burma. Investigations were 
also being carried out in behalf of the Right Honorable 
Sir E. Cassel, based on certain iron ore deposits near 
Jnblulpore. Neither of these prospects came to anything. 

J. N. Tata, a wealthy and philanthropic Parsee mer- 
chant of Bombay, head of the firm of Tata & Sons, was 
particularly well known in the Central Provinces on ac- 
CQUnt of the enormous success of his cotton mills, situa- 
ted at Nagpur. The Central Provinces were reputed to 

be rich in iron ores and were known to contain coal. 
Many years before, in 1882, Ritter von Schwartz had re- 
ported favorably upon a proposal to manufacture char- 
coal iron in Chanda district of the Central Provinces. 
Certain government officials brought the matter before 
Mr. Tata and aroused his interest. Coal and iron ore 
concessions were granted to him, and in 1902 he came 
to Europe to employ technical advice for carrying out 
his plan. By chance he was turned from Europe to 
America, and ultimately employed C. P. Perin of New 
York. Mr. Perin carefully studied his various docu- 
ments and advised him against building an iron and steel 
plant till far more was known about his concessions. I 
W88 selected to examine the latter, and reached India on 
this mission in January 1903. One Bravo diamond hand- 
drill had been sent out. ahead of me. 

I proceeded at once to Chanda district, where I found 
the drill already at work a few miles south of Chanda 
on the coal concession ; in charge of a former government 
irrigation engineer. The latter had had absolutely no 
experience with diamond-drilling. He had dropped his 
tools in the hole, and, being more ingenious than prac- 
tical, was experimenting with an impromptu invention 
which he called a microphone to find their top. I 
spent two days vainly fishing, the hole having partly 
filled with sand. I then started a shaft to recover the 
bit. which I knew to be not more than 30 to 40 ft. be- 
neath the surface, and while this was going on, I investi- 
gated the concession. From distant outcrops and gov- 
ernment horeholes on a neighboring area. I determined 
that the coal was not less than 700 ft. deep. As the ca- 
pacity of the drill was at most 350 ft., I abandoned the 
drilling. I got samples of the coal from the nearest 
openings and found it to be a stratified material, high in 
ash. and absolutely non-coking. 

Then I investigated the iron ore deposits. In this and 
in all of my subsequent work I was most efficiently 
helped by a nephew of Mr. Tata. Shapurji Saklatvala. 
who acted as interpreter and in many other capacities. 
The deposits were situated from 15 to 50 miles east and 
southeast from Chanda. We toured the jungle, travel- 

.Inimnr.t 16, I'M • 


[ MA IW'\ t STKEI. I ".. I II' . in l'.'ll. 

ing "ii horseback, with our camp equipment in bullock 
carts. Needless ii> say, progress was exceedingly slow. 
1 examined a number of deposits and found several of 
these rich but of apparently limited extent. This was 
later confirmed by some exploratory work. 

In the meanwhile 1 visited other coalfields in the Cen- 
tral Provinces and central India, at Warora. Mohpani, 
and I'maria. The product of all of these was found to 
be non-coking. Therefore, after two or three months' 
labor, I made an adverse report to Mr. Tata in relation 
to the proposed iron and steel plant based on C'handa 
iron ores. 

Mr. Tata was disappointed. 1 then learned what I 
had not known before, that while naturally requiring 
the proposed scheme to be a sound one financially, he 
further looked upon it as an opportunity for developing 
a big industrial training school for the natives of India. 
It was in this direction that he was more particularly 
disappointed, and he was very loth to give up the project. 
The upshot was that I was commissioned to develop, if 
possible, a feasible project for the manufacture of iron 
and steel in India, irrespective of its locality. 

My work henceforth was on far broader lines. My 
first care was to learn where coking coals could be ob- 
tained, and I soon determined that only those of the 
Bengal coalfields, and indeed not all of those, would 
yield good metallurgical coke. This was afterward fully 
confirmed by thorough coking tests. 

We then started on an iron ore campaign, the hope 
being to discover large bodies of rich ore, accessible in 
themselves and at the same time reasonably near the 
Bengal coking coals. I first toured considerable por- 
tions of the native states of Nandgaon and Kairagarh, 
looking up reported ore deposits, and then located a de- 
posit of great promise in the western part of Raipur dis- 
trict. This work carried me through the hot season into 
the rains, when it was necessary to abandon horses and 
bullock carts and take to light traveling on elephants, 
owing to the heavy condition of the roads and jungle 
tracks, and the swollen streams. Elephants could gen- 
erally he borrowed from the native rajahs, who were 

glad to help, for their keep ami the pay of their at- 


Really excellent maps, on the scale of one inch to the 
mile, are available for large portions of India. It was 
my practice at this time to study these maps with great 
■ are. searching for places with names related to the 
vernacular words meaning iron or iron working. I 
found many such and visited them, or sent native assist- 
ants. I was able to obtain good assistants, trained in 
geology at the geological school of the state of Mysore. 
I also employed untrained scouts who had been taught 
merely to recognize the heavy 'black stones.' Of course 
I met with frequent disappointments, but together we 
covered and eliminated in this way large areas. 

During the rainy season of 1903 we got out three more 
Bravo diamond-drills. We opened the fall campaign of 
that year by establishing the four drills on the promising 
deposits discovered in the western part of Raipur, in 
the Dhullee-Rajara hills; in charge of an experienced 
drillman sent out by the Sullivan Machinery Co. The 
orebodies, in lenticular form, cropped along a tortuous 
ridge, extending for several miles and rising about 400 
ft. above the general level of the surrounding country. 
Our drills were placed along and near the outcrop of 
the ore, and the necessary water supply at once became 
a problem, especially since every hole promptly lost its 
water. The nearest spring was about two miles away, 
at the foot of the ridge. At first we tried pack-bullocks 
for carrying water, but ultimately we fell back upon 
coolie women and the omnipresent five-gallon kerosene 
can. We employed nearly a hundred women on this 
work. A group of these women is seen on the following 
page, as is also a drill at work. 

Fighting Mosquitoes 

Our Dhullee-Rajara explorations developed large 
bodies of exceedingly rich ore. Incidentally we had a se- 
rious experience at this camp with the anopheles mos- 
quito, and learned, too late, that the most vicious of his 
kind in India is a little brown fellow who rarely sings, 
and breeds among grasses along the banks of running 



.lanuary 16. 1*11.3 


streams. The work of our start' was continuously crip- 
pled by malarial fever; a fact which was the more un- 
fortunate because a little more knowledge and experi- 
ence would have enabled us to avoid much if not all of 
this sickness. 

In the meanwhile continued Held reconnaissance along 
the lines described above in many other quarters, prin- 
cipally eastward, failed to develop any other ore de- 
posits of promise; and when the Dhullee explorations 
wen npleted, I had about concluded that our pro- 
iron and steel project must be predicated upon 
these Raipur ores in conjunction with Bengal coke. The 
fuel and ore were over 500 miles apart, but under the 
circumstances it was concluded that this was not pro- 
hibitive. I therefore set about determining upon the lust 
site for assembly of the raw materials and their manu- 
facture into finished products. 

In relation to this inquiry we bad many factors to con- 
sider, one of great importance in India being water 
supply. During the nine dry months, from the middle 
of September to the middle of June, all but the Largest 
streams go practically dry. the river beds turning into 
great wastes of sand. Then. too. existing railway lines. 
relative distance from markets, the hitherto undeter- 
mined source of flux, the distances of the several raw 
materials in relation to their importance, and questions 
of available cheap land, foundations for heavy struc- 

tures, labor, and climate, all bad to be taken into con- 
sideration. A thorough search for suitable flux was un- 
dertaken, and the Bombay office investigated with great 
rare and thoroughness the iron and steel markets of 
India. A number of possible sites were studied and re- 
jeeteil. Also the Bengal coalfields were carefully gone 
over and large samples were taken and shipped to Eu- 
rope and America for washing and coking tests 

All these various investigations, following upon the 
iron ore campaign, carried us well into the hot season of 
1904. In the meanwhile, to our great sorrow, J. N. Tata. 
the initiator and the soul of the enterprise, had died. 
The work was, however, taken up by bis two sons, Sir 
Borah and Satan Tata, almost as a matter of inheritance, 
and pushed with as much vigor as before. 

It was in May of 1904, when we were winding up our 
work and preparing to submit the results to the expert 
criticism of Mr. Perin, that we first heard of the exist- 
ence of iron ore in the jungles of Mourbhanj state. It 
was then too near the rains to start a new field campaign, 
and I sent my native assistant geologist to make a brief 
reconnaissance. He examined the Gurumaisini deposit, 
and made so favorable a report that we promptly ar- 
ranged for concessions covering this new find and revised 
all our plans regarding point of assembly and manufac- 
ture so as to admit this new source of iron in conjunc- 
tion with our proved-up Raipur ores. 

SURVEY PARTY in camp, February 190S. 


Januan 16 1915 


I* • 1 

~'^"?T ' 


,^5i * v >^Lfl ^^L^feJiK aaflaaflH 


1 then went home, taking with me four volumes of re- 
ports, statistics, and maps resulting out of our 1^ 
months' lahor. On the way I conducted elaborate wash- 
ing tests on the large samples of Indian coals sent to 
Germany, and later we made coking tests in America 
"ii the samples which had been sent there. 

The following January 1905 I was back in India, this 
time' with Mr. Perin. Together we examined the Mour- 
lihanj ores, which we found even better than we had 
hoped. We also visited the coalfields. As a result, we 
presented a joint report recommending an iron and steel 
industry to be situated at Sini on the Bengal Nagpur 
railway, to run on Bengal coke and Mourbhanj ore. It 
was understood that land was available, and that any 
one of several good damsites near Sini would serve to 
impound sufficient water to carry the plant through the 
dry season. 

Here. I may say, ended the first chapter. The project 
remained in statu quo for over two years, vain efforts 
being made in England and elsewhere to float it. Finally 
during the summer of 1907, in the heat of a patriotic 
movement, known as the Swadeshi, whose object was to 
encourage home industries in India, capital was raised 
for the proposed iron and steel plant almost overnight 
and entirely among native Indians. The new Company 
was named the Tata Iron & Steel Co., in honor of J. N. 
Tata, the founder of the enterprise. 

I was called back to India — I was in China at the 
time — and arrived in November 1907. Work had been 
started at Sini. but unexpected difficulties had been 
encountered, first with the purchase of land (not only 
for the works, but also for the reservoirs), and secondly 
with the foundations for the dams. After going over 
the field once more most carefully. I selected a new site 
;i few miles eastward, just north of Kalimati station, on 

tin- Bengal Nagpur railway Hen «•■ arranged 
propriatc about four square miles lying between H..- rail 

Mo- K luirkiii river, ami the Subarnrekha river, and 

cured a 25 years' lean an additional trad of 

about 20 square miles We found a g I place for a 

pick-up weir in tin- Subarnrekha river, where a more 

Mt trap dike si I .mi above the river sand, form 

ing almost a natural weir; .-in. I an excellent Ufa 

supple tary reservoir in the bills jual north of ti„- 

river, Foundations proved to '"• sound, and good de- 
posits Of brick-clay wen- at band 

« 'u Christmas day of 1907 we pitched our firsl tent on 
;i rite which I bad selected for our construction 'amp. 
near the native village of Bakchi, lying about two miles 

north of Kalimati and close by the Subarnrekha river 
Mj assistant at this time was B. B. Willcox. We im- 
mediately aasembled a corps of native engineers under 
the directii f K. H. <iodbole, and by the end of Janu- 
ary, when Axel Sahliu of Julian Kennedy, Sahlin & Co. 
(who had been appointed construction engineers), ar 
rived on the ground, with his resident engineer, W. O. 
Renkin. we had already contoured a large area. Work 
on grading began at once, and before May there were 
several thousand coolies, men, women, and children, at 

Prom this time on, my connection with the enterprise 
gradually diminished. I spent one more winter in India, 
working up the raw materials end of the enterprise and 
many other matters not directly in the hands of the con- 
struction engineers. A general manager, R. G. Wells, 
was appointed and came out in January 1909, and I 
made haste to turn over my duties to him as soon as 
practicable. As representative of the consulting en- 
gineer, my position was now somewhat anomalous, and 
my earlier experiences in India, while roughing it in the 
jungle, had not contributed to my health. 

Furnaces Put in Blast 

The plant grew in due course to its present propor- 
tions under the direction of Kennedy, Sahlin & Co., the 
first blast-furnace being blown in December 1911. The 
second followed in September 1912, and the steel fur- 
naces a few months later. Marked commercial success 
has already been attained, and the great works, flanked 
by a town of several hundred bungalows and coolie lines, 
with water supply, lights, ice plant, soda water factory, 
institute for the hundred or more Europeans, bazaars 
and recreation grounds for the several thousand natives, 
etc., all sprung up out of the jungle in the course of a 
few years, stand as a lasting monument to the far-seeing 
and progressive enterprise of a single broad-gaged 
Parsee merchant. His dream of a great successful in- 
dustrial works, and with it a great industrial school for 
the natives of India, has been consummated. 

To me, however, the accomplished fact is not so full 
of fascination as the formative period, with its long 
months of work and study, the weary days in the jungle, 
the many disappointments, and the exhilaration of oc- 
casional successes. I fear the foregoing sketchy account 



January lti. 1915 

will have conveyed 8 very inadequate idea of the im- 
mense scope of our investigations, the ground we cov- 
ered, and the thoroughness, largely due to B. J. Pad- 
shah, with which we did it all. At the last we felt that 
whatever might he the intrinsic merits of our scheme, at 
least we had the beat that could he devised for India; 
and it is a matter of satisfaction to all those connected 

with its development to sec it succeed. 

The Native Point op View 

As supplementing the various technical descriptions 
which have been published from time to time and al- 
ready referred to. I append a description translated 
from a Bengali weekly paper of April 1910. 

"It is known to all now that Tata & Co. are having a 
steel factory in the district of Singhhhum. elose to the 
Kalimati station on the B. N. railway. This is the out- 
come of the late J. N. Tata's whole life toil. Had he 
been spared to live now. we know not how his heart 
would have glowed with joy. The seed of his indomit- 
able perseverance for the fruition of which he traveled 
the world over is now about to grow into a tree. We call 
it ours — because it is Swadeshi, and we wish it all suc- 

'The name of Kalimati has spread far and wide 
among the working classes, and the name having excited 
my curiosity. I proceeded there on leave to see the grand 
new project. Luckily I met a friend of mine who had 
been staying there for over a year, and I felt no incon- 
venience during my stay with him : rather I could see 
all that is going on there, in detail — the big iron foun- 
dry, the wonderful cooling tank, the new half-huilt 
town, the marram roads, all of which tended to please 
my eyes. The place is a charming one, being rich with 
natural scenery in all directions. Here the two rivers, 
Subarnrekha and Kharkai. flow at the foot of a range of 
high hills. Tata & Co. have purchased this vast tract of 
land through the government from the Midnapur Zemiu- 
dary Co., Puttnidars under the Dhalbhum raj. 

"The contract for the building of this factory lias 
heen given to an American company of engineers known 
as Julian Kennedy. Bahlin & Co.. who. as I understand. 


are to have a .V , commission on the total expenditure. 
This ( lompany has posted one sahib by the name of W. ( ). 
Renkin. whose messing expenses are. I hear, borne by 
the Tata company. He is a competent man and has 
kept everything under his thumb, so much so that none 
can or has the courage to even put in a peg in his absence. 
Then- is a general manager lure by the name of Mr. 
Wells. He*is an expert in iron works and has heen 
brought out on a high pay. Since his arrival the work is 
making a rapid progress, and in fait he has finished 
almost half the work in four or five months; he has an 
amiable look about him. There are many more Ameri- 
cans occupying various other posts, the details of which 
I propose to publish at length in a future issue. 

"Hut how is this.' It is an Indian concern. Mr. Tata 
took so much pains all his life in order to teach his own 
countrymen, but instead of that we see foreigners have 
crowded in. In such a big factory I could not find a 
single jewel of India. Has not Bengal. Bombay, Madras, 
Punjab, and the United Provinces produced a son who is 
tit to work in the Tata's factory? All this sight is de- 
pressing my heart and I am afraid lest this also turns 
into the same darkness it was in before. After spending 
so much money, if your countrymen do not get a place 
there in the factory from the beginning. God alone knows 
what is to happen in future." 

What of the Future? 

This is interesting in giving us a native point of view, 
which I may say is no doubt fairly generally held. In 
the meanwhile the management and directorate, who are 
themselves natives, are in fact working in the direction 
suggested, namely, that of replacing European with 
native talent, but are making haste slowly, and are well 
advised in doing so. Already j. X. Tata's ideal of a 
native industrial school has been realized, but it would 
be particularly unwise in a venture of this sort to pro- 
mote the scholars into the places of their teachers with 
undue haste. 

(lot. ii AND silver received at the San Francisco mint 
in December amounted to 227,571 and 126.141 oz., re- 
spectively, with a total value of +4.779.88S. Coinage 
executed was $1,075,000 gold. 31,200 nickel, and t*106,000 
silver for the Philippines. Coin, bullion, etc.. on hand 
at the end of the year was as follows: 

Gold coin $ 16,972,800.00 

Silver coin 61.716,089.51 

Nickel coin 4s.i61.10 

Bronze coin 12.129.85 

Checking balance. Treasurer United States 649,678.45 

Gold certificate bars 140,453,529.97 

Gold bullion 39,866,996.53 

Silver bullion '918.788.60 

Total $259,638,174.01 

Gold output of the Mt. Boppy mine. New South 
Wales, in November, was $57,600 from 6631 tons of ore. 
The leaching plant treated 1314. and the slime plant 
4388 tons respectively. 

•Iiinuun It. 1 " ■ 1 i 


Tdbe-Milll PclbMet— Tfodiir CIhttracteri»ftk» smd Cosft 


BviT Billet: I In- lulu null litst came ill to extensive use 

M ■ line-grinding ma. inn,' in 1 1 » . - portland cement in 
duatry, there has been a wide interest in the oharacter 
ami source i>r iln- pebbles thai are or can be m 

grinding i iia in this type of mill. More recently, the 

adoption of the tube-mill in many gold and other ore 
concentrating plants has increased the number of engi 
Deere to whom tins subject is of interest Most recently 
of all. the European war da.s given an immediate in- 
to the question, since it threatened to raise diili- 
cutties in the way of securing the Bint pebbles which had 
been the must important part of the supply. Under these 
circumstances, a discussion of the present and probable 
future sources of the pebble supply for tube-mills, and 
of tin' character of materials available for such purposes. 
is justified. 

Before the different types of pebbles which are avail- 
able can be compared, it is necessary to come to some 
conclusion as to the physical and chemical properties 
which such pebbles should possess, in order to be serv- 
iceable Ebr tlic tube-milL The main farters may he sum- 
marized as follows: 

Sliapi . — To secure the maximum of grinding efficiency, 

the pebbles iir other media employed should lie as nearly 
spherieal as possible. 

Size. — Other things being equal, the maximum grind- 
ing effect is probably secured by small pebbles, which 
give more grinding surface per ton of pebble. 

I), nsity. — Other things being equal, a dense or heavy 
pebble will grind more effectively than a pebble of lighter 
material. In practice it may be assumed that the mate- 
rials ground, in cement or metallurgical practice, will 
have. .specific gravities about as follows: cement clinker. 
3 to 3.15; dense trap, etc.. 2. II to 8.1 ; granite, gneiss, etc., 
3.6 to 2.8; limestone. 2.3 to 2.9; shale, 2.1 to 2.6: and 
sandstone. 2.1 to 2.7. 

As will be seen later, these materials are being ground 
with flint or quartzdte pebbles in most cases, and some- 
times with granite pebbles. Flint, quartzite. and gran- 
ite all range around 2.6 to 2.8 in specific gravity, so 
that in many cases the pebble used is lighter than the 
material undergoing the grinding. It is obvious that 
in such cases there" is a loss in grinding effect, which 
might conceivably go to the point of grinding up the 
pebbles faster than the ore or clinker. 

Toughness and hardness. — What has been said as to 
the advantages of a heavy pebble must not be allowed 
to cover the fact that in general practice the most im- 
portant physical properties are toughness and hardness. 
in the order named. Tbe pebble should be harder than 
the material to be ground; and it should also be tough. 
for otherwise there will be a heavy loss in breakage of 
pebbles, with reduced efficiency as a result for a time at 

''''' SillCC the pebble. || albr 

how tough and dense it may be, is finally ground and 

enters the mixture, its chemical composition is of interest 

in some eas.v An iron ball will increase the iron COn 

tent of the ground material, ami in some metallurgical 

work this is undesirable. Nearly all of the natural p. I. 

hies are either almost pure silica i dints, quartzitea, etc, 
or high in silica (granites and other igi is rocki 

that the natural pebbles will increase the silica content 
Of the mixture to some extent. This does not matter 

when cement is being made, as the additi if finelj 

ground flint or granite will improve it rather than other- 
wise, still, there will be some instances where the com 
p sition of the pebble is a matter of moment. 
Cost per ton of pebblt and product.— "Woe various 

pebbles will show different costs per ton of pebble, at 
most points where they an- to be used: and Ibis will 
enter into the question of comparative availability. Rut 

generally, particularly if chemical composition is of do 

importance in the decision, the availability will be de- 
termined, not by cost per ton of pebble, but by cost per 
ton of ground ore or cement. 

Having summarized the characteristics which arc de- 
sirable in a tube-mill pebble, different kinds of pebble 

material which arc actually available in most regions 
may be compared. This can. of course, be done in only 
a general way, as each locality should be studied as a 
separate problem; but there are some general features 
which serve to limit or indicate the choice that can be 

Fliiil. — Flint pebbles were the first materials used in 
tube-mills, and still furnish the bulk of the supply, so 
that they must be taken as a basis for all comparison. 
Flint is very tough, so that the pebbles will wear down 
smoothly without much breakage. In composition they 
contain from 8(1 to 115% silica, as shipped, which does 
no particular harm in cement manufacture or in most 
metallurgical practice. As against these advantages, 
flint is lighter than most ores or cement clinker, and 
in most regions it is expensive per ton of pebble. Since 
the whoje supply is imported, and no large water-worn 
deposits of flint are known to exist anywhere in North 
America, flint pebbles are expensive at most interior 
points. Several cement manufacturers have estimated 
that flint pebbles are about 50 r /f more efficient, that is. 
more durable, than the next best pebble available in 
any large tonnage; so that considerable difference in 
cost per ton of pebble can be allowed before flint can 
be displaced on the Atlantic seaboard. Elsewhere, how- 
ever, freight rates soon make up for tbe original ad- 

Quarfcih . — Next to flint, a fine grained quartzite prob- 
ably ranks second in all-around efficiency. The quarlz- 
ites are somewhat harder than flint, and of essentially 



January 16, 1916 

tbe same chemical composition. They are, however, less 
tough, and a charge of quartzite pebbles will show a 
greater percentage of broken fragments al tl ml of 

any given time than would a eliarge of flint pebbles. 
Quartzite pebbles an- abundant along the Lake Superior 
and Newfoundland coasts, and are marketed now on a 
moderate - 

Granite. — Granite and the other acid igneous rocks 
are less hard than quartzite. and usually are deficient 
in toughness, breaking along a more or less apparent 
•.'rain in the rock. Granite pebbles occur along the New 
England and Newfoundland coasts, and could be made 
an article of commerce. They also occur in many west- 
ern stream valleys, and have been used for over 10 years 
by at least one California cement plant. 

Trap. — The basic igneous rocks of the type of trap 
are usually somewhat softer than either quartzite or 
granite: but they are. on the other hand, often tougher 
and more durable, anil they are notably heavier than 
any of the other types of pebbles. Basic pebbles arc 
found in quantity at. certain points on the Lake Supe- 
rior ami Newfoundland coasts, as well as in many stream 
valleys in the interior. To my knowledge they have not 
been used in any cement plant. 

Mniraiimg iim BirMsla Cokainnilbiiai 
During 1914 


All things considered, the end of 1!(14 shows that 
the mining industry in British Columbia has not been 
affected as much by the war in Europe as many of 
the best authorities predicted. An estimate made care- 
fully and conservatively by the Provincial Mineralogist 
gives the total decrease below the returns for 1913 as 
being between 14 and 15%. The total production, in- 
cluding all metals and minerals, for that year was re- 
ported in the Report of the Minister of Mines at the 
value of .+20.29(5,398, while the estimate for 1914 is 
+26,000,000 in round figures. It should be remembered 
that the value of the production for the year 1913 was 
I lie greatest for any, except 1912, since the discovery 
of placer gold in Cariboo in 1852, and according to 'the 
estimate the year 1914 will only fall about $6,000,000 
short of the banner total value, less than 20 per cent. 

The most notable event in the mining industry in 
this province during the year 1914 was the 'blowing 
in' of the Granby company's smelter at Anyox. Obser- 
vatory inlet. The Company has expended nearly 
$4,000,000 in development of the mines and construc- 
tion of the smelter, power plant, docks, railway, build- 
ings in both the smelter and mining camps for all of 
the employees as well as for the Company's purposes, 
and water and sewer systems. The fact that operations 
have been continuous since the furnaces were put in 
blast in March speaks volumes for the future pros- 
perity of the enterprise. When a company is able 
to continue active operations during a period of such 

unusual disturbance in business, with so many enter- 
prises closed, it. is prima fade evidence that under nor- 
mal conditions the results will be highly satisfactory. 

The production from the placer mines in the Cari- 
boo and Cassiar mining districts, which include Atlin. 
Quesnel, Omineca, Dease Lake, and Barkerville, is esti- 
mated at $500,0(10 for 1914 as compared with $560,772 
in 1913. il'be production of lode gold, silver, copper, 
lead, and zinc will be about +14.000.000 during 1914. as 
compared with +17.700,838 in 1913. In connection with 
this decrease it must be remembered that the market 
price of each of the metals except gold has been con- 
siderably lower during 1014 than it was during 194.3; 
in fact, the lower market price will account for $1,250,- 
000 of the decrease in the value of the production. 

The value of the production of coal and coke for 1!>14 
is estimated at about +9,000,000, as compared with 
+9,197,460 for 1913. There are two reasons for this, 
the first being the decreased demand for coke at the 
Trail and Boundary smelters owing to the closing down 
of the Granby and Mother Lode plants at Grand Forks 
and (ireenwood and the part closing down of the Trail 
plant at the commencement of the war; the second be- 
ing the disorganized conditions of labor on Vancouver 
island following the strike during 1913. It is gratify- 
ing to be able to announce at the beginning of 1915 
that on Vancouver island the collieries are running at 
their normal capacity, and that the Trail and Granby 
plants are running almost up to capacity, so that the 
new year is commencing under favorable auspices. 

The value of miscellaneous productions such as build- 
ing stone, gravel, and sand, is estimated to reach +3.000.- 
000 for 1914. or about the same as for 1913, when it 
was stated in the Report of the Minister of Mines 
at +3.398,100. Although the building industry has 
been quiet in the province during the past year, as il 
has been the world over, yet the enormous quantity of 
broken rock used in the construction of the breakwater 
and piers at Victoria has at least offset the decreased 
quantity of building stone used in 1914 as compared 
with the quantity used in 1913. 

The prospects for the coming year, despite the con- 
tinuance of the war in Europe, can be considered to 
be fairly bright so far as the mining industry is con- 
cerned in British Columbia, as there are good prospects 
that some properties hitherto unknown as producers 
will have reached the stage of development that will 
place them in the lists of shipping mines, and among 
these should be properties along the line of the Grand 
Trunk Pacific railroad. Lack of transportation facili- 
ties has retarded development in that part of the prov- 
ince tributary to the Skeena river, where there are sev- 
eral promising gold-copper, as well as silver-lead, and 
silver-lead-zinc properties partly developed. Some of 
these are within a short distance of the new railway. 
in fact within less than three miles from established 
stations, and but 500 to 1500 ft. higher elevation. No 
great investment of capital is needed to place them in 
a position to ship ore to a smelter. 

. IC 191 3 


i or, 

MagiraesBfte Deposifts aunidl PossnlbnMfties aim CaMiFoinnina 


At the outbreak of the war, inquiries for thousands 
hi' tuns ni' magnesite poured in'" the mails of the own 
California magnesite deposits." Austria Hungary 
leada tin world in the production of tin- commodity, its 
exports i" the ITnited States alone amounting to about 
143,000 tuns in 1911, about 100,000 tons in I'M:;, ami 
l Tii. •"»•»* » tons in I'M:;. As the United States imported 
onl) 4880 i. uis in 1911, 3884 tons in 1912, ami B876 
inns in 1913 from other sources, it is readily apparenl 
why the participation of Austria-Hungary in hostilities 
IimI American consumers of magneaite hastily to seek 
other Bources. California is tin- only one of the states 
producing magneaite, ami its greatest outpul in 1910 
wa.s less than 13,000 tuns. Practically the entire pro- 
ilmiiun is consumed mi the Pacific coast, ami the larg- 
est portion is shipped in the paper mills of Oregon ami 
Washington. The limitation of its sale to the Pacific 
■ nasi lias been due primarily to the liigli freight rates 
prevailing t" eastern points ami the high cosl of labor 
at the mines. Lower freight rates through the Panama 
Canal should assist the California producer materially 
in reaching eastern markets. Wages for labor of all 
classes an-, in most rases, higher on the Pacific coast 
than in other parts of the country, and the influx of 
Europeans through the canal would, it has been believed, 
eventually reduce labor charges to a more normal basis. 
In the meantime, the flames of war are being fed 
with the blood of thousands of peasantry who might 
otherwise emigrate into this country, and any radical 
change in the labor situation will doubtless be long de- 
layed on this account. With these two factors innuring 
to his advantage, the California magnesite producer 
should be in a position to command a portion of the 
present import consumption. 

•In all the following paragraphs, the word magnesite should 
be taken to mean the calcined product, unless otherwise 

I'-i - ni M v,,\ 

The highly refractory quality of magnesite and its 
ability to form a hard vitreous body when combined 

uilh magnesium ,-hloriile has led lo its adoption for 

a large Dumber of purposes. The largest consumption 
is in the manufacture of magnesite firebrick, crucibles, 

and in bedding steel furnaces. As magnesium bisulphite 
it is used extensively in digesting and whitening wood 
pulp in paper mills. It is OBed in a mixture with sand. 

sawdust, ground quartz, talc, ami other substances, in 

tin manufacture of tile, plastic Mooring, roofing, sinks. 

wainscoting, in scagliola or artificial marble, and on 

ll xteriors of buildings as a plaster. The manufac 

ture of so-called 'cold water' paints and concrete water 
proofing also involves the use of magnesite with MgCL. 
It also enters into a preparation for insulating boilere 
and steam pipes, mixed with such substances as asbestos 
and infusorial earth. It has been introduced into boil 
era to prevent scale when sulphurous water is used. 

A misapprehension exists that there is no market 
whatever locally for crude magnesite. I am aware of 
at least, three carloads which have been taken within 
the last two or three years by local steel manufacturers. 
This ore is crushed to pea size and mixed with the cal- 
cined product. Less amounts are consumed by the dyna- 
mite manufacturers, and some is ground to a fine mesh 
with buhrstones for use in preparation of tooth-paste. 
In times past, finely crushed magnesite has been sold as 
chicken grit. Small amounts, finely ground, are some 
times used in oxychloride mixtures and as an adulterant 
in paint. Of late, certain dealers in photographic sup- 
plies have tried to persuade local magnesite shippers to 
undertake the manufacture of metallic magnesium, offer- 
ing to contract for their entire consumption for a period 
of two years. 

Much magnesite was formerly burned for the double 
purpose of securing a calcined product and to recover 


■ '-?' . --SJ 



***' | ^ 

^"^bti ' ~ r 

-. *^i 

r ^^^■^* l 





January 16, 191S 


the carbon dioxide content. The reason which led to 
a discontinuance of this practice was thai efficiency 
in the production of one product was had at the expense 
of the other. The magnesium oxide residue contained 
variable quantities of carbon dioxide', and when the 
rock was burned with care, difficulty was experienced 
in securing a maximum yield of <'<>_. for the period. 
For sev< ral years limestone has taken the place of mag- 

nesite, although recently attempts have Keen made at 

a carbonic-gas plant situated at Berkeley to revive the 

The plastic floor industry lias grown to considerable 
proportions within the last few years. When properly 
mixed and laid, magnesite makes an excellent floor, it 
having many advantages nol possessed by other mate- 
rials. It takes a good polish, is fireproof, waterproof, 
and will nut dust. Unfortunately, however, it is never 
certain that a good job is going to result, and in many 
eases magnesite floors have bulged, cracked, and have 
required complete relaying. This is due. in all proba* 

hility. entirely to ehemieal differences in the mixture. 

The presence of lime (CaO) in too large a quantity 

always results in failure, although it has been suggested 

thai climatic conditions may influence the success of 

the set. Tin- business has Buffered many reverses and 

adverse eritieisms through Hie work done by irresponsi- 
ble workers who understood little of the i -hanieal prac- 
tice of oxyehloridi eeineut and nothing of the technical 
side. It is worth observing that those who understand 
the work, use .are in selecting their materials, and 
stiek faithfully to formulas which have been found mrsl 
successful, have only occasional failures. Magnesite 
used in plastic work usually carries from four to eighl 
per cent carbon dioxide. 

California magnesite is purer and consequently more 
refractory than that of Austria-Hungary. The latter 
product carries variable amounts of iron which re- 
duces its point of fusibility. In spile of this fact, the 
iron-bearing variety is preferred for use in steel fur- 
naces. At a given temperature, the magnesite becomes 

plastic and may be molded into place, and later sets 
or hardens. 1 have never seen any attempt made to 

explain this fact, but it is perhaps through the forma- 
tion of a double salt of magnesium and iron. 

Calcined magnesite when exposed to air takes up car- 
bon dioxide. A statement has recently been made that 
it will completely carbonize in six months. Such a 
statement should not. of course, be given credence. A 
gain of lO^ir l.V, 1(1 in that period would be large 
under circumstances favorable to its recarboni/ation. 
Nevertheless, there is every advantage in the use id' a 
freshly calcined product both in steel practice and plas- 
tic work. Too much C0 8 renders it entirely unlit lor 
floor work, and when placed in a furnace a loss of 111', 
CO, represents a shrinkage of an equivalent cubic 
amount, leaving patches in the bed to be refilled. 


The price which has been paid for domestic magnesite 
has varied from $16 per ton on contract for large quan- 
tities f.o.b. rail at the point of shipment to as high as 
$50 lor small lots of a ton or two ground and packed 
in bands at San Francisco. Normally the price for 
carload lots unground in bags is $25 to $30 per Ion and 
+4(1 per ton for the ground product in barrels. Light 
burned magnesite has been recently offered for local 
consumption, ground, in barrels, at $35 per ton f.o.b. 
San Francisco. At the outbreak of the war. Chicago 
consumers of light burned magnesite offered to contract 
for 1000 tons, unground. in barrels weighing .'Hid to 
400 lb., at $33.50 per ton, f.o.b. rail California. Some 
European product is again coming into this country, 
and somewhat lower prices prevail. Quotations f.o.b. 
New York are now from $:!(! to $35 per ton. 

Magnesium Chloride 

As the industrial uses of magnesite. aside from its 
refractory applications, are dependent largely upon the 
ability to secure magnesium chloride, a word regarding 
this product should be said. In San Francisco, the 
fused oi- crystalline chloride in iron drums is normally 
sold at $22.50 to $25 per ton ex-shipside. Practically 
all the chemical used in this country comes from Ger- 
many, where it is produced as a by-product in the manu- 
facture id' potash from the Strassfurth deposits. At 


-. 10, 1015 



llit war, price* soared lo #60 per ton 
with little apparent supply. Eastern consult 

,i famine of German product, wired i" Californiii 
i ilmi it lie produced here and offering to pur 
in liquid form in tank ears, This action atiiiui 
investigation, and experiments have been eon 
i along three different lines: I) thai of direct 
production from iiuignesite and hydrochloric acid 
that involving the use of dolomiti .in a source of mag 
iiesium; (3 through the recovery of .Mgt'l from the 
hitter brines of local salt works. These bitter brines 
contain as high as 17 v. MgCI, at ime, Ship 

inents from Europe are again coming into this country, 
mid recent tenders are at h price of $27.50 per ton 
r.o.b. New York in carloads, which is equivalent to 
nlioul $40 per ton at California ports. 

Magnesium chloride has been manufactured in lim- 
ited quantities in San Francisco and Alameda by ilis- 
solving magnesite with hydrochloric acid. No attempt 
v., is made in either case to reduce it to a crystalline 
form. It is said to have cost about $24 per ton, the price 
being estimated on a crystalline basis. En one case this 
« as done to secure a colorless product, as the magnesium 
chloride of commerce is frequently badly discolored 
through the presence of iron rust. 

California Production lnd Sources of Magnesite 

Titian Mining Co. For several years the Tulare 
Mining Co. has been the Largest individual producer 
in California. Its production is used largely by the 
paper manufacturers of Oregon and Washington, the 
magnesite company being a subsidiary of the Willamette 
Pulp iV. Paper Co. The deposits of this Company are 
mi the smith fork of the Tide river and about ten miles 
east of Porterville in Tulare county. A spur track two 

miles long connects the mine with the Southern Pacific 
railroad, and from a point of transportation makes this 
mine more easily operated than other deposits in the 
state. Much development work has been done on these 


deposits, ami an apparent^] large IkmI) 

The mile is equipped will I or sta.-k 

calcining furnace, having a capacity of 500 oi 600 tons 

I" r mouth, and ihis funue, • is worked continuously 

at about m'' , of its capacity, Two grades of magnesite 
arc produced, one of selected white rock for plastic use. 
and another somewhat discolored through Hie presence 
of iron. Tin calcined product is placed in s.'e I 

portion of tl ui | hi t being Bbipped to San Francisco 

ground and barreled, and sold to local industri 

Western \tagiwsit< Co, The deposits of this I 
pany are in the northeastern part of Santa Clara 
county near the boundary lines of Alameda and Stan 
islaus comities. The mine is connected to Liivermore 

by a good road al I 35 miles long with no heavy grades. 

The deposits have been operated from time to time foi 
the past ten years and accredited with a considerable 

tonnage. The rock is exceptionally pure and white. 
The ore exposures arc sufficient to warrant the assump- 
tion that the deposits arc extensive. The equipment 

consists of tWO stack furnaces which are connected to 

the mine workings by a tramway about 2700 Ft. long. 

Warehouse facilities ha\e been provided, and living 

quarters, blacksmith-shop, and oihcr accessory improve- 
ments made. For the past year or more the planl had 

been operated only in a small way. but recently resumed 

activity with a crew of 20 n. and has produced and 

shipped several hundred tons within the past three or 
four months. 

Fresno Magnesit< Co. — This deposit is conveniently 
situated, so far as its transportation facilities are con- 
cerned, being about one mile from the Santa Fe rail- 
road terminal station I'iedra. iu Fresno county. The 
mine is reached by a road across the county bridge 
over the Kings river. The deposits are in the rather 
low, rolling, barren hills on the north side of this stream. 
The vein, where exposed, is said to vary iu width from 
a few inches to about eight feet. It is reported that 
much of the ore contains rather high percentages of 
lime. The equipment, aside from the stack furnace, 
includes crushers, a steam plant, engines, dynamos, etc.. 
and mine buildings. Most of the magnesite produced 
was sold to paper mills, but the plant has been idle for 
about two years. 

Swindell Magnesiti Co. — The presence of magnesite 
on the western arm of Cedar mountain, in Alameda 
county, has been known for some years, and devel ip- 
inent work has been done from time to time since 1905. 
The deposits, which are about Id miles southeast of 
Livennore, were leased by the .lames IT. Swindell Mag- 
nesite Co. in 1912 and construction of a furnace com- 
menced, intended primarily to produce dead-burned 
magnesite for the steel mills. The mine is at an ele- 
vation of 3500 ft. above sea-level, and the roads leading 
to it have several heavy grades. The plant was oper- 
ated but a short period this year, producing less than 
100 tons during the trial run. Operations ceased owing 
to lack of sufficient capital. The extent, of the deposit 
is not shown by the present development work. The 



January 1G, 1915 

principal exposure is in a circular pil of about 30 ft. 
diameter and 25 ft. deep. The bottom of this pil is 

ided with a chute about 8 ft. deep, connecting with 
the tunnel below. Through this, which is aboul 75 ft 
long, the ore is trammed to the crusher, where it is 
liroken to pieces do! exceeding two inches in length, 
of the shelf or chamber type. When the 
crushed ore is delivered to the 1 furnace, it passes first 
j„to the uppermost chamber, and when the furnace is 
in full operation a charge is kept on each hearth. When 
Ihe calcination of the charge in the lowest chamber is 

pleted ii is discharged upon a flour of firebrick be- 

nace, and is cooled, preparatory to sacking. 
The charge on the second hearth is then raked down 

place that just drawn, the charge of each of the 
upper hearths progressing downward by steps in this 


Magnettco Refractories Produrts Co.— Practically the 
entire output of this Company lias been consumed Tor 
plastic and insulating purposes. The deposits are situated 
near Winchester, a station on the Santa Pe branch rail- 
road extending between Highgrove and San Jacinto in 
Riverside county. The deposit comprises a network of 
small veins for the most part, although one vein has been 
uncovered of considerable width. Mueh of 1 1 * ■>■ 

mined lias required hand sorting, and the larger- part 
n f (he material mined is thrown on the waste dumps. 

The plant of the Company, which is at Los Angeles, 
is not in operation at the present time, and jt is re- 

ported that no further operations are planned at the 

Sonoma MagnesiU Co. — A good deal of interest has 
l»-en aroused lately in the statements which have ap- 
peared in the daily press with regard to extensive im- 
provements of the magnesite deposits of the Company. 
aboul 8 miles north of Cazadero in Sonoma county. It 
is reported that construction work has been commenced 
on a spur leading toward the deposits, which are not 

as yet provided with calcining facilities. The Company 
plans production in a large way with the view of com- 
peting for business on the Atlantic seaboard. The 
Company will doubtless be able to secure a low freight 

rale to tidewater at San Francisco, whence it plans 

shipments via the Panama canal. Several veins of 

magnesite have been exposed, but tl laims are not 

extensively developed. 

Miscellaneous Activities 
It is reported that some crude magnesite has recently 
Keen shipped from the vicinity of Cazadero and Clover- 
dale in Sol a county, and from Coyote station, near 

Morgan Hill, in Santa Clara county. This ore has been 

calcined at the plaid of the Pure Carbonic <ias Co. in 

ley, ihe carbon dioxide content being recovered 

.\h st of tl alcined product is suid to have been taken 

by an Oregon paper mill. In the foregoing, mention 

lieen made of only those deposits that have been 

equipped for production or that will possibly become 

producers shortly. Deposits of this mineral are found 

swim. ill. I I iin.m I I si c u CEDAB MOUNTAIN. 

at many points in the Coast Range and in some places 
in the Sierra Nevadas. Some of these are apparently 
of considerable extent, and much of the ore is of ex- 
cellent quality. Bull. 355 of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, entitled 'The Magnesite Deposits of California,' by 
Frank L. Iless, supplemented by Bull. 540-3, entitled 
'Late Developments of -Magnesite Deposits in Califor- 
nia and Nevada.' by Iloyt S. Gale, will be found by 
those interested in making more careful investigation 
of this subject, I,, 1„. excellent references and very com- 

Platinum is practically all recovered from placer de- 
posits, mainly in Russia. It is now found in Hie Boss 
mine, Nevada, and the Rambler Copper & Platinum Co.'s 
property at Holmes. Wyoming. The mill was remodeled. 
and preparations were made to continue the operations 
through the winter. This mill in recent years has pro- 
duced platinum concentrate, and the mine is one of the 
first in the world to contribute to the platinum produc- 
tion from lode deposits. 

CYANIDE tMPORTED into Canada ill 191:! totaled 70S 
tons. In the first hall' of 1914 there was only 227 tons. 

or 38 tons per i ith, hut in August this increased to 

1 30 Ions, due to mining companies getting in large stocks. 
No cyanide is made in the Dominion. 

The Chisns mine at Terlingua. Texas, continued the 
important output of quicksilver maintained for many 
years, and was again in 1914 one of the largest producers 
in the country. 

I'll I 



Si £. S. KINO 

•stamp milling h».s been receiving considerable attcn 
tiou during reoenl years, ;ui< I several improvements and 
l >itt a'it t stampa have been placed on the market with - 
success. In view of the claims made for various types 
of mill. I decided to make a teal between two of them. 
The plan) was erected at Tincroft, whiob has the dis- 
tinction of possessing one of the oldest reduction works 
in Cornwall. Accordingly, two Nissan single-stamp 
mills were obtained, also a Sandyorofl I English make) 
five-head ordinary mill. These two units started crush- 
ing in Jane 1914, and the figures of the comparative tesl 
are now available. Bach Nissan stamp weighed 2000 lb., 
while the five others each weighed 1250 Lb. The two 
batteries were driven by independent motors, the con- 
sumption of power being carefully checked and tabulated 
by the Cornwall Power Co. Only the coarse material 

thai passed over the grizzly was senl to the breakers £ I- 

ing the mills, the fine being diverted to the old Cornish 
batter) for treatment. Both mills, of course, would 
have shown higher capacities had the fine been included. 
In each case, the screen was of 10-meah standard. 

Result of test from June 18 to -Inly 16, 1914, showed 
the following: 

Ordinary. Nissen. 

Or, crushed, tons 854.44 562.03 

Total run, days 23.89 24.61 

Duly per day, tons 35.765 22.S37 

Stamp duty each, tons 7.15:: 11. lis 

Total horse-power consumed 16.231 12.176 

Horse-power per ton crushed per hour.. 10.959 12.796 

Tons per horse-power per day 2.19 1.S75 

Cost of power, cents per ton 10.63S 12.422 

The average grading analysis of the product was as 


Ordinary, Nissen, 

Mesh. percent, percent. 

+ 20 13.37 15.63 

+ SO 15.61 15.97 

+ 40 9.21 8.30 

+ 60 12.08 11.88 

+ 100 10.55 9.94 

+ 150 9.43 S.13 

+ 200 3.03 3.20 

— 200 26.40 26.63 

99.68 99.6S 

These figures do not show any great difference in the 

grade of the pulp from the two mills. The duration of 

the trial being under a month, the cost of maintenance 

could not be estimated accurately. 

The five-head mortar-box was specially designed by 
myself in accordance with previous experience in West- 
ern Australia. The box was of the straight-backed type 
with detachable front, rounded corners (to strengthen), 
cast-steel liners standing 12 in. above the dies and bolted 
in position with countersunk headed bolts. The high 
crushing capacity is mainly due to the small area be- 
•Abstraet from The Mining Magazine, December 1914. 

— "1 1 


I ween the slims mid the box, tins lieiug onlj one inch, 
and insures a quick return of the uncrushod pulp 

Phi loreen was made to tit so thai the bottom was 
flush with the inside liner, Tins was done by putting n 
filling piece at the bottom of the screen frame, with the 

sides tapering to nothing at the top Tl hjecl i 

fold; i I i it puts the Bcreen nearer t" the stamps, ami 

stops any dogging mi 
the insiili- lip of tin 
box ; (2 1 1 gi 
greater angle to tin 
screen, thus allowing 
for a quicker dis 

charge of sand than 

if the Bcreen were 
The stems used 

Were of I ill. ilia III 

Hit. and were short 
er than usual by 4 to 
5 feet, and this. I 

would point out, re 
duced the vibration 
and friction in a min- 
imum, The order of 
the drop was 1, 3, 5, 

The success of an 
ordinary stamp-bat- 
tery, 1 contend, is 
due principally to having a properly designed mortar- 
box, the stamps falling exactly on the dies well under 
the cam-shaft. This cannot be secured, unless there are 
strong iron guides (same as were used in litis test i, and 
dies made to fit the box. 

Many mill-men make the mistake of having the base of 
the dies too small, and putting pieces of iron between 
them to keep them in position. This is bad practice, for 
in the event of one piece of iron getting dislodged, it 
throws the whole of the dies out of place, thereby a I 
once reducing the crushing surface and efficiency. 
Hitherto, the necessary space for inside gold and silver 
amalgamation had generally somewhat influenced the 
standard design of the usual mortar-box; but in this 
case, in view of obtaining the greatest capacity, il was 
entirely disregarded. 

In Western Australia, the use of cyanide in place of 
amalgamation brought about this welcome improvement, 
and the old boxes packed with hardwood and steel plates 
gave the following capacities, equal to an increase of 
over 50% on previous results: 

Screen, Weight of stamps, Duly, 

mesh. pounds. tons. 

30 1050 4.76 

20 1050 6.27 

10 1050 S.90 

These results were obtained on ore containing 50 to 
60% granite, therefore on clean quartz, it can be as- 
sumed, a much better duty would have been obtained. 



January lb", 1915 

Readers <>\ the Mining and Scientific Pbess are invited to use this department for the discussion of tech- 
rs pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editoi net the expression of views can- 

traru 'o Ins men, believing that careful criticism is more valuable than casual compliment. Insertion of any con- 
tribution is determined by its probable interest to the readers of this jn\> 

itiomi m 

The Editor: 

Sir— There being a difference in the results obtained 
in two mills bj lation, both Elardinge, 1 would 

like ;m explanation of this difference. Mr. Caetani, in 
his article, 'The Design of the Plymouth Mill' (the 
Press, October 31, 1914), States, in his discussii 
amalgamation, thai when amalgamation inside the Har- 
dinge mill was employed "It was found thai if the 
amalgam was kept sufficiently sofl it would build up on 
the pebble lining, filling up the depressions of the mortar 
between the pebbles. It was hopefully expected to find 
large amalgam halls rolling around with the pebbles, bul 
this was not found to I)'- the case; at the bottom of the 
mill there was a slough of amalgam, sand, and metallic 
iron, which in rolling, caused the coarse gold to amal- 
gamate and, as the amalgam was formed, it becami 
tered upon the lining. Whenever the feeding of quick- 
silver was stopped, the amalgam would dry up, crumble, 
and be thrown nut of the discharge opening of the Har- 
dinge, where it would build up in thick layers. * * • 
Inside amalgamation has now been discontinued, solely 
For the reason that the quicksilver losses were enormous, 
due to the flouring inside the mill." K. B. T. Ki Hani, in 
his article, ' The IncaoroMill, Bolivia' (the Pre««,Noveni 
ber 21, lbl4i. says, in regard to amalgamation in Kar- 
dinge mills: "Mercury is fed in al the head end of the 
ball-mill, amalgamated in this machine, and 
through to the pebble mill, which catches the greater 
portion of the coarse gold. The machines are shut dow a 
once a day to make a clean-up of the amalgam in the 
mills, from which approximately 7V, of the total re- 
covery is made. The amalgam in these machines is very 
hard, containing slightly over 50$ gold. This is at 
tributed to the fact that the pounding of the halls and 
pebbles in the mills squeezes out all the free mercury, 
leaving a hard amalgam, which halls up and tumbles 

around." Will Mr. Caetani and Mr. Kiliani kindly ex- 
plain these different actions and results.' At the Incaoro 
mill, hard halls of amalgam formed; at the Plymouth 
they did not. though expected: the amalgam being 
ejected Eroin the mill if allowed to become hard by ceas- 
ing to feed quicksilver. Mr. Caetani says soft amalgam 
would cling to the mill lining, the surplus quicksilver 
Forming a pool of thin amalgam in the bottom. .Mr. 
Kiliani says the surplus quicksilver is squeezed out and 
hard halls formed, hut does noi saj whal becomes of the 
excess, nor does In mention any soft amalgam as cling- 
ing to the lining. Why should hard halls form in one 

nd not in the other.' I judge the difference to lie 
due to tin- different amounts of quicksilver fed. one 

millnian probably feeding more in proportion to the 
amount of gold present than did the other. Had .Mr. 

Caetani fed less quicksilver, he would have obtained 
hard amalgam, though it might not have remained in 

the mill and lor 1 balls. Of course when no quiek- 

silver was added the amalgam became very hard, crum- 
bled, and was ejected. As I he interior of the mill is uol 

visible, the operator probably would have difficulty in 
determining the proper amount of quicksilver to add to 

secure and maintain the desired consistence of amalgam 
I do not think there could he any surplus quicksilver at 
the Incaoro .mill, only enough being added to form a 
hard amalgam. At the Plymouth mill the amalgam was 
pasty and all the coarse gold ground fine so that the 
amalgam contained only 22$ bullion. At the Incaoro. 

50$ of the amalgam was gold, the difference probably 

being due to grinding of tin- gold being prevented by 

the hardness of the amalgam. 

At Hie Plymouth mill a large amount of quicksilver 

was floured, hut Mr, Kiliani docs not mention floured 
quicksilver, so we must suppose that an objectionable 
quantity was ao1 Formed. Why the difference.' Is il 

due to the character of the ores .' The Plymouth ore con- 
sists of quartz, slate, pyritc, and arsonopyritc. The con- 
centrate forms 1.8$ of the ore. a large percentage of it 

being arsenopyrite In the article, 'The Incaoro Gold 
Miic and .Mill' (the Press, April -I. 1914), P. C. Lincoln 

states in regard to the ore: "The principal vein mineral 
is quartz, always accompanied by some white mica and 
native gold, and occasionally also by arsenopyrite, pyr- 
rhotite, and pyritc. * * * The arsenopyrite and pyrite 
* * * are present in sucdi small quantities as to lie rela- 
tively unimportant." The country rock is described as 
being a "black nou-fossili ferous slate." The only dif- 
ference in the ores seems to be the greater proportion of 
sulphides in that at the Plymouth, but perhaps there is 
a difference in the character of the slate, some of which 

necessarily goes to the mills. The motion of the pebbles 
would tend to produce the same amount of flouring in 
both cases if all conditions were the same, but as the 

amalgam at lie- Incaoro was kept harder than that at the 

Plymouth, I judge there would be a smaller pel nlago 

of quicksilver floured and not a sufficient amount to 

make its less important. 

Perhaps there is nothing in the Incaoro ore to cause 
'sickening' of the quicksilver, and hence the globules 
Formed by the pebbles readily unite. The respective 

Jantian 16, 1915 



•mounts of srseuopyrite present may a tunl for the 

iliffereneu in the quantities of quicksilver floured, there 
bring almi st none lit the Incaoro and an appreeiu le 
amount ni tin Plymouth. There may be a difference in 
lie that lia.s an influence on the flouring, thai al 
tin Plymouth contains graphite, ami perhaps thai al the 
tseaoro doea not, which may account for some of the 
differences in flouring, I > !< » not know thai graphite 
will 'sicken' quicksilver, but it may in the finely divided 
condition in which it ooeura in the slate of 1 1 ■ * - Mother 
Lode. I know thai the dirt thai is acquired during a 
da] spent in a Mother Lode mine cannot be washed from 
the bands as can ordinary mud or dust, but that, like 
• is required to remove it. Perhaps it clings 
in the surface of a globule of quicksilver as tenaciously. 
Perhaps if Mr. Caetani and Mr. Kiliani would give more 
details of the methods employed at the two mills the 
differences in results could be readily explained. 

Aside from tin- above, please ask Mr. Caetani to de- 
scribe tlir amalgamating device that he- States is In be 
attached tn the Eardinge mill al the Plymouth and bell 
what results art' nlitaiiu-il. Also ask Mr. Kiliani to de- 
scribe the method of cleaning-up the ball and the pebble- 
mills at the [ncaozo. 

P. .1. (ilHAUli. 

Dedrick, California, December 28, 1914. 

With great pleasure we send these inquiries ou to 
Mr. Caetani, who happens to he now in Italy, and Mr. 
Kiliani. who is in Bolivia. This interesting discussion 
of their papers by Mr. Qirard, in California, emphasizes 
the world wide brotherhood of technical men, al the 
saiiu- tinii' that the circumstance excuses delay in reply. 
Tn the meantime Mr. von Bernewitz is good enough to 
suggest possible answers to the questions, based upon 
experience in New Zealand and Australia. Who else 
has a suggestion? — Editor.] 

The Editor: 

sir — Mr. Qirard 's discussion of the peculiarities of 
amalgamation in Hardinge and other mills raises some 
interesting points, which seem quite as difficult of ex- 
planation as they are interesting. There seems to be 
little difference in the ores treated at the Plymouth and 
Incaoro mills, although the gold may be finer in the 
former than in the latter. Any large difference in the 
pebble load would also affect amalgamation, and pos- 
sibly the speed. Graphite in the slate mixed with the 
ore forms a greasy scum when crushed, and most likely 
would tend to 'sicken' the quicksilver, although I did 
not hear on the Mother Lode that it affected plate amal- 
gamation. It may be argued that amalgamation in a 
mortar-box is subjected to great scouring aetion, when 
the stamps splash the pulp violently against the inside, 
yet when properly done there is little loss from flouring 
at this point. Apart from recovery of gold in the box. 
a steady flow of pulp over copper plates is about the 
best medium in amalgamation. Candidly, I would not 
try amalgamation in a Hardinge, tube, or ball-mill, in 
Which the action of grinding is violent, and where little 

else than flouring >i the merflpry could lie expeeted 
The effect of graphite in cyanidation is snii ., matter 

of dispute, a metallurgists being convinced thai ii 

does precipitate gold from solutions while othei 

ii .1 es not mill whatever precipitating is doue is bj oc 

eluded gas in the graphite. However, ilns is another 


I never had much use for anj amalgamating device, 
preferring to stii-k to the old methods. The theory ad 
vanced by inventors of amalgamating machines is gen 
eralrj to have better eontact between the gold in pulp 
mid mercury, therefore they try to force the pulp 
through, or on to, a mix with it. Flouring often results 
from this treatment. Electro-amalgamators work on the 
principle of keeping wells of quicksilver in an active 
condition, thereby inducing amalgamation. 

Grinding pans are extensively used in Australia 
and in New Zealand, and with them amalgamation. 

The action in these is violent enough, but niercurj losses 
are always low. The only system of amalgamation in 

tube-mills thai 1 think well of is thai used in the high- 
grade mills of the Xi pissing and Buffalo mines at Cobalt. 
Hut that is another matter, as it involves the treatment 

of a few tons of 2(iuii to 3000-oz. silver on- with' u strong 
cyanide solution, and a greater weight of quicksilver 
than there is ore in the mill. The process is satisfactory, 
but mercury losses are admitted to be high, and steps 

are being taken to recover the metal. The different re- 
sults obtained at the Plymouth and tncaoro mills hears 
out what I often say. thai what applies in one plant is 
not necessarily successful in another, even with similar 
ores, and no hard and fast rule can be laid down. Pe- 
culiar results occur, and often they are not always 


San Francisco. January 9. 


The Editor: 

Sir — In regard to the correspondence in your paper 
upon the above topic, your contributors arc in agreement 
in one respect — that calculations shall he based upon the 
assignment to each borehole of a definite superficial 
area. It is over the relative claims of an 'outside,' an 
'inside,' or a 'corner' hole that they are at variance. 
There is also a tendency to regard the matter as exclu- 
sively one of values and to lose sight of the secondary 
element of capacity. In dealing with 'units' and 'half 
units.' or the values at opposite ends of a single diam- 
eter, as is advocated by Mr. Jennings, it is well to re- 
member that the engineer might, be making calculations 
for a large and irregular field instead of the restricted 
area given in the example. 

In the following attempt I have assumed that the 
solid body of the deposit has been tested in five vertical ■ 
sections ; and on the assumption that the untested is also 
the unknown, and that the average is accepted as the 
best guess that can be made at the probable. I have 



Januarv lb. 1!>1.~> 

6Qc ^c 

/VP 3 Tjoft. A^og] 30 Ph. 

/V"Z ■ 





40 c 


CS-0-6 c - 



40 ft //"€ 30 ft. 

Diagram 1. 

233 ft. 

#8-3c g-o-6c 
23 -3 ft. 23. J //. 




68-3* «clf 

3 Off. 23 3ft. 


Diagram 2. 

supplied the missing values by an average of all the 
nearest equidistant boreholes. The first diagram repre- 
sents the ground as tested, the second the calculated 
averages required to complete the data for each section. 
The results may be tabulated thus: 

Avg. of holes 
Point A— 2. 5, 1 

36 4- 40 + ISO 30 - 20 - J » 

Po,ntB-3.4.2 = » + »; + » = «.« 

Point C-4 - K ?i+!»±- 30 = B 0. 6 x23.3 

The Kditor: 

sir — Mr. Prosser's letter in your issue of December 5 
vehemently criticizing the use of the singular form of 
the verb in your statement "• * • 600,000 tons was 
crushed/' Quotes "a fundamental rule of grammar, 
•plural noirn. plural verb'," and. further on. excoriates 
grammar as the worst of "the various kinds of trash" 
taught in our schools. Why anyone who holds grammar 
in such contempt should attempt to insist that his con- 
struction is the correct one is not clear, hut the correct- 
ness of your use of the verb is beyond question. 

The subject under discussion was ore, and there is 
nothing plural about ore except in the case of a mine 
which produces more than one kind, as the Shattuck 
Arizona does. The ore was crushed to the amount of 
600.000 tons. The tons mentioned measured the quan- 
tity of ore, but they were not crushed into pounds or 
ounces. Mills crush ore. not tons, and doubtless this 
plant was designed for that purpose. The only occasion 
that I think of where the tonnage itself is "crushed" is 

when :i capable engineer examinee a mine 
in which the amount of ore has been over- 

.1. Nelson Nevius. 

Los Angeles. December 10. 1914. 

Point D — 5, 2.4,7 = 

40 + 35 + 50-4- 60 20 + 80 - 20 + 2" 

The Haifldleiniiiinig oiF Metals 


16.26 22.25 

„, ,. , . . i::n + 40 + 50 40 f 20 + 30 

Point E— 1.6. 6= 5 — ■ ■ 

3 3 

„ . ,. . . 50 + 40 + 60 30 + 20 + 20 
Point F— 6, ... . = ! — 5 >< ■ — =+ = 

(2 + 50 + 60 30 + 20 + 20 

Point C— 7. 4. 8 = 


= 73.3 X 30 

= 50 x 23.:: 
50.6 ■ 

Inserting these values we obtain: 

1 At unit distance apart 1 

60 + 50.6 + 12 20 + ?3.3 + 30 

his 3 C 8 = 
R 4 G = 

3 3 

50 + 50.6 23.3 + 20 + 23.3 

3 ~ X 


= 50.86 X 24.43 = 1242.3 
= 4:m:3 X 22.2 =1101.8 

2 D7==i5J *f + 60 X 3 ° + "f + 2 "= 47.08 X 24.08 = 1133 

A :, P = 68.3 + 40 + 50 x 30+20 + 23.3 =5276 x 2443 = 1 , g9 

1 E 6 = 


130 + 73.3 + 60 40+30 + 30 

:S4.43 X 33.3 =2811 

: 59c. Average depth 25.7 fi. 

This value may seem to be higher than that obtained 

by some methods, but the quest for a system is governed 
by accuracy and adaptability rather than conservatism. 
It is obvious that the desirability or otherwise of using 
calculated averages and the selection of the elements of 
these at the truth are matters determined on any 
field by the placing of the borings. 

Edmund Bonella. 
London. October 26, 1914. 

At the 74th meeting of the Faraday So- 
ciety in London, on November 2M. the 

above was the subject of a general discus- 
sion. The chairman was Sir liobert Bad- 
field of si eel lame. Referring to the his- 
tory of the most important hardened metal 
in the world, namely steel, he said that the 
world's future progress literally depended 
upon understanding correctly and in a 
scientific manner the hardening of metals. 
The ! urate determination of the hardness 

of Steel alloys was now being investigated 

by a special research committee of the In- 
stitution of Mechanical Engineers. Hav- 
ing referred with deep regret to the great 
loss sustained by the science of metallurgy 
in the death of Dr. .Martens, in whose 
honor Osmond had invented the metallo- 
graphic term 'martensite,' he concluded by 
showing a specimen, probably the first to 
he exhibited in modern times, of an ancient piece of high 
carbon steel which had been hardened by quenching. It 
was taken from beneath the stone pillar of Ileliodorus at 

Besnagar, India, and it contained 99.2$ Fe, 0.70', C, 
0.01?! Si, 0.008$ s. U.20', i\ n.02', Sin, and. traces of 

nickel and chromium. This specimen, perhaps more than 
2l)t«l years old, was the first example of ancient steel 

which he knew of that contained sufficient carbon to be 

called steel. 

12S. 44 757» 

January 16, 1913 


II ! 


J'"' "' •' ■'/''x '•■ ■/"' "i.»iij received by m»,i. our readen art HivMed a, ask queiUont and »<•■■■ 

.•don dealing uiCi :h, practic* a/ n<n4*0, nfllinp, and melMna, 

Qoi d im' silveb producing mines In the United States 
mill Alaska, but no) including several silver producing 
oopper mines in Michigan, any rinc minis in t In- eastern 
and central states, r few in the Car West, or lead mines 
in the oentral states, totaled 5276 in 1918, These con- 
sisted i>!' 177-1 placer and 3502 deep mines. The figures 
in 1912 were 2044 and 3567 res] lively. 

Tur Industry <>k thk Coal-Tab Dyes was the sub- 
ject of mi address delivered before the board <>t' directors' 
nt' the General Chemical Co., New York, on October 2'i, 
bj Bernhard C. Hesse. The Full paper appears in the 
December issue of Thi Journal of Industrial ami En- 
gineering Chemistry. The industry yields no less than 
rji hi different products, includes as many or more 
processes of manufacture, and requires many hundred 
different sets nt' apparatus of varying capacities; 
therefore the complexity of the manufacture is evident. 

These 1200 products are made from 111 products obtained 

Minn coal-tar by distillation, refrigeration, expression, or 

the like. 


by E. V. Davies of Folsom, California, and tried by him 
in a mill in Plumas enmity. The upper or movable 
table can be set at a position just under the lip plate, 
a little ahead or behind the discharge point of same, to 
take any amount of the total pulp flow. The table could 
set or rest on the stationary table when in working posi- 
tion ami be arranged to be raised or rolled away from 
it when necessary, or hung bj r rods from the build- 
ing above. A short length of such an upper table was 
tried with good results in amalgamating float gold. It 
was set in a position with the lip plate to catch only 
the lighter pulp; bringing it more to rest on this 
table and in better contact with the mercury than could 
be done if carried clown with all the pulp. Such a table 
will divide the pulp, and more water may be used in the 
battery, resulting in a more rapid discharge with less 
slime and an increased stamp-duty, and it may lie of 
use where floor space is limited. 

The Watson-Denny grinding pan is used iu certain 
mining districts of New Zealand with satisfactory re- 
sults. It is somewhat similar to the pan as used at 
Kalgoorlie, but the shoes and dies are cast with small 
corrugations, so as to afford a greater grinding surface 
than the plain ones. The overflow is discharged through 
a number of 1-in. holes at the top of one side of the 
pan into a lip attached. At the bottom of this lip is 
a hole through which the coarser material is returned 

l" the pan tn be further ground. In front of the dis 
charge holes is a board placed to check the Mow and aid 

the heavy sand to sink. A irding tn I) B. Laurie, who 

operated these pans mi the Tlia s goldfield, six of them 

ground 50 Ions per 24 hours, the clean sand feed being 
25 mesh, with no slime, and tin- discharge passing a 100 
mesh screen. When I'd too fast the surface nt' the pulp 
in the pan was 'dead', and the overflow lip contained 
a quantity of sand. These pans are "i ft. diameter, and 
are gear driven. 

Tin: deep leads, or gravel channels, of Victoria, have 

produced a great deal of gold in the past, but this form 

of mining is very quiet now. Water has always I n a 

detriment to economical work. The system is to sink a 
shaft to bedrock, drive under the 'wash' and then put 

ft \ 


\ V, 


ii]> boreholes to drain it. The Langi Logan company, in 
the Ararat district, has been pumping for three years, 
and has reduced the pressure of the water in the ground 
from 145 to 14 lb. per square inch. Pumps used are one 
20 and one 22-in. lift, with 9-t't. stroke. Another pair of 
18-in. lifts have recently been started also. The gold in 
the gravel is shotty, the deepest being at 350 ft. The ac- 
companying picture shows the flow of water from the 
Loddon Valley Goldfields property, another deep lead 



January 16, 5.911 


Tfiae IPmeseiraft: Ckaftloolls iFoir Quartz Mnmibg Jim fclne Faarfeairalks Dsstirncft 


Lode mining is a comparatively Dew industry in the Fair- 
I' inks district. The first quartz claim in the district was 
located by John C. Rose on Chatham creek on August 28, 1903. 
It was known as the Blue Bell lode. The next year saw sev- 
eral more claims staked, hut real lode development did not 
start until the Rhoads-Hall property, consisting of the Free 
Gold claim on Bedrock creek, was opened in 1008-9, Then 
many claims were staked, and whole hillsides were blanketed 
with locations. As many ot" the locations were not followed 
by active prospecting or development work, the lode-mining 
industry did not fare beyond the nursing bottle stage. 

In the last it w years Fairbanks has experienced some real 
healthy development, although iii 1913 and 1914 the growth 
has been less than ill ihe two years preceding. Many mis- 
takes have been made, ore has not been sampled carefully. 
mills have been placed without careful enough investigation 
of conditions, and expensive equipment has been installed 
without sufficient ore in sight to justify reduction plants, but 
progress has none the less been substantial. 

The development of lode mining in the Fairbanks district 

with the depletion of the richer placer deposits of the 

creek bottoms Previous to 1911 about $60,000 was taken out: 
in 1911, the production was $64,100; in 1912, $200,000; in 
1913, $176,000; and in 1914, about $260,000 or $300,000. In 1912 

six mills in operation; in 1914. five op> 
three of tin in at intervals only, The reason assigned is the 
fact that many of the mills were Installed before sufficient 

ground development hai i Water conditions 

often have caused some of the mills to close down, especially 
iluring the winter time. It is only by drilling that a perma- 
nent water snpi I] D obtained at some nl the claims 
Most of the properties of the district have been opened Up 
with local capital and bj local men, and the mistakes made 
in the mining have been due largely to inexperience and lack 
of knowledge as. to quartz mining. 

Gold-hearing quart/ has been found in the Fairbanks dis- 
trict in many widely scattered areas. The main belt ap 
to be centred in the region between the Cleary and Fairbanks 
creek watersheds. .Most of the prospects occur alon 
headwater tributaries of I Hear] and Fairbanks creeks, although 
some very promising properties have been developed along 
Twin and Pedro creeks, <m Fox gulch, a Coldstream tributary. 
on Dome and Little Eldorado creeks, tributaries of the Chata- 
nika river. Then thl re is another bell surrounding the Esti r 

•[Previous articles in this series by Mr. Hurja on mining in 
Alaska and the Yukon have been 'Mining Revival in the 
Ketchikan District, Alaska.' July 4: 'Wrangell, Alaska.' special 
correspondence, Julj 11; 'Developments of the Alaska Gold 
Mines Co.,' July IS: 'Juneau, Alaska.' special correspondence, 
July 25: Cordova, Alaska.' special correspondence. August 8; 
Valdez and Prince William Sound.' August 16; 'Seward and 
the Kenai Peninsula.' August 29; 'The Koyuknk Mining Dis- 
trict.' September 12; Operations of the Yukon Gold Co..' Octo- 
ber 10; Skagway-White Horse Mining District.' October IT: 
'Operations of the Canadian-Klo#dyke G. M. Co..' November 
14- 'The Klondike, the Treadgold Placers, and Outlying Dis- 
tricts. ' November 28; The Upper Yukon: Circle City. Eagle, 
and Woodchopper,' December 5: Placer Mining in the Fair- 
banks District,' Decembei 19 and January 2.— Editor.] 

Dome region, where quartz has been found on Eva. Ready 
Bullion, and Sheep creeks. 

There are a number of locations on Fairbanks creek. The 
easternmost prospect is the Charles claim, near the head of 
Walnut creek. An 18-in. vein has been found on the claim, 
but development is at a standstill. On Moose creek, Crites 
& Feldman have done considerable prospecting on their hold- 
ings between that stream and Too Much Gold creek. Two 
veins have been uncovered and traced for a distance of about 
1500 ft., ranging in Width from one to four feet. During 
the summer of 1914. a reduction plant, consisting of a fiv. - 
stamp Hendy battery, was moved from the Pioneer Mining 
Co.'s millsite on lower Chatham creek to a new millsite on 
Moose creek, below the tunnel site of Crites & Feldman. The 
mill started crushing in September. 

At the head of Too Much Gold creek, the Anderson. Nars 
& Gibbs property is being developed slowly by Gibbs. who 
has purchased the interests of the other two. The Cook hold- 
ings, near the mouth of Too Much Gold creek, and consisting 
of the Governor, Plumbum, Excelsior, and other claims, have 
bi • n Idle during the past year, because the owners stampeded 
to the Chisana. On the Mizpah claim, owned by A. Hess and 
Charles Thompson, considerable work has been done. A re- 
sumption of sinking was planned for the fall of 1914. Joe 
Connors and Bert Stevens are prospecting the Ohio group of 
claims, opposite No. 13 and No. 14 Above, left limit, placer 
i hum-. They have an 80-ft shaft on a vein averaging 2V. ft 
in width, and have 20 tons of ore on the dump. On the 
Mayflower claim, a 50-ft. shaft has been sunk and driving 
is being continued along the vein at that level. The vein is 
20 in. wide. A shipment of T' L . tons was milled in May 1914 
and gave returns of $80 per ton. Kellen and Vanarsdal are 
prospecting the Thanksgiving claim, below the Connors-Stevens 
prospect. A shaft is down 36 feet. 

Farther upstream. Chris Foss and Louis Fairvain have 
taken a lease on the American Eagle quartz claim and have • 
started prospecting it. The claim has but recently been re- 
leased from litigation which lasted for three years. L. J. 
McCarthy, an old-time prospector of the district, who has a 
number of claims on the divide between Fairbanks and Wolf 
creeks, recently took a lease on the Pioneer claim, owned 
by Clark. McGowan, McDougall, and associates. In July 1914. 
:)2 tons was milled, having a value of $2200. An incline 
shaft is down 160 ft., and adits have been driven SO ft. each 
way on the vein. On the 50-ft. level. 80 ft. of adits has been 
driven. The most recent work has been done at the 50-ft. 
level. The vein is highly mineralized and is from 7 to S in. 
wide. A cross-stringer 7 in. wide was found recently, and 
atti ntiiin will be devoted to it soon. 

The Pearl Crei k valley, tributary to Fish creek, has several 
prospects, the most promising of which are owned bj Murphy 
& Perrault and Mike Steipovich. 

On Wolf creek are a number of claims which have been 
worked during recent years. The Honiestake tunnel sile. 
owned by the Honiestake Mining Co., is under lease to Gi 
Nightingale. The main adit has a length of 750 ft., in which 
it cuts ten different stringers. One of tfnse is being worked, 
the drift along the stringer starting 315 ft. from the portal 
of the main adit and running northeastward. The tunnel 
has been driven 30(1 ft. Stoning of the five-inch vein has yield- 

Jauuan 16 1913 

MINIM. I'RI.s.s 


■ <l wonderfull) rich 01* rblrt) thn la mllltd la 

In Jul) II was milled wllh an 

| was on t in- damp In Beptembei 

ni down th« creek to the Rend mill On lh« 

m, adjoining Dm Homestaks on the downstream 

ilamp Hendy mill, operated b) ■ gasoline ••nui n. 

I in 1912. The Installation ol the equlpmenl »»■ 

not made wisely, as the itrlngei which wi worked 

uiddral] pinched onL Btlll, i new lease on life haa been 

taken ai the Raiall, with the granting ol a ! 

ruin- ago to Fred Crouch and Their Im 

a tern) ol ten yean, with a 10 . owm ■ on all on- 

milled The rein on which the) plan >" work haa .> width 
of four to seven feel Operation ol the mill costs 19 
tuel each 24 hours, a great saving over steam boilers in use 
at other mills in the district 

in tin- Chatham Creek valley, work lias been temporarll: 
suspended on the Chatham Mining Co. and Pioneer Mining 
Co, properties because of the high coal ol Buppllee and labor. 
K. L. Scrafford is In New fork attempting to Boat a compan; 
to take over the Chatliam property. The claims ha 
siderable work done on them; the mill on the propi rty, two 
2 stamp Hendy batteries, is Idle al present, although it has 
produced several hundred thousand dollars. The ptoneei 
holdings include the first lode location of the dlstrli 
Blue Hell claim. The Jupiter-Mars and Qiienboe properties 
are on the ridge between Chatham and Wolf creeks. No work 
is being done on them now. 

Perhaps the beat propi rty in the district is the Free Gold 
Blaim, owned by L. B. Rhoads and W. ('. Hall. The claim 
was located in 1908 and Irom the fi*si it paid development 
costs. Rich ore was found near the surface and the first 
returns came from ore which was crushed with mortar ami 
pestle and then punned for the tree gold. Later small ship- 
ments were sent to a 3-stamp customs mill which had been 
• reeled at Fairbanks. In lull shipments to a ln-stamp mill 
at Chena. 12 miles below Fairbanks, were made. One hun- 
dred forty-seven tons yielded $17,045. or an average of $12n 
per ton. Mining is done from a main adit with a length of 
about 1200 ft. An intermediate adit 140 ft. farther up and 
;; third one. the Penrose. 50 ft. higher, together with smaller 
adits, bring the total on the claim to over 5000 ft. A winze 
has been sunk to a depth of over inn ft. The 70-ft. level has 
been developed a distance of S72 ft. and the 100-ft. level a 
distance of 890 ft. along the vein. The adits drain the work- 
ings, the water being flumed to furnish the mill supply. A 
2-in. Buffalo pump operated by a 7-hp. General Electric Co. 
motor keeps the winze workings free of water. Hendy cars — 
1600 lb. — are used to tram the ore to the mill, which is situ- 
ated several hundred feet below the mouth of the main adit. 
The ore is crushed with a 7 by i) Blake crusher, fed to the 
single battery of five 1000-lb. Hendy stamps with an auto- 
matic feeder, and the pulp discharged through a 40-mesh 
screen directly to the plates. The stamps approximate 100 
drops per minute, with a 5-in. drop. The plates are 16 ft. 
long and 4'_. ft. wide. No vanner is used, as over iW/r of the 
gold is recovered in the mortar box and on the plates. The 
mill has a capacity of 17 tons each 24-hr. day. or an average 
of above 400 tons per month. The chrome steel shoes are 
replaced every four months: the dies every three months. A 
50-hp. battery of boilers operates two American Blower en- 
gines, one of which operates the mill and the other a Genera! 
Electric Co. motor and lighting plant. A Hendy clean-up 
barrel is included in the mill equipment. The 1913 output 
of the mine has not been made public, but 48,000 sq. ft. of 
vein matter was worked, the vein having a width of from 
a few inches to 3 ft. 4 inches. 

There is some small-scale inimir; being "ondueted on the 
claims of the Tanana Quartz & Hydraulic Mining Co.. situated 

on Hi.- ridge betwi en In droi 

"i tin- claims was Anions <;•>■ sunan t 

tllch haa a 2-sUnip Nissan mill an. I a -mull Hunl 
Ington in connection, Is on Wlllon creek 1 1- 

:| i streti t ,i B/|||oa , reeks a/ork 

at the Tolovana baa bean suspended Indeflnltel] 

aims claim al lha head ol W I How 
creek is being worked bj l. Ovfrgaard The Newsboj 
at the extreme bead ol Clear] creek "i. the ridge bel 
it ami i. nib- Eldorado creek, has about aa much worl 
mi it a- anj .hum in tin- district, bul becausi tin- ore did 
above lis to ISO per 'on. th,- piam was forced 
lions, a iive-Hininp Hand) mill is ill 
on. -hall mile below the shall 

The norlh Blope ol Dome creek i.- ah >t entirely covered 

with tin- bo ..■.• Mining Co. There, Is a 

creek, Immediately below the 
claims, but it was not operated much during the pas; 
Some verj i nil ore has been found on this claim. A one hill 

Interest in i on tin- propertj -old in 1912 for 

$30, '. 

ri" Friedrlch property on Vault creek is Idle, as are several 

111 'ospects on smaller tributaries ol Vault. At th.- load 

of Sheep creek, Irlbutai am and heading 

n,,,, Ester dome, tin- discovery in 1912 of a boulder lib 

plastered with tree gold led to B n rival Ol prospecting there. 
Nothing of great importance has been found, however. 

The Rainbow mine is the principal property in the Twin 
Creek valley, although Martin Harrala and others are work- 
ing on the Moonshine and Sunshine claims nearby, with hopes 
of ultimate success. The Rainbow shaft is 13] ft. deep. At 
tin- LOO-ft depth. 20!i It. of drill has been driven west and 
• ast on the vein. Five hundred tons of ore has been 
stoped from the vein. The failure of a Straub mill which 
was erected two years ago but did not operate successfully has 
delayed development of the properly. L. M. Druiy recently 
took a lease on the claim and plans to continue the develop- 
ment work on a big scale. A 25-hp. Lidgerwood hoist, with 
50-hp, boilers, blacksmith-shop, and buildings are on the claim. 
Because of the non-fulfillment of option and lease provisions, 
the claim had reverted to the original discoverers, Herchherger 
& Zimmerman. 

in the Ester district, the Tyndall & Finn discoveries on 
St. Patrick creek are said to be the most important. They 
were made early in the year. The Hudson brothers made 
good finds on Ready Bullion creek, in the same vicinity, in 
1911, and after a little development they erected an expensive 
milling plant, made up of two Nissen stamps, concentrating 
tables, and a mill building considered the best in the interior. 
The mill operated only a short time when it became evident 
that there was not enough ore to justify continuous oper- 

Another property which is considered of importance to the 
Fairbanks district is the Dempsey-Linden property on Sour- 
dough creek, a tributary of the upper Chatanika waters. It 
is being developed each winter. Other districts in which 
quartz mining is carried on are the Kantishna, the Big Chena, 
and Tenderfoot districts. Considerable lode gold mining also 
is carried on in the Chandlar district, north of the Arctic 
Circle. There are a few silver-lead properties in the Koyukuk. 
In, general future of quartz mining in the district depends 
nn a general reduction in mining costs. Fuel costs are too 
high, and, until cheap power is obtainable, there can be no 
real healthy general development. This seems to be assured 
with the probable construction of the government railroad 
through the Nenana coalfields. Then there is the factor of 
wages. A general reduction of living .costs in the district 
would tend to reduce wages to the point where many proper- 
ties which Pave orebodies proved up on then) cotlld be worl I 
with profit. 



January in. 1915 

Tbi Coppia Sitoatioh.' — Bbadek Hike ami Hill. — Chi'quica- 

II ATA PB00EB8S. I.\TKK\ IIII1S Al. NllKU. CO. AMI K.M'll.tls 

in Unit man v. — Barton SeweSLL. 

Last week showed a marked improvement in the market 
for copper. December sales had been lower than Novcinbi i\ 
and the year opened with a rather gloomy outlook, Whi li r 

because it appeared that England would make a iciliatory 

reply to the American note in regard to the detention oi ship- 
ments, or tor whatever reason, there was a marked Improve- 
ment in the buying during the first week of the Dew y a.. 
and at the end of the week there were signs that there wou.d 
again be an upwarJ movement in price. Exports 
ceding week had been about 12.000.000 lb., more ,han ha I Of 
It consigned to France and most of the rest to England. 
Early in the week T. J. Walsh, senator from Montana, made 
quite an Important speech in the Senate in dealing with 
the question of Interference with American ships by British 
cruisers, and especially referring to copper shipments. He 
said: "The exigencies of the war. In which we are in no 
wise concerned, will necessarily entail hardship and suffering 
on the laborers in the copper mines and in indus- 
tries more or less dependent upon them. It n 
reasonably be assumed that the government of Great 
Britain, with which we happily are in amity, would 
not wantonly add to the detriment which is occas- 
ioned by the destruction of the German market the 
discomfiture and distress that must ensue from the 
closing to our trade of the ports of the neutral 
nations of the Continent." 

The estimated figures for the output of copper 
last year compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey 
have been given out and show a decrease of S' L '; 
as compared with 1913. The latter year showed a 
small decrease as compared with 1912. so that the 
1914 figures of 1,129,000,000 lb. are quite a little 
smaller than those of two years ago. As most of 
this decrease is due to the voluntary reduction of 
output by the various producers, it is probably uni- 
formly distributed, and is not confined to any par- 
ticular group of states. Utah, however, will show 
about the same output as last year, because up to 
the time the reduction in output was made it had 
been turning out considerably more copper than 
the year before. 

The Braden Is making an improved showing lately. It 
will be remembered that while the amount of ore reserves 
estimated in the first report on the property have been greatly 
exceeded, working costs have also been greater. This is a 
cause for congratulation rather than the reverse, because 
while the ore reserves are fixed, there is a good possibility 
that the cost can be reduced, and indeed good progress has 
been made toward reducing them. The total ore reserves are 
now estimated at 108,000,000 tons containing 2.59; copper, and 
the somewhat unfavorable showing which the mine has been 
making so far has been in part due to the fact that it has been 
operating on material which is considerably lower in grade 
than the average. The average material treated In November 
was 2.18% copper, and this was the highest of all recent 
months. However, the reduction in November was not so 
good as in October, when the new mill made a recovery of 

77.7 . and the Minerals Separation plant made a recovery of 
76.95%, a net total of over 81%. The net total recovery in 
value was 73.9%. During the first half of December the total 
was 76.6%. The plant could produce much more than it is 
producing at present, but it is being held down in order to 
correspond with the reduction in output which is being made 
at the mines in the United States. The plant has been run- 
ning for sonic time, and the leadning i roecss has also been 
in operation and has shown a recovery so far of 93.:;',. The 
tisu il d lays and difficulties in starting a new plant like this 
have not failed to appear, and the electrolytic equipment for 
the recovery of copper from the leaching solution was started 
at the end of December. Probably results from this will not 
be available for some time until it gets in regular working 
order. Working costs have already been reduced to 7.5c. per 
pound, and Pope Yeatman is of the opinion that there is a 
good possibility of eventually reducing the cost to 6.5 cents. 

Good progress is also being made at Chuquicamata. Both 
the metallurgical and mining plants are practically completed. 
The work on the power plant has been delayed because the 
machinery was being supplied from Germany, but the steamer 
carrying the last of it had safely sailed from Germany before 


the war started, and the Company hopes (hat before long it 
will be safely landed in Chile. The expectations of the man- 
agement are that the plant will be in operation by April 1. 
E. A. C. Smith is leaving for Chile at the end of this month, 
and will be on the ground to supervise the starting of the 
plant which he has designed. 

The International Nickel Co. has declared its regular quar- 
terly dividend of 1%% on its preferred stock, payable Feb- 
ruary l. No action will be taken on the common stock until 
next month. The Canadian government has issued a mem- 
orandum in regard to the affairs of the International Nickel 
Co.. and the question of exports of nickel to Germany. The 
Company has allowed free access to Its books to representa- 
tives of the government, and all exports have been investi- 
gated so that it can be certain that no nickel has gone 
through to Germany or Austria The alarm which the Cana- 

.Ian. mi ) 16, 19] I 



iIiiiiik ban exhibited over Ih* poaalblltt) 
Mad, Dlekal mine* In Norway, which produced 

I) lupplj ii" di 
miiiui- ind than would be do need lor depand 

in attempting to taki 
mora Itkol) to Injure thatu 

aalvee than anybodj dee, ilnce nlekal i luctlon i» in Impor 

twin Induttn in Onti 

nis and offli American Smaltloj t Rafln 

me c> or .hi hour hi ii o'clock lust Saturday, 

whan Hi- Funeral ol Barton Sawall, vice-president ol thi 
organisation, waa bald. n>- waa ■ aula) man and waa bo much 
idowad b] the publicity which the Guggenheim Broa 
recelvi thai lew people nowaday* raaliaa that he had much 
mora to J" with the Formation ol the Company than thej 
in-" ha put through the various consolidations which 
tad up to the formation ol the American Smelting Co., In 
which ha waa the chief factor and which became the nucleus 
(oi the a. s & k. Company, 



iiihviiiins. — Wobk "i mi Session. 

a lull of Interest, possibly prophetic of legislation to come 
in Borne luuire Congress. Is that ol J. F Shatrotli. senator froui 
Colorado, to regulate the quantitj ol coal lands which may be 
entered or controlled bj associations or corporations. The 
bill provides that any qualified corporation or association of 
persons or municipality shall ou application to the reglstei 
of the proper land office have the right to enter by legal sub- 
divisions any quantity of vacant coal lands in the United 
States, Within any slate of the Union, not otherwise appro- 
priated or reserved by competent authority, not exceeding 
2560 acres, on payment to the receiver of not less than $10 
per acre, should the land tie situated within 20 miles from 
any railroad, and not less than $20 per acre if within 15 
miles of a railroad. The Secretary of the Interior is to offer 
such coal lands through advertisement and by competitive- 
bidding, or by such other method as he may by general regu- 
lation prescribe, reserving the right to reject any and all bids 
that he may deem unfair. Improvements or development 
work to the extent of $10,000 must be made within one year 
after the award, wheu patents shall issue therefor. It is 
further provided that such corporations and associations may 
not own an area in excess of that prescribed in the act. 
directly or indirectly, although extra area may be acquired 
by descent, will, judgment, or decree, but only for two years 
thereafter and no longer, and in the case of minority or 
other disability may be held during such time as the court 
may decree. Violations of the foregoing are punishable by 
a fine of $10,000 or imprisonment not exceeding 10 years. 
or both. Furthermore, if such coal lands should come into 
the control of a trust or other combination illegally oper- 
ating in restraint of trade, or when excess acreage is acquired 
contrary to law, the same is to be forfeited to the United 
States. Half of the money received from the lands entered 
as described is to go to the state wherein the lands are situated. 

Only seven weeks more remain of the short session, and 
legislation is becoming so clogged, principally on account of 
the determination of the President to procure the enactment 
of the shipping bill, that the outlook for the passage of the 
conservation measures, inclusive of the so-called leasing bill. 
offers no encourageemnt w-hatever to those who would like 
to see the measure passed by the Senate. 

Interference with American shipping by England continues 
to attract considerable attention here. T. J. Walsh, senator 
from Montana, made a vigorous protest, and said that every 
detained ship against which a prima facie case had not been 
proved, should be released. 

hoi ohtos, memo ia 

BHIPMKHT* I-ii RoYALl \.« .Mill. 
OUABAI k 1{i..iiim., ,,. I'lvw MonUWH Mi I BlLVM 

won <'u i in a id. i v w. .n, him ii. rt>i i 

iii. nun-, oi it,, isi,. UoMiie slump mill an moved 

a large number in i» m~ ai work, To the numer- 

oppai Country' people wbq vlalti .i the i 

•'"'' the in., ih. clearing awa] ..i the hue..- ben) tirdara, 
twisted pipe, and wracked ■ ,,,, ,i a 

v- is oharacterlatli ol all work In the district, 
Me in. ans is being used to oleai the die ■ 
dole (oi the erection .u the new mill. The Wbrden- 
Alien Co., oi Milwaukee, which is to build the nan three 
mill, is facilitating thi H work by the use .u the on 
acetylene blowpipe. The process ol rapidly cutting through 
huge beams and girders by means of. the Intense name gao 
crated, is something new, ami ol great interest to the engl 
neera ol Houghton. The tale Royal,- is sending .'nun ions 
.ii rock' per day to the Centennlal-Allouez mill al Point Mills. 
This is a subsidiary property of the Calumet & Hecla. 

Employees m the American Bridge Co. who have been con- 
Btructing the new regrlndlng mill for the Tamarack Mining 
Co. at Hubbell have completed their work, and have gone to 
nibbing, .Minnesota, to construct a 300,000-gal. water tank 
lor the city. When the workmen arrived in Hubbell early 
in November, it was reported that the construction work on 
the new plain would be rushed with all possible s|ieed. It 
is interesting to note that the men spent only six weeks on 
the contract. The building is 100 ft. wide and 186 ft. long, 
atld 307 ions of steel was used. The building is now ready 
for the installation of the machinery. The Tamarack re- 
grinding plant is one of the few pieces of const rue. ion work 
which was not delayed by the general curtailment of all 
operations in the district. 

The Mohawk mine is producing the liesi rock* tonnage in 
its history, and shipments average better than 3600 tons per 
day. Furthermore, the grade of ore is higher than before, 
yielding 20 lb. of refined copper per ton. 

A shipment of 100,000 oz. silver bullion, valued at nearly 
$50,000, was made January g from the Calumet & Hecla smelt- 
ing plant at Hubbell. This is the first large shipment from 
the district. Formerly all the Calumet & Hecla copper was 
sent to the plant at Buffalo for refining. This eastern plant 
has been disposed of, and a new electrolytic refinery at Hub- 
bell is now efficiently treating the Calumet & Hecla output, 
which carries undesirable arsenic and considerable silver. 

The Wolverine Mining Co. shows a total of 3935 tons of 
'mineral' produced for the last 10 months of 1914. The larg- 
. si monthly production was 472 tons in June, and the lowest 
314 tons in March. 

The total shipment of copper by way of the Great Lakes 
dining the past season, from April to the close of naviga- 
tion. November IS, amounted to 53,933 tons. The copper coun- 
try ports and the amount shipped from each are as follows: 
Houghton. 17,514; Hancock, 5329; Dollar Bay, 11,260; and 
Torch Lake, 19,830 tons. Included in this is one shipment of 
nil tons of western electrolytic copper which was sent to 
Hollar Bav for re-treatment. 

There has been a great deal of concern shown recently, both 
in the iron and copper districts of Michigan, over the proposed 
state tonnage tax. A large number of upper peninsula dele- 
gates met at Marquette early in December to form a perma- 
nent organization to oppose the tonnage tax bill. At a recent 
meeting of the State Grange, however, the advocates and 
initiators of the bill failed to secure sufficient signatures to 
force the legislature to consider the proposed law. The de- 
feat of the tonnage tax campaign as far as the present term 
of the. legislature is concerned, is certainly pleasing news to 
the people of the iron and copper countries. 



January 1»>. 1915 


Encouraging Results Expected Tins Yl\r from the Down- 
Town. PrOSPECI MOUNTAIN, Twin LAKES, anii L.vikt- 


The new yi ai in uins with four features In mining pr 
in and around Leadville standing out as the Important tactors 
of the future activity 01 ihe district. Of these, the one bav- 
ins the most Influence upon local conditions is the unwaterlng 
of the down-town area, an enterprise that is now in the 
preliminary atages and rapidly being prepared for operation 
At the present time, all of the surface work has been cotn- 
anil the plain at the Penrose shaft, through which the 
water will be pumped, is ready for work. The contractor* 
are timbering the shaft from the surface down to a shallow 
depth, while the Colorado Power Co. is erecting transmission 
lines, etc, to get power to the property. The hoist will thin 
he driven by a motor, and the work of timbering down to 



- <* 



. JU — . ... 


water-level will be started. All of this will be compl ed early 
in 1915. The machinery, pumps, motors, and oh. i eqm 
is expected to be delivered during January, and it is planned 
to have everything in shape for installing the pumps as soon 
as they arrive. 

The prosperity of the district for the current year and for 
several years to come Is based directly on the success of this 
The Company controls a vast area of ground, in- 
cluding such well known producers as the Coronado, Midas, 
Sixth Street Shaft, Weldon. Bison. Bon Air, P. O. S.. and 
Penrose. The last named, the base of the operations, lies 
directly on the large vein of zinc carbonate ores that extends 
from the Maid of Erin southwest through the Bon Air. Dur- 
ing the time when this property was last active, many tons 
of the now valuable zinc was thrown over the dump as waste. 
It was from this abandoned material that the first shipment 
of carbonate from the Leadville district was made. It is 
expected that the ore will be found most extensively in the 
Penrose and adjoining properties, at the same depth it was 
found in the .Maid, between Ton and 800 ft. The formations 
in both are about the same, and both are on the ore-shoot, 
south ol the most extensive faulting. Some idea of the 
extent of this great deposit may be estimated from the devel- 
opments that have been brought to light by the Western Min- 
ing Co.. which has been working the northern parts of the 
through the Wolftone shaft on Carbonate hill. This 
property, which has been the largest producer of zinc car- 
i in the world for the past year, has maintained an 
Ol 350 tons for 3<;r> days, a total of 127,750 tons. 
Mining men who are familiar with the formations in the 

■ and other properties controlled by the Down Town 
Minim: Co.. state that the output of the Wolftone will he 

d, if not surpassed, by the production that will be 

taken from the now drowned ana. For these reasons the 
opening 01 the Penrose is considered the dominating factor 
in the luiure prosperity of Leadville. It will mean an addi- 
tion of I mm BOO to 700 men to the present payroll of the 
district, ami an increase of from 500 to 1000 tons ol ore 

in Ml Each month. In addition to the zinc deposits that 

are to be found in this territory, there are large deposiis ol" 
silver and iron ores which will prove of great value. 

Another Urge development project is to be launched 
which will make a great increase in the future possibilities 
ol Leadville. The area lying immediately north of the Big 
Evans, and the many properties on Fryer, Yankee, and Breece 
hills known as the Canterbury Hill and Prosjiect Mountain 
sirtion. is to be explored by an adit. The territory has been 
mined slightly near the surface, and some good shipping ore 
has been produced from the Canterbury' and Rosevale prop- 
erties. No extensive work has ever succeeded, because of the 
water that has always been tapped at a shallow depth. All 
of the big ore-shoots that were mined on Fryer hill in the 
Matchless. Pittsburg, Robert E. Lee, Discovery, and other 
famous mines of the early eighties, dip to the northeast, 
directly in a line with the Canterbury ground. The same is 
true of the veins cut in the properties on Breece hill. This 
leaves little doubt of their presence under the formations to 
the north, but they will be found only at considerable depth. 

Tlie plan that is now under way to open this large dis- 
trict is to organize a company of local mining and business 
men. and drive the adit under the territory from the Ar- 
s valley for a distance of about 5000 ft. This would 
cut all the veins from Fryer and Breece hills, or make it 
possible to reach them with a minimum amount of interior 
shall work. A depth of from 700 to 2000 ft, will be gained 
by the bore, and the water question will be easily solved. 
The proposition is a big one, and one that demands a large 
amount of capital. However, under the share system, and 
with men known to be capable and trustworthy for the direc- 
tion of the work at the head, there is every reason to believe 
that the undertaking will prove a success. Already a great 
part of the shares has been spoken for by the active men 
of the district, and everyone is interested in the enterprise. 
After the first of the year the work of formally organizing 
the company will be taken up by the promoters, and it is 
expected that results will be obtained within the month. 

The third feature of the prospective era of prosperity that 
will dawn in 1015 is the remarkable advance that is being 
made in the Twin Lakes and Lackawanna districts, in the 
western ramie of mountains that have long been overlooked 
as mining territories. Three large properties are being work- 
ed this winter, and all of them are producing some of the best 
gold-bearing ore that has been found in the vicinity. Along 
with this the report that there are large deposits of molybden- 
ite ore in the district has recently come in, and no little inter- 
est is being taken in this new discovery. During the summer 
of 1915 good developments are expected from this area, and 
there is no doubt that a number of mines will be opened and 
a great deal of milling plant installed. 

The last factor of importance that has the appearance of a 
lasting and beneficial result on the future, is a move on the 
part of the larger companies in the district to sink their shafts 
into the lower formations. Four mines are now being put 
down from 100 to 150 ft. deeper than their present workings. 
These are the Monarch shaft of the New Monarch Mining Co., 
the Big Four shaft of the Big Five Operating Co.. the Garbutl 
shaft on .lonny hill, and the President on Breece hill. The 
fact that good ore has been found deep in the Cripple Creek 
and other districts of the state gives the impression tha the 
aa will lie true al Leadville. 

Everything points to a banner year for 1915 in the way of 
opening and developing new ground, which after all is the real 
test and measure of the life of a mining camp 

turs Iti l''l ■'• 


I in 

ri. \i 1 1\ II I /:. WISCONSIN 
S\ ci~t \. unit ui-iii-. u mi /.is. Ditmucn is Dscuibkr, 

u i s. LBaim mi.. • ■ .1 . ii. .s. in 1 1 bn, 

H - 01 l III I I .11 III. 

t».. polni proved the 

banner month ■•! the rear In the *in. mining Industry of this 
rt.'i.l namely, u much enhanced value received for raw on 

and .i decided Increase utpul regardless ol severe wlntei 

weather, which hampered deliveries from outlying mini 

The prediction freely made by several ol the I. -a. line ore 
i.iiv. re ol the Held thai spelter wonld reach higher prices, bob 
■ibl) Be. i'ii pound, was nearl) verified, the middle of the 
mi. mil witnessing Brm quotations at 5.7 to 5.8c, al St Louis. 
Tins condition followed some buying for foreign consumption, 
unci Insistent Inquiries In the llrsl hall ol the month, which 
lacking toward the .lone and with which was coupled an 
almost stagnant demand for metal tor borne consumption, with 
lull thai prices fell and were well under 5.4c. at the 
end of the month. With Us 'characteristic penchant for pyro- 
technics! stunts' at unexpected moments, sine ore reversed 
Itself under declining metal markets, and instead of showing 
declines, actually made substantial gains, closing oul ol all 
proportion to metal quotations, at (48 to $61 per ton for WA 
compared with $36 to $39 per ton at the beginning ot 
the month. A heavy production from the districts of the 
southern hall ot the field responded promptly to the improved 
offerings, although buyers evidently labored under instruc- 
tions to avoid competition, and deliveries were made through 
the usual channels of outlet. An increased movement of raw 
concentrate, the heaviest for any single month of the year. 
was shown on the weekly car reports published for the field. 
while a reserve was carried over conservatively estimated at 
3000 tons 

Lead ore was in poor demand all the month; pig lead re- 
ceded from an already weakened position and closed the month 
..a inside business at 3.6c. at St. Louis. Very little ore cleared 
and production was nominal. About 1000 tons was carried 
over in anticipation of better markets. 

Pyrite was off price, and production and shipments both 
took a decided drop. The production for the entire year shows 
a large reduction over the figures published for the output 
of 1913. 

Carbonate of zinc ore producers of the northern districts 
were given a good market at the beginning of the month, and 
a fair quantity of ore cleared at excellent prices, the base 
being $24 per ton for 40'; ore, all of which was secured by 
the New Jersey Zinc Co. The demand was sporadic, and 
miners were left with an accumulation of several months' 
active operations. This condition exercised no discouraging 
influence over those w-ho have placed increased working forces 
underground for the winter, and a large tonnage of mill feed 
is piling up. Small operating concerns increased in number 
and leases were anxiously secured, the incentive being only 
the hope of a good demand at some future date. 

A recent act of the legislature in taxing orebodies has ex- 
cited a great deal of adverse comment among mining men and 
capitalists, who might become interested in the field. Many 
valuable mining properties are now languishing for want of a 
little financial backing, all because the new law is considered 
to levy assessments on ore deposits yet undeveloped, and to 
impose an unfair burden. This has had the direct effect of 
driving capital out of the field, and operators have been 
driven to adopt various subterfuges to escape the full effect of 
this piece of legislation. 

The gross production of concentrate for the month aggre- 
gated 2S.SSS.7S2 lb., and net refined ores from separating plants 
and wet concentrate direct to smelter 16.392.330 lb. The 
Mineral Point Zinc Works shipped 54 cars of calcined ore to 
I V| me. Illinois, equal to 4,222,500 pounds. 

I.. .In. u.iii for Hi. hi Id In l>. , • . .. ,| .,- 
follows, b] dlsti 


Olsti ... in pound pounds 

H. in. hi K.OI iiai, nun p.;, 

Oalena 8,910, I 100 

• 'Him 3,82 

Qreen 8.606,000 

Linden 1,034, 60,000 

Shullsburg 1,894,000 

Mifflin ., . 1,856, 

I'latlevill, ..... 1,022, 

Highland h.-.h.oihi 

Mineral Point si. 




1,306 700 

sal, s were distributed among the following buying con- 
cerns: Mineral Point Zinc Co., TTt;3 tons; National Separating 
Works. Cuba, 11166 tons; Qrasselll Chemical Co., 1263 tons; 
Khnplre Roasters, 1149 tons; American Metals Co., 865 tons; 

Illinois Zinc Co., 952 tons; M. & ll. Zinc Co., TsT tuns; Linden 
Zinc Co., 146 ions; and Campbell Separating Works. 584 tons. 
The northern areas of the field, Including the Platteville dis- 
trict, showed up Indifferently all through the month, and both 
output and shipments were unsatisfactory. No prospect, mine 
development, or construction work was noted here except in 
the Mifflin district, where two new concentrating plants were 
started; but even then the production was curtailed, and more 
thau 1000 tons of choice ore was carried over at the end of 
the month, [n marked contrast to all this was noted the 
activity in the southern half of the field, where new ground 
was being explored with drills, new mines developed, and new 
equipments being provided. Operators interviewed st several 
points in the field appear optimistic as to developments of the 
future. They expect a higher metal market, and even better 
prices for ore, within the next 60 days, and apparently this has 
some backing, as plans are being laid for more elaborate ex- 
ploration work, mine development, and power and mill con- 
struction. The year, despite low prices, has been one of the 
best experienced by Wisconsin miners, since all operated con- 
servatively, and while profits were small they were carefully 
husbanded, and left the different concerns in fair condition 
financially. All look toward a season of prosperity. 


The report of the state inspector of mines. Edward Ryan, 
covers the year ended November 30, 1914. It consists of 52 
pages, and covers the state generally. There are about 190 
mining districts irregularly scattered throughout the state. 
In ihe Great Basin, of which Nevada forms the larger part, 
are a number of north-south ranges of complicated structure, 
separated by almost an equal number of fertile valleys and 
some desert. Nearly all of these ranges are mineralized more 
or less. This makes prospecting attractive. In 1913 there 
were 786 producers, 82 more than in 1912, yet the value of 
the total decreased $1,261,022. There was 5,367,211 tons of all 
ores heated for 570,589 oz. gold. 16.090,083 oz. silver, 90,693,- 
751 lb. copper. 16,344,023 lb. lead, and 14.419.671 lb. zinc, 
worth a total of $37,097,710. The report deals with mining 
legislation, mine-rescue and first-aid work, county notes, 
notices issued to companies to rectify certain necessary points 
in the mines, details of accidents, and expenditure of the 
inspector's department, which amounted to $9331. James W. 
Gatighan is deputy inspector. 

There has been some active prospecting and development of 
cuicksilver ores in this state in recent years, and the output 
increased in 1914. according to the U. S. Geological Survey. 
The Nevada Cinnabar mine at lone made a large yield. 



January 16, 1916 


The news a OS told by our special correspondents and reflected by the local press- 



Although the Miami Copper Co. has enough money to pay 
iis quarterly dividend, the lull amount was not tamed during 
the last quarter, and the directors on January 4 decided not to 
make any distribution. This is the second dividend to be 
passed Operations are still at 5o f , capacity. 

The Old Dominion at Globe produced 1,710,000 11). of copper 
in December. The total for 1914 is 30,448,000 lb., against 
30.810,000 lb. in 1913. 

Mohave County 

At ::50 ft. in the Gold Ore mine, near Goldroad, :i rich 
streak of ore has been cut. showing plenty of life gold. 
Pima County 

The Calumet & Arizona company is employing about 100 
men on its property at Ajo. It is said that S or 1U copptt 
Claims of T. Childs have been acquired by the Company for 

$122,000. A 4-in. vein of high-grade wolfram ore has 1 >►-« n 

oi>ened by M. G. Levy in the Young American claims in tin 
Ajo district. Some ol the ore has been sent to Pittsburgh. 


Legislation enabling oil producers to organize and pi 
the various fields against underground water will be the sub- 
ject of a meeting called by state mineralogist, F. McN. Hamil- 
ton, (or 'January !■"', at one o'clock at the state Capitol ai Sac- 
ramento. There will lit- representatives from the State Mining 
iiureau, and a number of prominent oil operators who will 
aim to present the needs of the oil industry to interested legis- 
lators. W. P. Chandler, senator from Fresno, has taken an 
active interest in the matter. A bill has been drafted by the 
Mining Bureau, under the supervision of ft. P. McLaughlin, 
who, during the past year directed an investigation of the oil 

According to the United States Geological Survey, there 
were ":1 mines and prospects producing quicksilver in the 
United States in 1914, of which 23 were in California. In 
1913 there were 24 producers, of which 18 were in California. 
The estimated output for California in 1914 was 11,469 flasks, 
valued at $561,981, against a production of 15.591 flasks, valued 
at $627.22X in 1913. The output in California in 1914 was the 
smallest since 1860. The chief producers in 1914 were the New 
Idria mines of San Benito county, Oceanic of San Luis Obispo 
county. New Guadalupe and New Almaden of Santa Clara 
county, St. John of Solano county, and Helen of Lake county. 
Among smaller producers were the Cloverdale. Little Panoche. 
Acachuma, Los Prietos, Alpine. Reed. Aetna. Oat Hill, Her- 
nandez, Little Bonanza. Summit, Wall Street, and Knoxville. 
The output of the famous New Idria, New Guadalupe, and 
New Almaden mines again showed decreases, but the Oceanic 
and Helen mines were slightly more productive than in 1913. 
and the revived Oat Hill and St. John mines, working old 
material under new managers, made relatively large increases 
in yield. From present information the production of Cali- 
fornia will not immediately regain the average output of 21,361 
flasks lor the period 1902-1913. 

Gold output of the state last year was $21,138,500. 
Butte County 

The Oroville Dredging Co. for the 15 months ended Septem- 
ber 30, 1914, shows a profit of $154,000, and $16,000 brought 

forward from the previous term. Two 12c. dividends absorbed 

- i. Owing to trouble at the Pato property. Colombia. 

Central America, dividends were suspended for a time, but 
dredging has been started again. The cost of dredging there 
is 10.25 to 11.52c. per yard. 

Calavkuas Count* 

The Oro Water. Light & Power Co. is constructing auother 
dredgc on the Mokelumne river, near Camanche, and it will 
be ready about March 1. The boat, with 6-cu. ft. buckets, was 
designed by C. G. Leeson. manager of the dredging department 
ol i be Company, and a description will be pulblished in the 
Press later on. The 9-ft. boat is averaging 150.000 cu. yd. per 
month. This was described in this journal of December 13. 

Eldobado County 

The old Big Sandy mine at Kelsey has been sampled by A. 
Crafton, recently in Mexico, and on his report depends whether 

it will he reopened. The Rocky Bar gravel claims, on the 

middle fork of the Cosumnes river in the Mt. Pleasant dis- 
trict, are to be worked on a royalty basis by J. E. White, of 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, who has a bond from C E. Wilbur and 
W. R. Kelly, of San Francisco. 

Kern County 

According to advice from El Paso, Texas, Phelps. Dodge & 

Co. has purchased the Pearl and Zenda gold mines in the 

Amalie district from Joseph Fanset and others of southern 

California, for between $75,000 and $100,000. A 10-stamp mill 

iii cyanide plant are in working order. 

In the news of December 26 it was stated that the Weringer 
copper mine at Woody had ore reserves amounting to 4000 
tons. This really is the quantity on the dump, and sampling 
underground shows ore worth about $500,000. Cross-cuts from 
two shafts show wide shoots. 

Mariposa County 

Ai the Mountain King mine, in the Merced River canon, 
eight miles above Bagby, a new 500-hp. water-power plant is 
being erected, and the 20-stamp mill is to be replaced by one 
with 60 head. Improvements will cost about $50,000. Fifty 
men are employed at the mine, and an equal number on con- 
struction. Alexander Hamilton is superintendent and Rudolph 
W. Van Xorden, chief engineer. 

Nevada County 

From the Jerry Goodwin gravel mine the You Bet company 
is reported to be extracting rich gravel. There are 16 men 

employed. Near Lake City the El Oro Mines Co. is sinking 

a shaft to open the blue gravel channel at 200 ft. Machinery 
has been ordered. Fred Phelps is manager. 
Shasta County 

Asstssment work to the value of $4400 has been done on 44 

asbestos claims on Mears creek, near Sims. J. G. Barber. 

William R. Scott, George Gameble, E. M. Wilkinson, William 
Hol'and. E. C. Montgomery, James Bowe. and John Brown, all 
of San Francisco, have located 1160 acres of placer ground 

between Gas Point and Igo. The Shasta Dredging Co. at 

Horsetown, near the places mentioned, has bonded several 
farms along Cottonwood creek. 

Sieiuia County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Pacific mine, two miles 
south of here, has been bonded to the Greenwood Mining & 
Development Co. of San Francisco. The Pacific and St. Elmo. 

Jauuan 16, I'M • 


1 _■! 

tier in i in- owned bj the Ore* nwood company, i* eeUmati .1 
■ ii channel A doubli 

a. Ill inur.' U in. .1 in the latl 

in will eventually reach ■ length ol three 
i ic Co make are 
Detailed aftei the channel is reached r T Heai 
Sun r*i larj of the Company, and I. Ferdinand 

.ii la coneultlni 

(Special Correspondence.) An examination ..i the Qraj 
ISagle mine, al Gold Point, was made lust weak b] F. Love and 
\v it 1!,km', r hi San Kkiih isi ii, iimi a large anouni of new 

work tias i n arranged A six-fool rein ot fair-grade ore was 

recentl} cat In a wlnse, and is being prospected. W. n 
Axtrackle is auparlntendent. — 'Pay' gravel has bei n opened 
in the Cold Spline mine, near Mount Vernon. The baok oban- 
nel was Intersected by a 75-ft. rise from the 3S0-ft. adit, ami 
considerable gold Is present The gravel is helm: stored on 
the dumps until sufficient water fan he obtained for washing. 

The shoot of ore recently col In the Keystone mine, mar 

Sierra City, continues to Improve. About two feet of the vein 


is said to average $10 to $50 per ton. -Work has been re- 
sumed at the Gold King mine by C. M. Weldon and associates. 
The property is in the Alleghany district, and produced rich 

ore 30 years ago. The Sixteen-to-One mine is producing 

good ore, with considerable work progressing in the lower 

levels. Twenty men are now on the payroll. An electric 

power-line is being completed to the Twenty-One mine, and 
erection of the small mill is making good progress. Crushing 

will start in the early spring. The mill at the Kate Hardy 

mine, in the Forest district, is running steadily on good ore. 
A. D. Grant is superintendent. The Brandy City and Neo- 
cene companies are operating their hydraulic mines with large 
crews, and the abundance of snow in the hills favors a long 

Downieville, January 3. 

Siskiyou County 

The Gray Eagle mine at Oro Fino has been optioned to 

Seattle people. The shaft is to be unwatered. The Oom 

Paul mill is to start when water is available. A. C. Renfrew 

is manager. James Doyle, formerly with the Gladstone and 

Midas in Shasta county, is examining the McKeen mine near 

Callahan. Cold weather has frozen up ditches and flumes in 

numerous Siskiyou county districts, and many mines are idle 
because of lack of water. 

• QUI > M 

on thi LI., Kiln. 
Panned 181 in 10 .la 


LAKI Cot NTl I 1. 1 mill I i i 

H product! i this district in 1914 I 

' '"' '."".It, 17,,., „,. u ., 


i.. ml carbonate i N | 341 

1 ne 
Zinc carbonate and sulphide 204,427 

'"'" •■• i-:.ii:. 


''"'•'> 502,617 

Ml 'a is: 

Gold, ounces M6MJ 

Silver, ounces 3.86L696 

Lead, pounds 

per, pounds 2,623.763 

S|u Iter, pounds r9 398 272 

Total value (9,040,369 in 1913) S9io87,628 

The output to date is valued at $416,638,688. 

A vein of molybdenite is reported to have been cul In the 

Twin Lakes district. The Western Mining Co.. through Hs 

manager, S. D. Nicholson, gave each of the 250 emplo: 
turkey for Christmas. A bill in equity has been Bled against 
this Company and others for $6,252,000 damages, by H. E, 
Elder and F. E. Mann, executors of the will of G. W. Elder. 
The damages are for minerals and ore claimed to have been 
taken from the mines by the respondents during a period of 
years from 1899 to December 3, 1914, during which, it Is 
charged, the lease was void. The Yak Mining Co., at Christ- 
mas, presented each of over 125 employees with a postal sav- 
ings bank book crediting his deposit with a sum of equal to 
-' i of his annual wages. 

San Miguel County 

It is reported that the Tomboy company has purchased the 
Revenue claims near Telluride. 

Summit County 

This county's branch of the Colorado Metal Mining Associa- 
tion has elected R. M. Henderson, W. H. Green, E. C. Sutton, 
G. H. Gibson, and O. K. Gayman to represent the county at the 
state convention held at Denver on January 11. Mine legisla- 
tion and taxation, bureau of mines, school of mines, and state 
geologist were subjects to be discussed. 

All dredges at Breckenridge save one, Tonopali JYo. S, are 
stopped on account of the cold weather. 
Teller County 

The Portland company will pay 2c. per share on January 
2il. amounting to $60,000. The annual meeting will be held at 

Cheyenne on February 15. Lessees at the Abe Lincoln mine 

are extracting a good tonnage of ore. Allen L. Burris, 

president of the El Paso Consolidated company, has resigned. 
He has issued a report on the Company's condition and cause 
of his retirement, the latter being a question of policy. The 
equipment to replace that destroyed by fire should be ready 
for work on February 1. 


Shoshone County (Coeur d'Alene) 
The suit of Jonathan Bourne, Jr., and the Ontario Mining Co. 
v. the Stewart Mining Co., started before Judge John M. 
Klynn at Wallace on January 4. Extralateral rights are the 
issue, and a great array of legal talent and mining engineers 
are in attendance. The Stewart has admitted a trespass of 

:',353 sq. ft., leaving 3560 sq. ft. to be settled. The Interstate- 

Callahan company is looking for a suitable site for the mill 



January 16, 1915 

Jasper County 

a 350-ton mill is heing erected for the Dob Mining C 

Plat ana. The shaft is 152 It. deep, and the 26' , 
opened by Ave drifts. 

. Fergus fcoi S IV 
The Barnes-King company's December output was 5600 tons 
for $40,000. 

Jefferson County 
The Elkhorn adit of the Boston n Montana Development Co. 
is iii aboul 1200 ft, ami at 117m ft.. 1.". to IS in. of ore contain- 
ing molybdenite is being opened. Other veins in the mine 
carry this mineral. 

BtLVEBBOw Col m v 
The Great FallB refinery is operating again, producing cop- 
pi r on order for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad 
for the electrification of its line. On account of an accident 
at the Leonard mine of the Anaconda, the Original will con- 
tinue until the trouble is overcome, in about two weeks. Two 
ind-drilla ol the Anaconda are boring to 200 ft. in the 
Butte-Duluth, the latter being under option to the former. 

nl is hindering drilling. At 2400 ft. in the Pilot- 

Butte 12 in. Ol 0' . copper ore has been cut near the shaft. 

Esmeralda County 

The estimated production of the Ooldfield Consolidated Mines 
In December Is as follows: ore treated. 29.050 tons; gold yield. 
(359,239; operating expense. $186,000; net realization. (173,239. 
The output for the year was approximately ;;:!7.:!91 tons worth 
$2,093,820. with a profit of $1,829,159. The yield to date is 
2.115,696 tons for ore valued at $63,773,003, and dividends 

$27,982,087. On March 1 the Jumbo Extension company will 

distribute 5c. per share. The estimated yield in December was 
(125,000, leaving a profit of $100,000. Cash and ore in transit 
on January 1 was worth $220,000. 

Some specimen ore is being extracted from the National 

mine at National. Gross receipts from the Seven Troughs 

Coalition mine in December were $55,000. Cash on hand 
amounts to $100,000, and a dividend, probably 5c. per shan. 
or $70.(100. will lie paid on March 1. 

Lim oi.n Cot \ i v 
The total output 'of the Piochc district in 1914 was about 
2200 cars of ore. The current year's production is expected to 
be much greater. Two new mills are proixtsed. one for the 
Amalgamated Pioche Mines & Smelting Co., and the other for 
the Yuba Leasing & Development Company. 
Nvt: County 
Five mines at Tonopah produced 10.282 tons of ore valued 

at $211,036 last week. The Tonopah Mining Co. is to acquire 

i he White Caps mine at Manhattan if it proves of sufficient 

value on examination. As most of the miners at Tonogold 

have not enough capital to install hoists for deeper work, 
prospecting has been almost suspended for some time. The 
Arizona Leasing Co., \V. J. Bathurst in charge, has cut It. 
of ore at 80 ft. Two inches of this assays $49.70 per ton. 
WHITE Pink County 
The Ely district is quiet, the Nevada Consolidated continu- 
liasis. and only a few lessees working, probably 
more than in the past. The Hayes claim, near Star Pointer, 
>1 a car of $40 gold-silver ore recently. Guy Gallagher 
lit a car of $67 gold ore from Camp's claim in Heath 
canon. Railroad valley, Nye count] and Peddler Bros, are ex- 
ag zinc ore, averas tal, Iron jusl abovi Lane 

iear thi Consolidi pet mini s propi 


Bakes County 

The Baker. Mines Co.'s mine and mill, 18 miles west of 
Copperfteld, on the Snake river, are described by Will C. Hig- 
■-■ins in the December 30 issue of The Salt Lake Mining Review. 
The property is in precipitous and picturesque country. The 
l.asi Chancsjfs the principal mine worked. It is one mile from, 
am! 1700 ft. above the mill. The main adit is in to a vertical 
depth of 700 fl. A Bleichert aerial tramway. 5500 It. long, 
carries ore from the portal to the mill. The prevailing rock is 
greenstone and the two veins of oxide ore are four feet wide. 


The 20-stamp mill contains also amalgamating plates. Dorr 
classifier, 30-ft. sand leaching vats, 30-ft. Dorr thickener, two 
in by 2011. Dorr agitators, two Moore thickeners. 20 and 30 ft. 
diameter, a Portland filter, and Merrill precipitation plant. 
John M. Baker is general manager. 

Josephine County 

According to G. T. Thrasher, of Phoenix, Jackson county, the 
placer districts of southern Oregon show increased activity, 
i specially in the northern part of Josephine county. Gravel 
bars of many creeks are being sluiced. 

Lawrence County 

Shalt sinking has been started at the Echo mine at Man- 
kind. A. .1. Simmons being in charge. Men are employed 
trecting buildings, and the machinery to be installed includes 
a motor-driven hoist and air-compressor. New Hampshire 

people are interested in the Company. At the Heidelberg. 

in Two Bit gulch, east of Deadwood. according to the man- 
\. T. Ross. $12 ore has been oi>ened 500 ft. across the 

gulch from the workings which have produced good ore. 

Good progress is being made with construction of the Rattle- 

sna' k mill near Galena. C. S. Ruth is in charge. 

Water has been drained from the Hidden Treasure shaft and 
cross-cutting is under way at 200 ft. Stewart Thompson is 


In its issue of January 3. The Soil Lake Trihmir devotes 
several pages to a detailed review of mining in the state in 
1914. Including $6,962,003 paid in dividends last year, the 
total of all mines to date is $110,716,321. The Bingham district 
pro.lnc il 8,077,866 tons of ore, against 9,190,374 tons in 1913. 
Judging bj tin growing inquiry regarding several districts, a 
revival of the mining industry is predicted. 

Juab Coun i v 
Tip Eagle & Blue Bell mine is producing about 2000 tons of 
ore per month. At 275 ft. from tin- shaft, al 1700 ft, den h. tic 
shoot being miiud at 1550 ft. has In en cut 

.Iiiiinar.\ 16, 1915 



pit it en \n 

Tli. potash anil BlanltS deposit! itaryavilli 

mem ihli real Tin Florence Mln 

hi Philadelphia bus IM i ninlrnil lor II. 

ami haulage ol 180 i»n. ol alunlte from u> propi n> to the 

l>. ft H a lUtloo iii MsrysvUla The »ill be senl to <'in 

tinned, Ohio fm testing pnri>oeee. 

Si mm i i ('in \ nt 
ih. Rnaki Creek tunnel is In about 10,800 n The pn 
in December was onlj 891 ft., dae to holidays end Installing ■ 
mm compressor. During 1914 the advance was 1761 ft The 
tan in now in diorlte dipping south, wiih ■ coarse-gTalned 
calclte hanging wall 


Within a radius of 160 miles north ami cast ol Spokane 

nearl] 185.000,0 >f metals was produced In 1914. The Bguree 


Coeur d'Alene I Idaho) mines 124,130,! 

Trail in. C.) rmelter 5,848,478 

Grand Forks . n. j. i smelter 8,389,620 

Greenwood (B C.) smelter 910,895 

Sundry mines of Washington, northern Idaho, and 

British Columbia (estimated) 1,260,000 

Smelter productions are official from the managements of the 

three companies. The Coeur d'Alene output is based on figures 
in Stanly A. Easton manager of the Bunker Hill & Sullivan 
iy. and by Frederick Burbldge. 


British Columbia 

Rossland mines in December shipped 2T,nl2 tons to the 
smelters, an increase of 2527 tons over November. 

At ft. below the surface, and 1200 ft. from the portal 

of the adit, over 10 ft. of ore assaying $3H per ton gold and 
7.V silver has lieen cut in the Argo mine. This property is 
in Greenwood and near the British Columbia Copper smelter. 

At Surf Inlet, the Tonopah Belmont company, with F. W. 
Holler in charge, continues considerable development. This 
will cost $150,000 up to July of this year, when the option 
expires. About 50 men are employed. Adits have proved over 
200,000 tons of $f> ore. If the mine is bought, the Company 
will erect a hydro-electric plant and a 500-ton mill. 

At Porcupine the Hollinger produced 18,645 tons of $13.22 
ore during the period ended December 2, with a profit of 
$152,664. Costs were $3.40 per ton. Bonuses paid to em- 
ployees during 1 ! 1 1 4 amounted to nearly $12,000. Plans are 

being prepared by J. Houston, manager of the Schumacher, 

for a 50-ton mill to be constructed in the spring. Faulting 

displaced the Porcupine Crown vein 50 ft. at th% 500-ft. level, 
but driving has opened ore equal to that in the upper levels. 
\Vbrk for the current year includes shaft-sinking to S00 ft. 
and a winze on the vein below 500 ft. Broken ore at 200 
and 300 tt amounts to about 25.000 tons. The mill treated 
125 tons per day in December. The average monthly output 
last year was $50,000. 

At Cobalt the Nipissfng high and low-grade mills treated 
!7a and 0019 tons of ore. respectively, in December, yielding 
silver worth $204,034. Bullion shipped was worth $535,864. 
Mine development was satisfactory. 


The Pato dredge recovered $62,500 from 60,500 cu. yd. dur- 
ing the two weeks ended December 8. 

A cablegram from the American consulate at Barranquilla 
states that the commercial situation is slightly better, financial 
situation unchanged, exports normal, and many unemployed. 


msolldau d i ompauj s output In Oclo • 

n. in above opt i 
development, end Improvements was 166.871 Phi 

hum; up 111 dara nil .i,...uul ,.l 

general repairs, the Kuk Ban Dong 10-aUunp mill iri 
for tin- tun month through ■ shortage ol ore, and I hi 
Candlestick 10-stamp mill was down 13 dayi foi ihi 
ih.- output iii November wai 1161,421 i 

■i.l til I lie, ml,, , |1 |- 

The Seoul Mining Co., operating the Buan concession In 
Whang Hal province, reports the following results foi □ 
ber 191 i 

stamps working 411 

Time, days ;>s 

Oli- . 1 ashed. Ions 

Total recovery 182,400 

Operating expenses 

" nlngt 56,400 

The 2000-kw. steam-turbine electric generating plant, ei 
by the Company at tidewater. .".2 miles from the mine, has 
been completed, and commencing with January 7 the mill and 
mine plant will be operated by electricity instead of bj 
as heretofore. A reduction in operating costs Is anticipated. 


1 Special Correspondence.) — The most disastrous coal mine 
explosion in the history of Japanese mining occurred at the 
Shin-Yubari mine. Hokkaido, November 2S. The total numbei 
killed was 422. including a number of engineers, assistant 
engineers, and foremen. The colliery includes two mines, the 
explosion being in the Wakanabe, which is in a Tertiary coal 
and is opened by an adit 0000 ft. long, and a slope 2000 ft. 
long at 10° dip. The explosion' occurred in an entry off this 
slope and wrecked the workings throughout. The compressor 
house at the entrance to the slope was burned, and men re- 
pairing brickwork in the incline were blown to the surface 
and into unrecognizable fragments. Of the dead. 166 bodies 
were recovered before December 3, when all entrances to the 
mine were closed and water from the river turned into the 
lower workings to drown the fire which followed the explo- 
sion. The latter is believed to have been caused by fire damp. 

Tokyo, December 15. 



Six inches of rain fell at Nacozari during the third week 
in December, this being about equal to the annual precipiia- 


tion in that district. Considerable damage was done to the 
railway and property of the Moctezuma Copper Company. 



January 16, 1915 


I l>. luvivc is at Butte. Montana. 

.7 \V. NEIIX was in San Francisco this week. 

Robert Nn: was in San Francisco this week. 

M K. K Kits was in San Francisco Wednesday. 

C. M. Era has been down to Manila from Benguet. 

ROBES] Si 11 Hi- has been at Long Beach, California. 

Aium k Gibson has returned from Sonora. California. 

W, E. Sainders passed through San Francisco this week. 

C. W. Pirington was in New York last week and has gone 
to Boston. 

Ernest Levy, general manager of the Le Roi No. 2. British 
Columbia, left for England on January 9. 

W. W. Johnson, of the Union Construction Co.. was in New 
York last week and has returned to San Francisco. 

.1. (' Pickering, formerly of the Ernestine Mining Co.. at 
Mogolion. New Mexico, is now at San Remo hotel. New York. 

E. Gtbbon Sfilsbury has returned to New York from Ari- 
zona, his plans for work having been interfered with by floods 
in the desert. 

Wakamatsi YOKOYAMA passed through San Francisco, on 
his way to Boston, where he will take up special studies at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

C. G Leeson, formerly manager of the dredging department 
of the Oro Water, Light & Power Co. has been made manager 
of both the Oroville and Mokelumne divisions and the New- 
York machine shop. 

A complimentary dinner was given to F. G. Cm-tun i at 
Hotel Plaza, New York, on January IS, by the American In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers. American Electro-Chemical So- 
ciety, and Mining and Metallurgical Society of America. 

Officers for 1915 for the San Francisco section of the A. I. M. 
E. elected last Monday evening were as follows: chairman. 
G. H. C'i.kvenokr; vice chairman. C. W. Mtimiu,; secretary- 
treasurer, J. C. Ray; additional members of the executive com- 
mittee. F. W. Bradley, A. C. Laws. in. 

A. E. Dbcokeb has gone to Colombia to superintend con- 
struction and starting of a 30-stamp mill for the Frontino & 
Bolivia G. M. Co., Ltd. The stamps will be followed by leach- 
ing and a counter-current decantatlon slime-plant on the Dorr 
system. It is expected t hat the work will occupy nine months. 

Fiiki'Krhk Laist has been made metallurgical manager for 
the A. C. M. Co. at Great Falls and Anaconda. He will have 
i supervision of construction and technical affairs. The 
local operations and business at the plants will be in charge 
of C. W. GOODALE and E. P. Mathewbon as heretofore. L. V. 
BBKDBB becomes general superintendent at the Washoe plant. 
with Harry S. Ware as assistant. 

Tin Institution of Minim-, and Metalutbot held the first 
general meeting of the 24th session In London on November 
19. The paper. Persistence of Ore in Depth,' by T. A. Rlckard, 
was discussed. 

The University oh California announces a series of lectures' 
on mining and ore treatment in lieu of the course. Mining 1 1 12. 
The fallowing will be the lecturers: H. Foster Bain, J. A. 
Burgess, P. G. Cottrell. Lindsay Duncan. William Durbrow, 
James M. Hyde, R. A. Kinzie. F. C. Lincoln, C. W. Merrill. 
Fred Searls. Jr.. Whitman Symmes. C. E. van Barneveld. and 
George J. Young. 


Preliminary estimates 

by the Mint and U. S. 


Survey as to»the production of gold 

and silver in 

the United 

States during 1914 are as 




State or territory. 

fine oz. 


fine oz. 


$ 12.200 



766,74 4 








21. 447. Mia 























North Carolina 







South Carolina 




South Dakota 








1 :.::. 842 














Philippine Islands 




Porto Rico 




Total 4.490,336 $92,823,500 67,929,700 

In 1913 the gold output was valued at $88,884,400, and silver 

us. sin. ran. ounces. 


The quantity of iron ore mined in the United States in 1914 
is estimated to have been between 41,000,000 and 42,500,000 
long tons, and the quantity shipped from the mines to receiv- 
ing ports and iron manufacturing centres # between 39,500,000 
and 41,000.000 tons, according to E. F. Burchard, of the Sur- 
vey. These estimates are based on reports from 52 of the 
important iron mining companies which represent the prin- 
cipal iron producing districts, and whose combined output in 
1913 was more, than 90';i of the total tonnage of iron ore mined 
in that year. 

In the Lake Superior district, where about 85% of the do- 
mestic iron ore is mined, the average decrease in production 
was about 37'J, thus indicating a total production for that dis- 
trict of about 32,915,000 tons in 1914, compared with 52,518,158 
tons mined in 1913. The shipments of ore from this district 
apparently decreased about 34%. and accordingly the ship- 
ments should approximate 32,790,000 tons in 1914, compared 
with 5U.16S.134 tons in 1913. 

According to the preliminary reports, stocks of iron ore at 
the mines apparently increased more than 500,000 tons during 
1914. so that the total stocks at the close of 1914 should range 
between 13,400,000 and 13,500,000 tons, compared with 12.918.- 
633 tons on hand at the close of 1913. 

Officials of the iron mining companies are almost unanimous 
in reporting great depression of trade during 1914. Prices 
generally were 50 to 75c. per ton lower than in 1913. as low as 
or lower than those of 1912 and 1905. 





w-'kiy sutinmnu "I Fricet • ■,. tiharet and UetaU 

Meft&l Prices 

Sun Francisco, JinuuTV 1 I 
Electrolytic ■ ..pp. i i : ' 

I'lK lead 

Quicksilver (flask) 150.00 

Spatter " — "4 

Tn. ...... ii 1 !- as 

dost. lod-kg. line-lined cases..-. 

■ l>TEIt\ Mi: I 1 1. Ml IRKBT 
(By win- New fork.) 
new vnHK. January U.— Copper Is Brm. lead quiet, 
spelter strong 

■ n ,.r electrolytic In New York. 



in ..ills per pound. 
Average week ending 


10 Sunday 

11 13.30 

13 13.30 

II 13.30 

LI- 12.U2 

9 12.73 

" 16 12.70 

■• 23 12.84 

" 30 12.75 

.Lin. 6 12.99 

11 13.30 

Monthly averages. 

1913. 19H. 

Inn 16 54 14.21 

il. 14.93 14.46 

Moll 14.72 14.11 

Vpi 15.22 14.19 

Hay 15.42 13.97 

I in.- 14.71 13.60 

1913. 1914. 

July 14.21 13.26 

Vug 15.42 12.34 

Sep! 16.23 18.02 

Oct 16.31 11.10 

..v 15.08 11.75 

Pee 11.25 12.75 

Th.- .-upper market was weak, but a large amount of business 
resulted in a slight advance. Exports during tHe week ended 
January 2 were 13,051.892 lb. The Anaconda company's yield In 
r.n I was 226,646,000 lb., and Calumel & Arizona, 52,7"0,( 


It has been computed that only nine of the principal Ameri- 
can copper compani.-s are paying dividends under present con- 
ditions. These are Anaconda, Calumet & Arizona. Chino, Old 
Dominion, Phelps. Dodge & Co.. Qulncy, Tennessee, Utali Copper, 
an.i Wolverine. 

According to a "Dally Consular Report' from Yokohama. Japan, 
dat.-d November 3. the condition of the copper market is worse 
. . r. with no prospect of relief. Latest press quotations 
for electrolytic copper are 29 50 yen per illc. per lb,), and 
989 quality at about 28 yen (10. 46c. per lb.), but these quota- 
tions are nominal, as there are no buyers. The leading mine 
owners have hitherto exported their output, the home market 
being supplied by th- 1 smaller mines. The suspension of exports. 
however, has confined the large operators to the home market. 
which they have congested with enormous stocks. In the con- 
sequent slump the price has fallen so low that it does not cover 
POSl of production. A proposal is therefore afoot among mine 
owners to cease smelting until the congestion Is relieved. 

This Association, which, up to the commencement of the war. 
collected and published monthly statistics on the copper situa- 
tion, voted to go out of existence on January 13. 

Lead Is quoted in cents per pound or dollars per hundred 
ds, New York delivery. 


j i n 



in Sunday 








June 4.33 

. 4.28 
. 4.33 
. 4.32 
. 4.36 

3 90 



. . . . 3.70 




Average week ending 

Dec. 2 3.80 

9 3.80 

■■ 16 3.80 

" 23 3.80 

" 30 3.80 

Jan. 6 3.80 

13 3.70 



I lee. 





4 60 







3 68 

4 02 


The primary 


market for quicksilver 

loini.i being th, . price i» Axed In the 

open in. irk. i. and, ..- quoted weekly In this column, I* U 
which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the 
usually obtain a hIikIh reduction, and those wanting but a flask 
..I two mull expacl to pay a slightly liiKh, i prion. Averag.- 
weekly and monthly quotations. In dollars per Hank ,.( 7', u< 
are given below; 

2 1 . ending 

, ,,., 

i tec 



; .'.i to 
It : 





May lo.zn 

June I 1.00 




. In. 2" 

Monthly averages. 



tg 90 



N .. v 



1 1 in. 

in 50 







The pile in England Is (11. or 163 60 pel flask 

zinc is quoted as Bpelter, standard Western brands, St. l.ouls 
delivery, In cents per pound 


Jan. 7 


Hi Sundav 



l :i 


:. S6 
5 85 




Average week ending 






. r, i:i 

. r..'.ii 

. 5.52 


June 5.00 


19 11 

:, i i 

T. " ' 




23. .. 

6. .. 

-, ... 





. 5.11 


. 5 55 
. 5.22 
. 5.09 

. 5.07 


I 16 
1 .75 


are given the average New York quotations in 


per ounce, of line silver 

Average week ending 



8. . . 












9. . . . 

. . 19.91 


. . .48.62 




G. . . . 

. .49.83 

in Sundaj 



. . .19.12 

. .48.65 
. .48.65 


5 7 8 7 

. . .49.25 



58 52 















Silver proiiiiclion of the l'nlted States in 1914 Is estimated at 
67.929.700 oz. The steamer 'Mongolia' took sliver worth $158,142 
(320,000 oz.) to China on January 9. In December the Niplsslng 
company of Cobalt exported 1.093.510 oz. to England, this being 
mine and custom ore products stored. While somewhat sensi- 
tive, the market is fairly steady. 


Prices In New York, In cents per pound. 
Monthly averages. 






June 45.10 

.49 10 


1913. 1914. 

July 40.70 31.60 

Aug 41.75 50.20 

Sept 42.45 33 10 

Oct 40.61 30.40 

Nov 39.77 33.51 

Dec 37.57 33.60 

There is little of importance to note with regard to this 
metal, prices being steady at about 33.50 cents. 


The following prices were fixed by the German government 
on December 14: best quality copper, 21.45c; aluminum, 34.93c; 
antimony, 16.11c; tin, 51c; and nickel, 49c per pound. 

is San Francisco, Cali- 

Platinum in England is £9 5s., or $14.40 per ounce., and bis- 
muth. 10s., or $2.40 per pound. 



January lii. 1 * * 1 - _ » 



This Company operates in Queensland. Australia, and the 
report covers the year ended June 30. 1914. Smelter returns 
were as follows: 

Details of operation. 1914. 1913. 

Ore treated, tons 37.875 41.633 

Copper produced, imunds X.762,880 10.373, 44n 

Gold, ounces 6,266 8,767 

Silver, ounces 8,251 7,285 

Net profit $259,000 $682,000 

A dividend of $1.20 per share absorbed $178,000. The sur- 
plus was $1,052,000. Ore reserves are estimated at 33,750 
tons of ll 1 /!. and 500,000 tons of 395 ore. A concentrating 
plant is needed for the latter grade. A consolidation of cer- 
tain properties in the district has been accomplished, and a 
central smelter is proposed. 


The report of this Brazilian company is for the half-year 
ended August 31, 1914. The mill ireated 95.000 tons of ore 
yielding gold and silver worth £225.514 in London. All charges 
totaled £154,064, or $8.44 per ton, leaving £60,074. Dividends 
amounted to £25,900. Investments of the Company in English 
and Argentine railways are valued at £96.47::. 

The superintendent. G. Chalmers, stated that all mine en- 
tries and machinery were in good condition. The Sirocco 
fan gave more air as the result of increased speed and removal 
of obstructions in the air-ways. There were 180 accidents, 
four of which were fatal. There were 36 accidents among 
these due to blistering rock, two being fatal. On horizon IS 
the lode has been opened a total of 1150 ft. Horizons 13 to 
18 produced 97.34',c of the ore. Filling put into the mine 
totaled 6S.622 tons. Sorting rejected 1.75%. Labor is abun- 
dant owing to the Brazilian government failing to raise a 
loan, and also the European war. The Chalmers & Williams 
tube-mills did well, but the shallow fluted liners in one mill 
are not as efficient as the Morro Velho design in the other 
mill. Hadfleld steel is the most durable yet tried. The Burt 
filter is receiving a thorough test. The tramway, electric 
power plants, transport department, hotel, and medical de- 
partment all gave satisfactory results. Stores on hand are 
worth £90,000. 

Persistence of Ore at Kolar.' India, was the title of an 
article in the PreSi of December 19, by T. A. Rickard. Prom 
the longitudinal section of the mines there, the underground 
work ol the Champion Reef will be understood better. Since 
1S92 this great property h::s produced 3,396,119 tons, yielding 
£11,147,537, and £4,157,633 in dividends. During the year 
i tided September 30 1H14. the period covered by his repot\. 
the output was 216.934 tons for £527.5110. of which H 
was paid in dividends, or 53% per cent. 

The superintendent. Henry .1. Gifford. reported as follows: 
There were 142 Europeans, 103 Eurasians, and 6384 natives 
employed. Development totaled 17.334 ft. Garland's shaft 
was sunk to 4461 ft. On No. 45 level of Glen shaft, the drift 
opened 2 ft. of $45 ore for 207 ft. The circular shaft should 
be completed early in 1915. Shaft, repair has been generally 
heavy as usual. Pumping was not so heavy on account of 
onh 21.94 in. of ruin. 13.85 in. less than in 1912-13. Mine 
ventilation was improved. Ore reserves are estimated as 
177. ::m tons, an Increase of 73,369 tons. 

Out of 255.943 tons mined. 39.009 .ons was sorted as waste, 
leaving 216.934 tons for the stamp-mill, an average of 141.6 
Stamps working. Amalgamation recovered 97.989 oz. fine gold. 
The extraction was 77.22',. The tube-mill plant has started 
work. The sand and slime plants treated 181,063 and 51,873 
tons of new and old material, assaying $2.76 and (1.76 pel 
ton. with 62.6 and 88.39! recovery, respectively. No. 2 cyanide 
plant treated 101,559 tons of old sand and slime, averaging 
$2.72 per tortl with 47.9'/r recovery. The total gold saved in 
all plants was 124.497 oz.. or $11.45 per ton of ore milled. 

The report also contains a great deal of information on 
the mine, mills, and equipment. It may be mentioned that 
air-blasts were less frequent than formerly. 


This British Columbia company is one of the most impor- 
tant in Canada, and the renort covers the year ended Septem- 
ber 30, 1914. The genera! manager. R. H. Stewart, reported 
as follows: 

Conditions at the 12 mines operated, generally speaking, 
have been satisfactory, with a prospect for increased ton- 
nage had it not been for the closing of a number of prop- 
erties owing to the unsettled state of metal markets. Heavy 
accumulations of refined meta's have been made, which may 
have to be held for a time, or until the markets resume more 


normal conditions. The net profit for the year was $474."] 2. 
after writing off $193,150 for depreciation and charging to 
profit and loss $492,466 spent during the period in mine de- 
velopment. Four dividends, totaling $464,376. or 8% on the 
capital, were paid, leaving $9636 for the current year. 

Developmi n. amounted to 33. 146 ft. of general work, and 
38,897 It. of diamond-drilling. The mines at Rossland con- 
tinue to show an increase in the amount of ore available. 
the greater part being due to ore developed in the Le Roi. 
The Sullivan claims at Kimberley show a large quantity of 
complex zinc-lead ore. some of which can be shipped and 
smelted for lead, while the zinc portion, worth $20 per ton. 
is not available. Several new properties were purchased. 

The smelter at Trail treated 374.771 tons of mixed ores, 
yielding 129,083 oz. gold. 2.568,301 oz. silver. 34,617,318 lb. 
lead, and 3,645,997 lb. copper, worth $6,000,662. Contributing 
were as follows: Copper-gold-silver ore: Centre Star. 
172,379; Silver King. 16.031; and Le Roi, 80,499 tons. Lead- 
silver ore: Sullivan. 30.919: St. Eugene. 1217: Molly Gibson. 
7; No. 1, 5790; Highland, 1346; Maestro. 262: Richmond- 
Eureka, 541: Lucky Thought, 36; and Ottawa. 342 tons. The 
tonnage smelted showed an increase in the average per month 
over the last financial year of about 4090 tons. Improvements 
to the plant were published in this journal of January 9. 
Like the Granby Consolidated and British Columbia Copper 
companies, this Company's work is of great importance. 

.Iiiiiuii! v 16, 1915 




The Geologic TEaaAicaa or Iowa, ity Charles Keyi <'h.irt. 
Moines, Iowa. 1914. 

Tin I'iiimui Qsmuurm oi Wisconsin. Hy Lawrence 

Martin. Reprint from the Journal of Geography. IV 7. Illus- 
trated. University of Wisconsin. 

BCONOMII Geology 01 llu BELGIAN 00500, CeNTEAI Al III. V 

Bg Bydney H. Ball and Millard K. Bbaler. Reprtnl from 
Mooaonio Otology, P, 59. Illustrated. 

(ii" i< PaoriBBBia and Qeoqbaphic Pboduots in Asm iu- 

cms- Syllabus of a course of lectures at the New Mexico 
Stair School of Mines by Charles Keyes, P. 15. Socorro. 1914. 

PaoovcTioN oi Coai imii'oki im'iwih i\ 1913. Compiled 
iiy John McLelah. P. i". Department of Mines. Ottawa, 1914. 
The output in 1913 waa 15,013,173 tons averaging $2.49 iier ton. 

Annual Report of the Secretary of Commerce, William C. 
RedMt-l<l. for the year ended June 30, 1914. ami conditions up 
to October 18, 1914. P, 810. 111., index. Washington. D. C, 

The California Journal of Technology, Vol. 18, No. 1, Novem- 
ber 1!'H. P, 56. Illustrated. Owing to the business depres- 
sion, the Associated Technical Students of the University of 
California have decided to suspend publication of this journal. 

The Electric Furnace is Metai n -Riiii-At. Work. By Dorsey 
A. Lyon, Robert M. Keeney, and Joseph F. Cullen. Bulletin 
7T. P. 216. III., index. U. S. Bureau of Mines. Washington, 
D. C, 1914. Abstracts from this valuable discussion will be 
made in the Press. 

Prolonging the Life of Cross-Ties. By Howard F. Weiss. 
Bulletin 118. P. 51. Illustrated. U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. Forest Service. Washington. D. C. 1912. The preser- 
vation of railroad ties is very important, and is thoroughly 
discussed in this report. 

Biennial Report of the State Inspector of Mines of Nevada. 
Edward Ryan, for the year ended November 30. 1914, with 
a summary review of the report of 1913. P. 52. Carson City, 
1914. A review of this report appears in 'The Mining Sum- 
mary' of this issue. 

Annual Report of the Director of the Mint, George E. Rob- 
erts, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1914. Also a report 
on the production of the precious metals in the calendar 
year 1913. P. 2S1. 111., index. Washington, D. C, 1914. This 
is a valuable and interesting compilation on the work of 
the mint, gold and silver output of the world, specie move- 
ments, monetary statistics, and many other subjects, from 
which abstracts will be made from time to time. 

University of California publications, Berkeley, 1914: 

A Proboscidean Tooth from the Truckee Beds of Western 
Nevada. By John P. Buwalda. P. 4. Illustrated. 

New Moixuscan Species from the Martinez Eocene of 
Southern California. By Roy E. Dickerson. P. 6. Illus- 

The Occurrence of Tertiary Mammalian Remains in 
Northeastern Nevada. By John C. Merriam. P. 7. Illus- 

The Martinez Eocene and Associated Formations at Rock 
Creek on the Western Border of the Mohave Desert Area. 
By Roy E. Dickerson. P. 10. Illustrated. 

Notes on the Copper Ores at Ely, Nevada. By Alfred R. 
Whitman. P. 10. Illustrated. This is an interesting dis- 

.iii.l abairact* have been made for otli. r laau 
ib. P 

Tin Mariini/ vmi I 

in>\^ i.i mi Sim, \ . > ktotTinajiu (California) B Raj 
E, in. iv i «,. plates anil map, 

i B, Geological Burvsj papers, Washington D. C 1914 
Tin Bllisto* 1'iiuMiiAii. Kin n. Montana. By it W 

and c \ Bonlne. Bulletin 680-N, P. n Map 
Tin itirni Dnoarra oi m Babtebji United Snu- By 

Thomas I.. Watson, Bullet, „ 580-O. P, 38, Illustrated 

Tin. MONTANA OBOUF Of Nulllllttt vn n\ llv Ku- 

gene Btebinger, Professional Paper 90-G. P. B. Illustrated. 

Tin Miioik Km i On. Field, and mi Bid Munn In. mi. Wyo- 
ming Papers by V. ft, Barmtt. Bulletin 581-C. P, 86 Maps. 

I'iui By (I. K. Loughlln. Professional Paper 90-P, P. 10. 
Profile Surveys in Snake Riveb Basin, Idaho Pn 

under the direction of R. B. Marshall, chief geographer. I' 
12. 37 maps. 

Tin Rochester Minima Dibtbict, Nmm Bj Prank C 
Bcbrader. Bulletin 580-M. P. 58. Map, llluatrated. A review 

oi ibis report appears in 'The Mining Summary' "I i lii 

10 m lis in- Spirit Leveling in Virginia, 1910 to 1913, Inclu- 
sive. Part of work since 1907 done in co-operation with Vir- 
ginia Geological Survey, T. L. Watson, state geologist. Bul- 
letin 562. P. 08. Illustrated. 

Contributions to Economic Geo v. 1912, Shorl papers 

and preliminary reports. Part II. — Mineral Fuels. Marius 
R. Campbell, geologist in charge. Bulletin 541. P. 532, Maps, 
charts, Index. Twenty geologists contributed to ibis bulletin. 

Results of Spirit Leveling in Hawaii, 1910 to 1913. Inclu- 
sive. R. B. Marshall, chief geographer. Work done in co- 
operation with the territory of Hawaii, Marston Campbell, 
superintendent of public works. Bulletin 501. P. 42. illus- 

Mineral Products of the United States. Review of con- 
ditions and output in 1912 and 1913. By Edward W. Parker. 
Also a summary of mineral production in 1913, compiled by 
W. T. Thorn. Advance chapter from 'Mineral Resources of 
the United States, 1913.' P. 169, and one chart. 

A Deep Well at Charleston. South Carolina. By Lloyd 
William Stephenson. With a report on the mineralogy of 
the water by Chase Palmer. Professional Paper 9u-H. Shorter 
contributions to 'General Geology, 1914-H.' P. 26. Illustrated. 
This well was sunk 2001 ft., and furnished valuable geolog- 
ical data. 

The Glacier National Park. A popular guide to its geol- 
ogy and scenery. By Marius R. Campbell. Bulletin 600. P. 
54. 111., map. This beautiful park is in the Rocky Mountains 
in Teton and Flathead counties, Montana, just south of the 
Canadian line. It is now becoming a popular resort. The 
scenery is extremely fascinating. 

Water Supply Papers: 

Hudson Bay and Upper Mississippi River Drainage Basins- 
Compiled by B. D. Wood. No. 340-E. P. 26. 

Colorado River Basin. By Robert Follansbee, E. A. Porter, 
and H. D. Padgett. No. 329. P. 238. 111., index. 

Missoubi River Basin. By W. A. Lamb, Robert Follansbee, 
and H. D. Padgett. No. 326. P. 375. 111., index. 

Stream-gaging Stations and Publications Relating to 
Water Resources, 1885-1913. St. Lawrence River basin. Com- 
piled by B. D. Wood. No. 340-D. P. 30. 

Geology and Underground Waters of the Southeastern 
Part of the Texas Coastal Plain. By Alexander Deussen. 
No. 335. P. 365. 111., maps, charts, index. 

Deschutes River, Orecon, and Its Utilization. By F. F. 
Henshaw, John H. Lewis, and E. J. McCaustland. Prepared 
in co-operation with the state of Oregon, John H. Lewis, state 
engineer. No. 344. P. 200. 111., plans. 17 maps, index. 



January 16. 1915 

An Automatic Aerial Tramway for Carrying Ore 

In the state of Durango. a short distance to the west of the 
city of Durango, there is a large mining district, which is sep- 
arated from the city of Durango, and consequently from the 
railroad, by the high range of the Sierra Madre mountains. 
It is, therefore, almost impossible to get heavy machinery into 
this district from this side. To the west the country is also 
mountainous, but not so difficult of passage. Consequently, 
most of the heavy freight for this district is taken overland 
about a hundred miles from Mazatlan, which is a port of call 

ropes were coiled in such a manner that one mule would carry 
two coils, there being then a length of about 5 metres to the 
next mule, and then again two coils, and so on. This method 
of transporting the rope is clearly shown in the illustration. 
Since timber is very expensive in this region a large part of 
the construction work consists of masonry. This includes not 
only the bins and terminal structures; even some of the towers 
were built of masonry. Notwithstanding the extremely rough 
naiure of the country over which the tramway was built, con- 
struction work went forward with great rapidity, and the tram- 
way was soon in operation. A distinguishing feature of this 


for most of the Pacific coast steamers, as well as a station on 
the extension of the Southern Pacific railway. Even over this 
route all machinery must be sectionalized so that it may be 
handled easily by means of pack-mules. 

The San Luis Mining Co., operating mines near San Dimas. 
has installed an aerial tramway to transport ore from the 
mine to the mill. This tramway was furnished by the A. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co. of St. Louis, Missouri. The distance 
between the tunnel mouth and the mill is 2800 metres, and the 
fall in this distance 526 metres. The capacity required was 10 
tons per hour, and this was secured by using 36 carriers, each 
having a capacity of 6 cu. ft. of material. A 25mm. diameter 
patent flattened strand steel rope is used for the loaded car- 
riers to travel over, and a 22-mm. diameter rope of the same 
type for the returning empty carriers. A 16-mm. rope of the 
same construction is used as the traveling rope to which the 
carriers are attached and which runs at a speed of 91 metres 
per minute. The tramway operates by gravity and is con- 
trolled by means of band brakes. The ore being carried down 
serves as the lifting force for the return of freight. The 
country over which the tramway is built is exceedingly rough, 
there being many sharp pinnacles and deep gulches with steep 

The rope and machinery for this tramway was shipped by 
■water to Mazatlan and from there carried overland to the mine. 
The machinery was all sectionalized so that no piece weighed 
over 135 kg., and very few pieces over 70 kg. The rope was 
Shipped in single lengths between the tension points. In this 
case it was necessary to erect but one intermediate tension 
station, and the 25-mm. and the 22-mm. rope were each shipped 
in two lengths about 1200 and 1500 metres in length. These 

style of tramway is that but one man is required for operation, 
he being stationed at the upper or loading terminal. At the 
discharge end the operation is entirely automatic. 

Commercial Paragraphs 

Tin: Am Moistener Co., Chicago, 111., is distributing a 
small pamphlet entitled 'The Steamo Air Moistener.' The 
device is automatic, noiseless, and is claimed to bring about 
a reduction in the amount of fuel used. 

The Bcrii Hick Compression Ring Co., Rockford, 111., has 
published a directory of piston ring sizes. The rings are 
made of a special mixture of the best gray iron, are elastic, 
will withstand heat, and will glaze to a glass-like smoothness. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.. Chicago, 111., in a recent pub- 
lication. Bulletin No. 24-K, describes the 'Chicago Pneumatic' 
fuel oil engine driven compressor class N-SO. This machine 
has many new features and is made in both stationary and 
portable types. 

Mesta Machine Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., has distributed a bul- 
letin devoted to the Mesta automatic plate valves. The valves 
are especially designed to meet the requirements of blowing 
engines and compressors, and are equally well adapted to 
the requirements of high and low speed engines. 

The Merrill Metallurgical Co., San Francisco, has re- 
cently secured a large contract for Merrill automatic sluicing 
slime filters from the Aurora Consolidated Mines Co., of 
Aurora, Nevada. The equipment will include three 124-frame 
:; by 1 by 2' L .-in. filters of the most improved design, and 
will have a minimum capacity of 500 tons of slime per day. 

Danish Tube-Mill Pebbles and Substitutes— By Jay A. Carpenter, page 139 


Volume 110 No i ..... roii&i/ns/wi ,..„,..„ ,, ■„.- 

M\ 1-RWUSU). .KM \R\ 2.1 W .1 

A.U 01 II- ■ I Indi 

A Most Exhaustive Investigation 

For Maximum Efficiency at Minimum Cost 
Resulted in the Selection of 

Merrill Automatic Sluicing Slime Filters, 
Clarifiers, Zinc Dust Precipitation 

For the 500-ton Mill of The Aurora Consolidated Mines Co., Nevada, 
and the 200-ton Mill of The San Rafael y Anexas, Mexico. 

Other 19M Merrill Contracts 

Baker Mines Company, .... Oregon 

Canadian Mining and Finance Co., . . Canada 

Mclntyre-Porcupine Mines, Ltd., . . Canada 

New York and Honduras Rosario Mining Co., Honduras 

Porcupine-Vipond Mines, Ltd Canada 

Rattlesnake Jack Mining and Milling Co., South Dakota 
Southern Aluminium Co., . . . North Carolina 

Tough-Oakes Gold Mines, Ltd., . . Canada 

We invite correspondence concerning special filter 

Merrill Metallurgical Company 

121 Second Street, San Francisco, California 

Cable Address : lurco Usual Codes 


January 23, 19H 

EMfl i SJSH 




Are built to withstand the hardest conditions 
of contracting work. They give 

Reliable— Efficient— Economical 

There is no outside valve gear. Steam valve 
movement works without arms or levers. 

Most Successful Sinker 
on the Market 

_ Because 
o| They Are: 

Built strong. 

Certain in operation. 

Capable of handling gritty water. 

Able to withstand rough usage. 

Full line of pumps and repairs carried 
in stock at our warehouses in Denver. 

Write for Cameron Bulletin No. 103. 



■ Iiliiiiart .' i. 1915 



-^-: ^r^- 


Definite Gams 

in expedition and efficiency in Mine Exploration 
are accomplished when the Drill Operator works 
with a sense of mastery, The power and cutting 
capacity of 

Longyear Diamond Drills 

confer just that kind of feeling upon the operator 
who works with them. 

The equipment of the new screw feed drill illus- 
trated consists of two powerful long stroke 
engines, all steel gears, steel chuck, 3 power 
feeds, and extra long bearings. 

Lnngyeat Drills and Longyear Service definitelv ful- 
lill every requirement of economy and competence. 

E. J. Longyear Company, Minneapolis 


A few good reasons for the superiority 


Western Electric 

Mine Telephones 

Sloping roof prevents damage 
from falling objects. 

Double door construction 
keeps out everything but the 

Wound apparatus is thoroughly 
moisture-proofed — metal parts 
are galvanized. 

Battery cartons are moisture- 
proofed — no short circuits. 

Western Etectric Company 

Manufacturers of the 8,000,000 "Bell" Tetephonti 

Thousands of these telephones are in daily use. Write 
to us for further information and estimates. 

New York 





St. Lo 

New Orleans 
Jii Dal 

ri Den 


S(. Pa 

» City San Franciic 
3 Oakland 
oma City Lot Angclei 
apotn Seattle 
1 Portland 
Salt Lake City 


Member Society lor Electrical iJevtlo 


mem. "Do it Elect 




Established May 24, I860, as The Scientific Promt; name changed 
October 20 of the same year to Mining anil Scientific Premi; shortened 
January 2, 1915. to Mining Pves». Controlled by T. A. RIckard. 

Published weekly at 420 Market street. San Francisco, by The Dewey 
Publishing Co., H. Foster Bain, manager. Entered at the San Francisco 
Post-offlce as second-class matter. Cable address, Pertusola, 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York. 1308-10 "Wool- 
worth Bdg.; London. The Mining Magazine. Salisbury House. E. C, Lon- 
don. Cable address, Oligoclase. 

Price, 10 cents the copy. Annual subscription: United States and 
Mexico, $3; Canada, $4; otner countries In postal union. 21s. or $5. 

Vol. 110 

San Francisco, January 23, 1915 

No. 4 



Notes 129 

Reconstruction in Mexico 130 

The Copper Producers' Association 131 


CAl IEORNIA Petroleum IX 1914. 

By R. P. McLaughlin 132 

The California production in 1914 was greater than 
that of any previous year, and represented about W , 
of the total output of the United States. Mr. Mc- 
Laughlin analyzes the California production in this 
article and shows many details regarding the status 
of the industry in the different oilfields of the state. 
Electric Mink LOCOMOTIVES. 

By E. B. Wagner 134 

The electric mine locomotive has found a wide appli- 
cation in the field of mining and the allied industries. 
and details of its construction and operation are pre- 
Ore Treatment at Cripple Cheek: A Review. 

By P. Henry Argall 135 

A review of the metallurgical conditions existing in 
Cripple Creek district at the close of the past year 
prove that the metallurgical problems which have been 
presented by the sulpho-telluride ores have been suc- 
cessfully solved. Ores assaying from $2.50 to %i are 
now being profitably treated. The history of the 
progress which has been made presents many interest- 
ing and amusing features as outlined by Mr. Argall. 
Danish Tube-Mill and Substitutes. 

By Jay A. Carpenter 139 

The subject of the Danish pebble and its substitute 
is an interesting one to the mill operator; and in the 
present article the results of a thorough investiga- 
tion of this subject are presented. It is curious to 
note that while French pebble, ore, steel balls, arti- 
ficially rounded flints, and the like have been tried in 
various parts of the world, the Danish pebble, al- 
though an expensive item in many districts, con- 
tinues to be used largely in tube-milling operations. 

Mining in the Belgian Congo 142 

An abstract from the recent circular issued by the 
Union Minicre, a subsidiary of the Tanganyika Con- 
cessions Ltd., showing the operations of the Company 
during the past year. 
Mining in Newfoundland. 

By An Occasional Correspondent 143 

While the iron ore deposits of Newfoundland have 
well known in many markets, but little pub- 
licity has been given the work which is being con- 
ducted in this, England's oldest colony. The iron and 
: deposits have proved to be of considerable im- 
portance, and a summary of the work which is being 
done, is presented. 
The Coppeb Bju^ of the COEUB d'Ai.ene. 

ltii Qeorge Button 145 

The so-called copper beds of the Coeur d'Alene have 
the object of study bf the author for over a 
period of seven years. His observations have been 
made in the most thorough manner, and the com- 
mercially mineralized beds, consisting of highly 
silicious quartzites. have been the subject of particu- 
lar investigation. 

Philippine Dredges. Page. 

By Frank B. Ingersoll 148 

Gold dredging industry in the Philippines has grown 
in the past six years from nothing to about three- 
quarters of a million dollars in 1913. At the present 
time some of the largest operators in the world are 
invading this field, and the future of the industry is 
most promising. 

Origin of the Iron Ores at Kiruna. Sweden. 

By Reginald A. Daly 148 

A summary of the field data recently collected regard- 
ing the origin of the iron ores at Kiruna. 

Permanent Survey Stations. 

By John H. Eggers 149 

Where survey stations are repeatedly referred to, It is 
well worth while to establish permanent survey 
points, some helpful suggestions regarding the con- 
struction of such points, together with a convenient 
card system, are presented in this article. 

New Cornelia Tonnage 150 

An estimate of the tonnage available for steam-shovel 

Self-Dumping Bucket 151 

A useful device whereby economies may be effected 
by use of an overhead wire rope arranged for hoisting. 
transporting, and dumping material. 

MoiSTUBE in Blasting Powder 151 

Tin: Regional Alteration of Oil SnALES. 

By David White 151 

A study of the distribution of petroleums and their 

salient features. 


Smelting in Georgia. By Herbert Lang 152 

Comment on Mr. Hafer's article entitled 'Gold 
Mining in Georgia,' which appeared in the Press 
of December 19, 1914, with special reference to 
ore treatment problems. 
Tin Mining in the Federated Malay States. 

By E. J. Valentine 153 

The Whim Well Copper Mine. By H. R. Sleeman. . . 154 
A correction of the statement published in our 
issue of October 31, 1914, regarding the operations 
at this property. 

Concentrates 155 

Review of Mining: Special correspondence from New 
York: Washington, D. C; Houghton, Michigan; Jop- 
lin, Missouri: Toronto, Ontario; Deadwood, South 

Dakota 156 

The Mining Summary 160 

Schools and Societies 165 

Pebsonai 165 

Obituary 165 

The Markei Pi ice: 

.Metal Prices 166 

Mining Dei isioxs 167 

Mineral STATISTICS 167 

New Machines and Demies: 

Lighting Plants for Steam-Shovels 168 

Commercial Paragraphs 168 

Jam 1915 

MINING 1'Kl.s.s 



I'M: UA1N .... Man»«lnit Bdltoi 
THOMAS T RBAD - • - n. « fork BMICoi 

K K l.Ksi.u:, H W «ron BBRKEWITK, Bui Prmn- 

i: ii- >i*i- 1 :i :. Hougbton, mi.-i,.. Aast Kdltor* 
T. A. RICKARD. London - - Editorial Contributor 
■OWARO WAl.KKU. London - - - Correspondent 

BPi I HI 1:1 IOHS. 

A. W. All.-., . ,„„ j„„|„ 

'in. Jame« P. . 

■ "ml. i . ii. M.,rley. 

n..y De Kalb. c. W. PurlnBton. 

P. l.vnwood llarrlnon. C. P. Tolinnn. Jr. 
Horace V. Wlnehell. 

A TTBMPTS in close the smelter at Thompson, Nevada, 
**■ because of alleged damage due t<> smelter Come 
trouble have been defeated for the present by decision 
by the court that a preliminary injunction cannot be 
granted in such cases upon general allegations, but that 
specific evidence of damage must be submitted. Smelt- 
ing is a legal business anil a smelter cannot he presumed 
to be a nuisance. 

"TVRKlXi'INci is about to be the target of another in- 
*-' vestitration. this time by the Anti-Debris Committee 
of Sutter county. The members of the committee "have 
a suspicion," according to the report, that the dredges 
in the Oroville district are accountable for the muddy 
condition of the Feather river. We have a suspicion 
that the cause of this muddy condition of the Feather 
river is the same as that for most other rivers in the 
country at this season of the year. 

AX attractive and useful little magazine, called The 
-*"*■ Anode, has .just made its debut at the Anaconda 
Topper Mining Company. The publication will appear 
monthly tinder the auspices of the Bureau of Safety of 
this Company and will be devoted to the furthering of 
the 'Safety First' movement at the mines and plant of 
the Anaconda company. The first issue is devoted 
largely to the publication of information concerning the 
work which is being undertaken by the Company for 
the prevention of accidents; later issues will contain 
articles of general interest to the employees and items 
of news regarding the operations of the mines and plants. 
As the object of all the Company's various activities is 
the production of anodes for shipment to the electrolytic 
refinery, so it is planned that The Anode will voice the 
work of this great Company toward furthering the 
'Safety First' movement. 

TDEFERENDUM vote of the Miami Miners' Union on 
-*-*- the demand for the restoration of the old wage scale, 
which was $3.75 per day, as against the 10 per cent re- 
duction which went into effect last August, resulted in a 
decision to quit work until the demands of the union 
have been met. The properties affected are the Inspira- 
tion and Miami mines and concentrators, and the Inter- 
national smelter. The wages at present are regulated 
by the copper producers of the state according to the 
condition of the copper market. This method, in view 
of the general depression in copper since last August 

ami the many difficulties attendant upon keeping the 
mines in operation, would seem equitable. The [nspira 
tion company, while not in the producing stage, has eon 
formed to this scale, and it will be recalled that twice in 
1912 the companies affected voluntarily raised the wages 
"f their employees in accord with the rise in copper at 
that time. The present strike is lamentable and it would 
seem that a more opportune time could have been se- 
lected Tor the presentation of the grievances claimed. 

/CRIPPLE CREEK is justly elated over the discoV- 
^ cry in the Cresson Consolidated mine of a body of 
rich ore, the total value of which is estimated at from 
$1,000,000 to $6,000,000. It will be some time before 
definite figures are known, but at least one of the great 
bodies of high-grade ore, such as originally put Cripple 
Creek on the map, has again been found. Naturally this 
raises hopes of others, and probably no former Cripple 
Creek miner but can call to mind ground he would like 
to have explored. Despite the enormous amount of work 
that has been done in the district, there are many blocks 
of ground uncut large enough to contain more than 
one such bonanza orebody. The Cresson itself is in 
territory long passed over as unpromising, but the per- 
sistent work of Mr. Charles Roloffs and his associates 
resulted in an extremely profitable mine there long be- 
fore the present bonanza orebody was found. No won- 
der that the hotels are crowded and that the lobby of 
the National has regained its old-time popularity. A 
veritable mining boom is on, and visitors are warned 
to engage rooms in advance. "We are glad to say, with 
some personal knowledge of the district, that the oppor- 
tunities for really finding ore are, in our judgment, 
excellent; much better than in many a 'new' district 
that has attracted even more attention. 

T^UBE-MILL PEBBLES as used in our modern mill- 
-*- ing plants have come to he an item of considerable 
importance in the economic conduct of this work, and 
it is therefore with pleasure that we print this week a 
detailed study of this problem at Tonopah by Mr. Jay A. 
Carpenter, of the West End company. It is peculiar 
that tube-mill operators throughout the world have de- 
pended to a greater or less extent upon Europe as a 
source of supply, the pebbles found near the plants being 
almost invariably of such an inferior cpjality that no 
economy was possible by their use even with the high 
freight charges which add materially to the cost of the 



January 23, 1915 

European product. There has been considerable dis- 
cussion as to the use of ore in place of flints in tube-mill- 
ing, but the consensus of opinion would seem to be 
avriiiiist this practice. Rough pieces of ore have compara- 
tively little crushing surface, and a loss in the efficiency 
of the mill and power consumption is inevitable until 
these pieces are worn into rounded shapes. Steel halls 
have also been tried, but because of their excessive weight 
and the consequent increase in power requirements, 
amounting to from three to four times that required by a 
charge of flints, they have generally proved unsatisfac- 
tory. This type of grinding has. however, proved the 
proper medium in ball mills, which take a three-inch feed 
and whin- a heavy rolling action takes [dace. Thus in 
the Marcy mill, steel halls are used where the purpose of 
the mill is tn reduce two to four-inch ore to 10 mesh. 
The objections to the use of steel balls in tube-mills are 
discussed in detail by Mr. Carpenter. The discovery of a 
deposit of chalcedony near Manhattan. Nevada, from 
which artificial pebbles of a good quality can be pro- 
duced at a reasonable cost may help to solve the local 
pebble problem, and the results of the experimental 
work at the West End mill on pebbles from this deposit 
are of interest. 


Recent developments iii the Mexican situation are 
far from satisfactory, and prospects for peace of a 
lasting Character appear to be more remote than a few 
weeks ago when Carranza made a hasty departure from 
Mexico City and Eulalie Gutierrez was made provisional 
president, with Francisco Villa as his sponsor. With 
llucrta out of the way and Carranza in flight, the Con- 
stitutionalist, or what has come to be called the Con 
ventionist cause since the Aguascalientes meeting, ap- 
peared to be so much in the ascendancy that a feeling 
of optimism was general. However, things do not hap- 
pen in .Mexico according to rule or prophets, and the 
jefes politicos of today are the destierros of tomorrow. 

Gutierrez as provisional president is no more, bavins; 
with the many Diaz successors passed into the limbo 
of a soon forgotten past, and General Garza, his suc- 
cessor, has commandeered the police force of Mexico 
City for military purposes and the establishment of 
some semblance of authority in the Federal District. 
-Tust at present there is a question as to whether Gutier- 
rez has abandoned all claims to the provisional presi- 
dency or has gone to Paehuea with a part of his cabinet 
to establish a government in defiance of the Conven- 
tionalist authority in Mexico City. With Carranza and 
his constituents holding Vera Cruz. Gutierrez and a re- 
ported force of 5000 men at Pachuca. and General Garza 
with Villa's support holding Mexico City, the political 
arena of Mexico takes on the semblance of a three-ring 
circus with the Conventionists still the centre of attrac- 
tion. The pending severance of friendly relationship 
between Villa and Zapata adds another difficulty to the 
situation, and our hopes for a speedy solution of the 

many problems which Mexico is facing may be given 
a further setback I ause of this anticipated con- 
troversy, .lust what the solution will he is in 
no way apparent at the present time but if we may 
conjecture the future from what has been the history 
of this tempestuous country, a return to peace can only 
In- expected through the subjugation of the minority 
by force of'anns. or with help from the outside in the 
form of American intervention. As this latter course 
is, at present, out of the question and in all probability 
will continue to be so, we can but look to the Conven- 
tionist element represented by those who fought for the 
( Constitutionalist cause, for the re-establishment of peace. 
The difficulties in the way of reconstruction, how- 
ever, are numerous, and to bring a political plan which 
is representative of the wishes of the majority out of 
the present embroglio. and to enforce such a plan, is 
a task which we hope the Mexican people will work out 
for themselves. They have brought order out of chaos 
in the past, and while many see but little reason to 
believe that they will be able to do so again, the out- 
look is not without hope, as some would contend. The 
triumph of the Constitutionalist arms throughout north- 
ern and central Mexico while fighting in support 
of the 'Plan of San Luis Potosi' and the subsequent 
establishment of peace and order throughout this vast 
territory, with the exception of a small area in the state 
of Sonora, would tend to prove that the great majority 
of the Mexican people throughout this territory are 
sympathetic with and supporters of the proposed demo- 
cratic rule and governmental reforms urged by the Con- 
stitutionalists. They have succeeded in expelling from 
this northern country the old federal authority as rep- 
resented by the followers of Porfirio Diaz and the oppo- 
nents of Francisco Madero. This Constitutionalist ele- 
ment at present is in command of the political situation 
in .Mexico as far south as the national capital. The 
northern country so held is free from trouble, and with 
a restoration of confidence, improved labor conditions, 
and better transportation facilities, the mining industry 
should make rapid progress. 

The end. however, is not in sight, as personal jeal- 
ousies and political intrigue among the Constitutionalist 
or Conventionalist chiefs have resulted in the develop- 
ment of factions in the ranks, and now that the cause 
has been won, and the last vestige of cientifico rule 
eliminated, the question as to who is best qualified and 
most ahle to act as the chief executive is heing decided 
in true Mexican fashion. It is to he regretted that 
Mexicans can not or will not settle such controversies 
at the polls, and that he who holds the presidency must 
establish his place by force of arms. Carranza has 
failed. Gutierrez has abdicated, and Garza we can but 
hope will hold office long enough to ascertain the will of 
the majority and peacefully accede to an executive who. 
with the Constitutionalist cause at heart and the Consti- 
tutionalist army to maintain his position, will rebuild 
the ruins of Portirian Mexico and establish a lasting 
and nation wide peace. 

.1 1* ii 1 1 it i- > j.i, 1915 


1 II 

lilt: COPPER PRODI ' BBS' 1880CIAT10I\ 

On January 19 tii'- American Copper Producer*' 
Association, of which Messrs John I' Ryan, RodolpheL. 
Agassis, Joseph Clendenin, and Jamee McLean were the 
exeontive committee, unanimous]) voted to discontinue 
us organisation. It was formed Bve yean ago for the 
purpose of compiling complete statistics aa to produc- 
tion, refinery output, and exports of copper in this 
country, and the data thus prepared were given out to 
tin- public in tin- form of a table on tin- eighth day <>f 
each mouth. Tin- coal of iliis work was distributed over 
tin- participating companies. Even from tin- beginning 
tin- plan was opposed by some of the producers, ami as 

linn- want by, the opposition l aim- stronger. It must 

in- admitted thai in some ways tin- arrangement was 
an anomalous one. Tin- figures were prepared by the 
producers at their own expense, but tin- chief benefit 
of them was to tin- consumers. If tin- consumers had 
prepared a similar sot of figures, showing tin- stocks of 
copper which they had on hand, the benefit would have 
been reciprocal, and a mutually satisfactory arrange- 
ment might have been arrived at. As it was, although 
the fact that these figures were prepared under the 
direction of Mr. L. C. Graton, now professor of economic 
geology at Harvard University, might have been taken 
as a sufficient guarantee of their integrity, it was per- 
haps only human nature that many of the consumers 
regarded with suspicion figures prepared for their bene- 
fit by the producers. Apparent ground for this belief 
was afforded by the fact that the export figures for 
each month as reported by the Association did not al- 
ways correspond with the figures reported by the Bureau 
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. As a matter of 
fact, the figures of the Association were the more reli- 
able., though discrepancies resulted from the difference 
in the method of leporting the two sets. 

Copper for export is, of course, sold some time in 
advance of when it is actually shipped. When the 
selling agency places the copper at the refinery on the 
lighter which delivers it to the ship, it considers its 
copper as exported, and so reports it, When the ship- 
ping company has completed the loading of a ship it 
takes the ship's manifest to the customs house, certifies 
to its accuracy, the necessary papers are executed and 
returned to the captain of the ship, and the ship sails 
as soon thereafter as practicable. When the manifests 
are passed upon, or the 'customs cleared' as the tech- 
nical expression is, the figures as to the contents of 
the ship are turned over to the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, and are duly reported by it as 
exports. It is obvious that whenever considerable quali- 
ties are being exported about, the end of the month, 
total figures arrived at in two different ways would 
show quite a wide difference. The Bureau cannot guar- 
antee the accuracy of its figures, since it merely reports 
the data given in the ship's manifest, and the customs 
service does not investigate these, since there are no 
duties on exports. There is no reason why the ship- 

ping i- pany should report *rr iis figures, but If it 

did there would )»• do moans of checking them. The 

I'lMcluivrs' Association, on the Other hand, knew BXBCtl) 

the quantities exported, date tin- buyer and seller have 

i" agre the weights involved. 

lation of tin- publication of tins.- figures is regret 

tabic, for. although tin- producers had little to gum from 

them, accurate statisti.-s in regard to anything are al 
ways helpful, h is true thai broken made use ,.t' 
them in their operations in tin- share market, hut broken 
are certain to carry on their operations, anyway, and 
it can scarcely he more objectionable to have them base 
their market strategy on accurate information than 
upon vague surmise. Looked at from another aspect. 

the disbanding of the association appears like an oppor 
tunity lost. '.Many hands make light work.' the old 
aphorism says, and a group can always perform serv 
ices for the general good which individuals are either 

unabl • unwilling to undertake alone. The benefits 

of conceited action are seen in the extremely capable 
way in which the critical situation arising as a result 
of the war has been handled. In 1913 we sold to Ger- 
many nearly $75,000,000 of copper. Now that market 
is entirely cut off and it requires no great exercise of 
the imagination to perceive how such an abrupt dislo- 
cation of commercial relations might have brought ruin 
to many people engaged in the copper industry ; an 
outcome which has been happily avoided. 

As pointed out in these columns some time ago, the 
increase in our domestic output of aluminum, which 
is about to become effective, will presumably cause a 
decrease in the price of that metal. Aluminum is a pos- 
sible competitor of copper in the electrical field, which 
absorbs nearly 70 per cent of the domestic consumption 
of copper, and a long distance transmission line recently 
constructed of aluminum in California is the equivalent 
of some ten or twelve million pounds of copper which 
failed to secure that market. If aluminum rules at a 
less price during the next decade, this competition will 
be accentuated, at a time when several large new sources 
of copper are becoming available. The Chile Copper 
Company alone expects to begin turning out a half 
million pounds of copper per day by April or May ; the 
Inspiration and the Ajo mines will produce large quan- 
tities of new copper, while the leaching plants of the 
Anaconda. Utah Copper, and many other mines will 
put them in a position to largely increase their produc- 
tion. The companies have invested tremendous sums 
in increasing their output and lowering operating costs ; 
it would seem good business to spend moderate sums at 
least stimulating consumption and thereby assuring that 
the selling price will remain at a level which permits 
satisfactory operating profits on these investments. We 
venture to assert the belief that it would have been good 
policy to keep the Copper Producers' Association alive, 
and divert its funds to maintaining a staff of commercial 
research investigators, who might develop new uses for 
copper in the manufacturing industry, and stimulate 
increases in its use for present, purposes. 



January 23. 1915 

California Pdbroleuiinni in 1914 

By «. p. Mclaughlin 

California produced more petroleum in 1914 than in published by marketing companies show anything as to 
any previous year, more than any single state has ever amounts of various grades produced or stored. Cost 
produced in one year, and ahout 40' , of the total yield of production and financial results are seldom dealt 
of the United States. The amount was about 104,033,000 with in statistical accounts. With such common omis- 
bbL, valued at ahout $48,833,000. No entirely new fields sions of useful matter it may not he necessary to apolo- 
were discovered. Production exceeded consumption gize for here presenting some original 1913 figures in 
•very month of the year except April, which is reported a summary of the year 1914. The figures are from 
to have shown a slight deficit. The total excess produc- Bulletin 69, California State Mining Bureau, which is 
tion, which went into storage, was ahout 7.000.000 bbl. at present in press. Financial and operating conditions 
Activity in drilling went cheerfully on. even in the face have changed but little since the figures were compiled, 
of overproduction and prices that are too low to return and they probably show something of what may be ex- 
adequate profit to the producer. Even the European pected for 1914. 

war, which directly affected the market for oil. failed Accuracy of Statistics 
to deter some operators from drilling new wells. Words 

are not at hand to describe adequately a class of men To those not ^miliar with the difficulty in gathering 

who enduct business in such a fashion. It is but fair lllfo ™ atlou on financial and operating conditions it 

to state that an antiquated system of leases, which re- ma - v be wel1 to state that the obtaining of absolutely 

quire the drilling of wells whether or not thev are accurate figures is an impossibility ; however, several sep- 

needed, accounts for some of the wasteful development. iir:lte sources of "^formation have here been consulted 

At some time an enlightened public will doubtless forbid aad the fi § ures aie Wiewd to be falrl y representative. 

such a ruthless waste of material, which is limited in ' " ,lv Producing companies (totaling 276) were consid- 

total amount. There were about 420 wells completed ered> Tllere are some 80 ° incorporated oil companies 

during the year. As this is the smallest number for '" the •*■*»» lmt man - v ,,ave llever been aotive - Ca P itab 

six years past, and as the annual production has still as shown by the n ^ TCS ' 1S not definite, but the figures 

steadily increased during that lime, it is dear that de- m ^tended to include all payments for stock. The 

velopment must be still further entailed. About half " ash "" h """ ,s Probably fairly accurate, but that show- 

of the new wells were drilled in the Midway-Sunset '"« Property is probably a great deal too large. Divi- 

field. The Lost Hills and the Whitier-Fullerton fields lll " ,ls ' ils sl "» vn - are certainly not overestimated. They 

followed next in order of activity. wagUy indicate the profitableness of the business, but 

it must be borne in mind that many prosperous con- 

Productihn cerns reinvest their profits without paying dividends, 

m , .... „ , . ,.,,..,. , , which probably explains the fact that prices and oper- 

The condition of the various fields is indicated bv x . * . ,. . .. , *\ _. . , , 

.,,.,,,. . , atmg costs appear to vary so slightly between dividend 

the following table of approximate figures, based on , .. . * , . _ . , ., 

, , and non-dividend companies. Price of oil, as shown bv 

nearly complete returns: ., „ , , , *, * , • 

these figures, clearly demonstrates that only in excep- 

Production Producing or Proved tioi]al ,. ases ; s oil proc l uc ti n profitable when less than 

„. , . . J „ 40c. per bbl. is received. Operating cost is here so tab- 
Field, barrels. wells. acres. ' r B 

Coalinga 945 14,100 ulated as to bring out the operating difference between 

Kern River 7.073.000 1,690 6,450 fields, in the column of cost per well per day. This 

McKtttrlck 3,865,000 278 895 method of comparing costs is the only way for an oper- 

.viidway-Sunset 50,550,000 1.420 37,800 ator to determine whether costs are reasonable. A little 

Lost Hills 4,855.000 231 2,620 .. ,. ., , . ... , ., , ... „ 

Los Angeles 2.500.000 710 1,460 tll0U g bt & Vm t0 the Sllb J eCt WlU shoW the a bsur dlty of 

Wbittier-Fullerton 14.100,000 568 3.010 the customary quotation of costs at only per barrel pro- 
Ventura 935,000 364 1,600 duced. Two properties might be equally well managed. 

Santa Maria 4.355,000 225 4,470 ] )U t if one had very productive wells and the other only 

small producers, cost figures per barrel would show only 

Total 104,033,000 0.431 72,405 .. ..„. . ... , .,, ..- ,. „ 

the difference m productiveness and not the difficulty of 

Collectors of oil statistics seem always to be satisfied operation nor effectiveness of management. The oper- 

with statement of gross amount of oil or numbers of ating cost does not here include such fixed charges as 

wells. Frequently these figures are about as useful to depreciation, taxes, or insurance, but does include the 

the business man as a list showing exactly the number drilling of new wells and overhead charges, such as 

of nails in his office floor would be. When the price of officers' salaries. These cost figures are only general, 

oil varies from 35c. to $1 per barrel, depending upon and the subject is more fully treated in Bulletin 69. 

its gravity, it seems strange none of the statistics California State Mining Bureau. Marketing companies' 

Januan 23, 1915 


ion tu'couiti for inu>i of tin figure* lilted u 
eellaneoua Comparison of the dividend! and capital 

iritfa Ihoae of the producing i panics indicates that 

a nearly a piaJ division >>t' profits between the 

two brain-hen of the industry, and thai larger profits 
mrald l»- wholly justifiable in view of the hazardous 
the buaim 

niii.U in k< • ping with the evidi 

I , ■ aomp inii • .1 i>' 

file rules and rate* for carrying oil, The lav i* Mill 
subject to attack in the State Supreme Court; 

il may still be some tune befon di Bniu 

may be ex] ted. Whal tin' final result will be upon 

the "il industry is highly problematical, but undoubtedly 

I l\ \\l I \l »MI lll-l II IIIM. I HMD I III \ I Ml I >». IBIS 


1- i, 1,1 

Kern Ulv, 



% Price. 

. :,:. |0 ISO 

i"" ... 


McKlttrlck, Belridge, and 

Uoal liilitt 

Uarla, Umpoc, and 

Summarland 14 0.379 

Ventura county S O.460 

Loa Angeles and Orange 

titles -7 0.555 

I'll, . 

10 sot 











dond ■ '•' 


I. -..7 

III. I. 


:. 1 




All • 

Pi r toroll 



10 )I 


Pi , 







1 ■ 1 ■ 1 . ■ 1 1 
Per "'.11 

II I 7" 

Pi 1 hi. I 

lv. 7 


:.. 1 :. 




- - 

i . 

s« ;.- 

b2 - 

- i a - 

« •si 

= ? sS , Capital , 

Held C '- Cash Properly. 

Inga 7,9 63 t8.087,7S5 S9.68 

K.-n Rlvor 60 It 5,198,416 3,620,029 

Midway 59 48 3,891.703 12,110,061 

I 22 37. 1,016,297 5.716.563 

McKlttrlek. Bi-lrldgr. and 

Lost Hills 14 54 794,859 8,164,292 

Santa Maria, Lorupoc, and 

Summerland 12 13 2,464.943 19.613.135 

Ventura eounty 21 73 1,016.254 4,550.464 

Los Angeles and Orange 

eountles 27 39 4.217.826 7.329.343 

Sub total 264 S5 $26,738,143 t70,638,389 

Miscellaneous, Including 

marketing companies. IS .. 6S.134.S40 17.S92.543 

Grand total 276 85 t94, 872, 983 $118,530,932 


-DlVld >"ls — 

1911. Co. 



[,287,21 l 





11,7 90 

562 768 




Jl, 236.338 II J1.13I.32S 15 

389.822 22 1S4.09S 26 

1,076,286 lv 1,128,161 19 

319,220 7 

211.339 7 
85.000 1 



361, l 1 l 









1,203,556 12 1,127,908 13 1,288,034 12 
$4,912,166 65 $5,6S6.651 76 $5,333,211 79 $4,470,340 89 $6,039.59 

978,478 12 3.015,159 

10,440,331 6 2.9S1.59S 
$15,352,497 71 $8, 668, 249 

2.830,403 6 4.401,218 7 9.509.009 
$8,163,614 84 $8,871,558 96 $15,548,606 






Among important features of the oil business during 
the year, the European war has, of course, been most 
prominent. For some time after hostilities began, San 
Francisco harbor contained many idle tankers under 
foreign flags, and even after this phase of trouble was 
eliminated many markets of fuel oil were destroyed. 
among them being the copper mines and smelters and 
the Chilean nitrate mines. Shipments of oil from the 
fields decreased about 15% after August. Another 
effect of the war was to suspend several large deals in- 
volving California oil properties. The largest transac- 
tion thus supended included the Union Oil Co. and the 
General Petroleum Co., which were under option to 
English investors. It is currently reported that the 
Union Oil option has been extended gratuitously. Con- 
struction of the Valley Pipe Line from Coalinga to Mar- 
tinez has not been appreciably delayed by the war, which 
is particularly surprising as it is backed by the Dutch- 
Shell interests, whose headquarters are in Europe. 

The decision of the Railroad Commission of California 
that, under the law, all the pipe-lines from the San Joa- 
quin fields are common carriers was not unexpected, and 

some very interesting facts are about to become the 
property of the public. 

Final decision has not been made by Congress or the 
U. S. Land Office as to who is to own and control con- 
siderable tracts of land in the Midway field claimed 
by the United States government. The Secretary of 
the Interior offers contracts to operators, on disputed 
land, who were drilling prior to October 3, 1910, or 
were producing prior to August 25, 1914. The con- 
tracts specify that patent to the land must be applied 
for and then the operator may dispose of the oil if one- 
eighth of the proceeds is. deposited in a national bank, 
to be paid as royalty to the government in case the 
patent does not. issue. The United States District Court 
did not sustain the presidential withdrawal of some 
3,000,000 acres of land on September 27, 1909. There 
was a later withdrawal authorized by Congress, and 
upon it future disposal of lands by leasing must rest, 
and there are close questions of title, where claimants 
to patent had done some work before the withdrawal. 
Litigation over oil lands, held under grants from the 
Government to railroads, indicate that the exception or 



January 23, 1915 

reservation of mineral lands in such grants is invalid, 
oil has also been decided to be a mineral in the legal 

Water damage has been the subject of considerable 
investigation during the past year. At Coalinga many 
companies are successfully operating under an agree- 
ment to arbitrate differences as to damage from water. 
In the Midway-Sunset field an association of operators 
gathers information and advises owners of wells as to 
the best method of shutting off water. Strenuous at- 
tempts will lie made this year to have a state law which 
will enable operators to act to a better advantage. 

The independent Oil Producers' Agency has had a 
large staff of engineers appraising its property. The 
Agency is composed of about 165 companies, united. 
under agreement, to market their product. Most of the 
companies are situated in the San Joaquin fields, and 
produce heavy oil. The organization is unique in that 
each company has an equal number of votes with every 
other in the direction of business. The appraisal is 
said to be the first step toward forming a single cor- 
poration. Such an effort will be watched with interest, 
because the Associated Oil Co. had a similar origin with 
results that have been unsatisfactory to the original 

Large Wells 

Many large wells were brought in during the year, 
and enumeration of them would be tiresome here. One 
of the most noted was that of the Lakeview No. 2 Co. 
in the Midway-Sunset field. It came in during May 
at thi' rate of possibly 25.000 Mil. per day. and during 
the next five months produced about 3.000,000 bbl. of 
oil. The well was so large and unruly that it caused 
financial loss to its owners, and will doubtless damage 
much of the surrounding territory with water. Ac- 
counts from reliable sources indicate that the owners 
were almost criminally ignorant or careless during the 
drilling operations and entered the oil sand without 
knowing the true depth of their own well. If such is 
the true state of affairs, they certainly merit scant sym- 
pathy, and undoubtedly such procedure is far from un- 
common. In the Whittier-Fullerton field, remarkably 
productive wells have been brought in. where one 
sees orange trees uprooted to make room for the drill- 
ing rigs, even though the oil is not needed now and 
some of the operators will lose money by their activity. 

An important, advance has recently been made in ex- 
tracting gasoline from natural gas. More than a dozen 
compressing and refrigerating plants are now in oper- 
ation, with an estimated daily production of possibly 
20,000 gal. Gasoline prices are the lowest in several 
years. The outlook for 1915 is not particularly encour- 
aging. There will undoubtedly be the same stupendous 
production, wasteful methods, and inadequate profits to 
producers. Prophecy as to' when all interests will co- 
operate, either with or without governmental aid. would 

1 xtreinely hazardous, although the time is surely 

coming when such will he the case. 

El©clbri<£ Mnrni® L©<s©ifirn©ftiiwg§ 


•The electric mine locomotive consists of several main 
parts. The electric power is carried down the trolley 
pole by an insulated copper cable. One end of this 
is connected to the metal frame that supports the wheel 
and the other end is connected to the circuit breaker, 
which acts similar to a safety valve in a steam line. 
This circuit-breaker is one particular type of auto- 
matic switch which opens the circuit, when the load on 
the locomotive becomes too great. Prom the circuit- 
breaker the electric power is taken to the controller or 
'throttle' of the locomotive. In the same case with the 
controller is the reverse lever. This is so arranged that 
besides changing the direction of the locomotive, it gives 
two speeds in both the forward and reverse directions of 
running. These are called 'series' or slow-speed posi- 
tion, which should always be used for starting, and 
'parallel' or high-speed position, which can be used, if 
desired, after the locomotive has reached its maximum 
speed, with the operating handle in the full 'on' position. 
Tlie operating and reverse levers are interlocked so 
that the hitter cannot be moved except when the former 
is in the 'off' position. The rheostat, which is connected 
to the controller, is 'cut in' and 'out' of the circuit by 
the movement of the operating lever. From the con- 
troller the electric power goes to the windings of the 
motors and from them to the frame of the locomotive 
and then to the rails. 

On starting the locomotive, the reverse lever should 
be placed in the 'series' position, and the operating lever 
turned on. a notch at a time, allowing sufficient time be- 
tween the movements of the lever handle for the loco- 
motive to come up to speed. If the wheels commence to 
slip, throw the operating handle to the 'off' position, 
back up. sand the rails a little, and try again. 

On stopping the locomotive, the operating lever should 
be turned to the 'off' position and the brake applied, 
gradually at first, and then with more force, being care- 
ful not to skid the wheels. The greatest braking effect 
is obtained when the brake is applied sufficiently strong 
to just not slip the wheels. When the wheels start, to 
slide or skid, the braking effect is practically nothing. 
In ease of accident to the brake rigging or the refusal 
of the 1 brakes to work, the trip can generally be brought 
safely to the bottom of the grade by throwing out the 
circuit-breaker, putting the reverse lever in the reverse- 
parallel position, and throwing the operating handle to 
the full 'on' position. By so doing the two motors are 
connected in such a manner that one acts as a generator 
and the other as a motor. The retard